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Back to index   Persian Mythology, Gods and Goddesses
Part Two
 

Persian Mythology, Gods and Goddesses
Part 2: Pictorial Research and Guide
Ahreeman X

1st Edition: December 10, 2006
2nd Edition: October 7, 2014


Anahita Persian Goddess of Water Statue, Fouman, Gilan, Iran
Anahita rides her chariot with two white horses, holding a lantern which is the symbol of light and wisdom. Anahita sheds light and wisdom to the good Aryans (Noble Folks).

Persian Guardian-Messenger Gods and Goddesses (Yazatas)

Zoroastrianism defines The Yazatas as the deities to whom the hymns in the Zend-Avesta are addressed. They are the guardians of the celestial bodies and the messengers of Ahura Mazda. Yazatas are basically Guardian-Messenger Gods and Goddesses. Originally in fundamental philosophy of Zoroastrianism, there were only 7 Yazatas, 7 being the holy number. However, later on, the Hierarchy of Fire Temples and Mubeds (Zoroastrian Priests) have added up to over 50 Yazatas to the list and named them angels. The original Yazatas: The Head Yazata is Mitra and others include Diana, Mah, Rashnu, Vate, Zam and Tir. There are 6 Females and 1 Male (Tir) Yazatas, which makes the total of 7. Number 7 is the holy Zoroastrian number. Here is the list of Yazatas:

Diana
Goddess Yazata (Female)

Diana Persian Goddess of Faith
Or Daena is Goddess of Faith. Diana is considered to be the daughter of Ahura Mazda and Armaiti. Diana is The Goddess who personifies The Faith in Persian mythology. Her name means "That which was revealed". She is one of the Yazatas.


Diana Persian Goddess of Faith, the Original Persian Representation

Diana was originated in Iran; however, like many other Persian Gods and Goddesses spread throughout the civilized world to Greece, Rome and other places.


Diana Persian Goddess of Faith, the Greek Representation


Diana Persian Goddess of Faith, the Roman Representation

Mah
Goddess Yazata (Female)

Mah Persian Goddess of the Planet Moon
Goddess of Planet Moon. She is associated with the cow, which plays an important part in ancient Iranian mythology (Vedai and Avestan Periods), and presides over time and tide. She is mentioned as an assistant to Vohuman. The seventh day of the month is dedicated to Mah.


Mah Persian Goddess of Planet Moon


Mah Persian Goddess of Planet Moon who presides over time and tide.


Mah the Persian Goddess of Planet Moon


Mah the Persian Goddess of the Planet Moon
On Full Moons, she shines and is most powerful.
There is a mystic and mysterious, dark aura which surrounds Mah.


Mah the Persian Goddess of the Planet Moon
The 7th Day of the month is dedicated to Mah

Mitra
Goddess Yazata (Female)

Mitra the Persian Sun Goddess
Originally Mehr or Mithra meaning Sun, is The Sun Goddess (or God - bi gender) of seal, agreement and treaty. Mitra is the leader of Yazatas. Mitra stands for honesty, friendship, contracts and meetings. Mitra in ancient times (pre Vedai and Avestan Period) has been The Great Goddess of light, love, contracts and friendship. She also maintains the cosmic order. At one time, Mitra was The Major Ancient Goddess of Persia and Mitraism (Mithraism) was a major religion. Mithraism eventually had also moved and become popular in India, Greece and Rome! Later on Christianity adopted its doctrine from Mithraism. After Zoroastrianism, Mitra's status has been reduced to a Yazata. Ashkanids (Parthians) used to worship and cherish Mitra (Mehr) Goddess of the shining light. The autumn Persian festival of Mehregan originated as a ritual dedicated to Mehr (Mitra), the Persian goddess of light and love. Unlike Zuvan, which is Gender-less and Neutral, Mitra is Bi Gender, both female and male.

Mitra is one of the most powerful and one of the original of the ancient Persian Gods and Goddesses. Mitra is the Persian Sun Goddess. Mitra shines wisdom and light to the good Aryans (Noble People).

Persian (original) representations of Mitra


Mitra the Persian Sun Goddess
The Original Persian Representation of Mitra on her horse


Mitra the Persian Sun Goddess
The Original Persian Representation of Mitra


Mitra the Persian Sun Goddess
An Original Persian Representation of Mitra


Investiture of Ardeshir II by Ahura Mazda and Mitra, Taq-e Bostan, Kermanshah, Iran
Shahanshah Ardeshir II (center) receiving the Ring of Power from Ahura Mazda (right). Mitra is wearing a crown of sun-rays, holding the holy barsam (left) is blessing Ardeshir.

Indian Representation of Mitra


Mitra the Persian Sun Goddess
Indian Representation of Mitra

Greek representation of Mitra


Mitra the Persian Sun Goddess
Greek Representation of Mitra

Roman representations of Mitra


Mitra the Persian Sun Goddess
Roman Representation of Mitra from a Mitraic Temple


Mitra the Persian Sun Goddess
Roman Representation of Mitra sacrificing the Bull.

Mitraic ritual of sacrificing the Bull was once as popular as the present Christian Crucifixion of Christ. During the late Hellenistic and Roman Era, this ritual was one of the cores of the Mitraic Temples’ rituals. Eventually the Greco-Roman ritual of sacrificing the Bull has become the base for the Bull Fighting Sport which was spread through Spain and Southern France, and then from there to Mexico and other Latin nations.

Mitraism was the core religion of the Persian Empire (Arsacid Empire) specifically during the periods of 3 BC to 3 AD.

Mitraism was the core religion of the Roman Empire and the Civilized Europe specifically during the periods of 1 AD to 4 AD


Roman Representation of Mitra sacrificing the Bull.


Roman Representation of Mitra the Persian Sun Goddess


Roman Representation of Mitra the Persian Sun Goddess

Pagan Representation of Mitra


European Pagan, Raw and Primitive Representation of Mitra the Persian Sun Goddess

Christian Western representation of Mitra


Christian Angelic Representation of Mitra the Persian Sun Goddess

Modern representations of Mitra


Modern Representation of Mitra the Persian Sun Goddess


A Modern Representation of Mitra the Persian Sun Goddess


Contemporary Psychedelic Representation of Mitra the Persian Sun Goddess

Mitraic Temples


Close View of a Parthian Mitraic Temple in Iran
Mitraic Temple Mehr from the Arsacid Era, Maraqeh, East Azerbaijan, Iran


Front View of the Cave Mitraic Temple in Iran
Mitraic Temple Mehr, Main Entrance from the Arsacid Era, Maraqeh, Iran


Information board about the Mehr Parthian Temple, Iran
Mitraic Temple Mehr, Information Board from the Arsacid Era, Maraqeh, Iran

Translation of the above information board:

Mitraic Temple History
Mehr Temple of Maraqeh, Iran

Mehr Mitraic Temple of Maraqeh is a stone built construction going back to the Parthian Arsacid Empire of Iran (250 BC - 224 AD) where Mitraists would gather, cherish and worship the Persian Sun Goddess.  Mitraists believe in the 4 Elements of Water, Soil, Fire and Wind. The Mitraic Temples were inspired by the sky and were built with arches and domes. Mitraic Temples had various parts such as the washing area for purification before the entrance, waiting area, the main hall and the alter. Many years later during the Ilkhanid Mongol Dynasty Era (1256 - 1343), the temple had become a Khaneqah (Dervish Temple) for the Sufi Brotherhood to gather and pray. During the Safavid Dynasty (1501 -1736) of Iran (Safavid Persian Colonial Empire), Mullah Ma’sum Maraqi was buried here, so it became a Shiite shrine where Quranic verses were engraved on the walls.
Sign,
Office of Cultural Heritage, Handmade Artifacts and Tourism of Maraqeh


Mitra Persian Sun Goddess Temple
Mitraic Temple, Ostia, Italy


Mitra Persian Sun Goddess Temple
Mitraic Temple, Caracalla, Italy


Mitra Persian Sun Goddess Temple
Mitraic Temple (Roman Mithraeum) at Hadrian Wall fortress of Brocolitia in Carraburgh, Northumberland, England


Mitra Persian Sun Goddess Temple
Mitraic Temple (Roman Mithraeum) Alter of Hadrian Wall fortress of Brocolitia in Carraburgh, Northumberland, England


Mitra Persian Sun Goddess Temple
Mitraic Temple Reconstructed Plan


Mitra Persian Sun Goddess Temple
Mitraic Temple (Roman Mithraeum) Reconstructed in Holland


Mitra Persian Sun Goddess Temple
Mitraic Temple (Roman Mithraeum) Reconstructed Alter

Rashnu
Goddess Yazata (Female)
Rashnu Persian Divine Angel Goddess of Justice

She is The Goddess of last judgement and the personification of righteousness. Along with Mitra and Sraosa, she judges the souls of the dead on the Chinvat bridge leading to heavens. She carries the "Golden Scales" which she weighs the souls at Judgement with it. Rashnu is the open eye of justice and one of the Yazatas.


Rashnu Persian Divine Angel Goddess of Justice

Vate
Goddess Yazata (Female)

Vate Persian Goddess of Wind
Vate or Vata is The ancient Persian Goddess of the wind. The twentieth day of the month is dedicated to her. She is one of the strong Yazatas.


Vate Persian Goddess of the Wind

Zam
Goddess Yazata (Female)
Zam Persian Goddess of Earth

In Ancient Iranian (Avestan Period) mythology, Zam is the symbol of Earth.

Tir
God Yazata (Male)

Tir Persian God of Rain and Thunder
Tir or Tistrya is Persian God of Rain and Thunder. Tir is a Persian and Armenian God devoted to Yazatas Hierarchy. The Persian god associated with the rains and fertility, the personified deity of Sirius the Dog Star. He leads the armies of Ahura Mazda against the forces of evil and he defeated the Arch-Demon Apaosa. The forth month and the thirteenth day of the month are dedicated to him. Tirgan Rain festival, the famous Persian Celebration is dedicated to him.

Tir raises his spear to the sky and it thunders, then Tir raises his sword to the sky and it rains.


Tir Persian God of Rain and Thunder


Tir Persian God of Rain and Thunder
Tir raises his spear to the sky and it thunders, then Tir raises his sword to the sky and it rains.

Yazatas in Marvel Comics

Even Marvel Comics could not stay off of the Yazatas, Persian Gods and Goddesses. Marvel has made many historical errors in the characters but at least Marvel put the Persian Mythology on the comic books for the youth to learn and entertain.


Yazatas Zoroastrian Persian Major Gods - Marvel Comics Version
Yazatas Persian Gods (L – R): Ahura Mazda, Sraosa, Ameretat, Khshathra Vairya, Ahreeman


Yazatas Zoroastrian Persian Minor Gods - Marvel Comics Version
Yazatas Persian Gods (L – R): Atar, Arashtat, Haurvatat, Vohuman, Armiti

* * *

Persian Goddesses

Allatum
Or Ellat, Goddess of the Underworld in early Iranian mythology (The Kingdom Era). She is believed to be of the Mesopotamian origin. When Mesopotamia (present Iraq) became a Khashtara (State) of Iran, then Allatum also entered our culture. Allatum was a Masculine Female Goddesses, an ancient feminist!

Allatum was the Persian Feminist Goddess of the Underworld.


Allatum Persian Feminist Goddess of the Underworld

Ameh
Goddess of victory and Glory

Anahita
Goddess of Water. Also known as Ahurani (She who belongs to Ahura) or Anahita (Nahid in modern Persian). Anahita (meaning unstained, clean and innocent) is Goddess of water, fertility, greens and plants. According to some Ancient scriptures, roots of Anahita The great ancient Persian water goddess goes back to Pre Vedai Era. Anahita was an ancient Persian deity. Her following were strongest in Western Iran. She is the deification of the planet Venus. She is named the eternal virgin (however she had many sexual encounters), goddess of war, love, and fertility. In Modern Persian Nahid (Anahita) is the name of the planet Venus. Anahita is from the body of Venus. According to Persian Mythology, Anahita is the Immaculate Virgin Mother of Mitra. Christians basically borrowed their Holy Scriptures from Ancient Persian Mythology. Christians named "Anahita" as their Virgin Mary and they named "Mitra" as their Jesus Christ! The bases for the Christian Doctrine and writings in many versions of Bible, written by Christian Scholars and Saints has been practically borrowed (Stolen) material from Persian Mythology and Mithraism! The Anahita Temple at Kangavar in western Iran (Kermanshah) is the most important of The Anahita Temples.


Anahita Persian Goddess of Water


Anahita the Persian Goddess of Water


Anahita the mighty Persian Goddess of Water


Anahita the mighty Persian Goddess of Water Statue


Artaxerxes II, Shahanshah of Iran (left) is paying his respect to Anahita standing on Aryan Lion's back with Mitra (The Sun) behind her (404 BC - 359 BC).


Anahita and Mitra Banner
Anahita the mighty Persian Goddess of Water stands on Persian Lion’s back with Mitra (Sun) shining over her back on the tricolor Iran Flag.


Anahita the mighty Persian Goddess of Water Statue
Anahita Persian Goddess of Water riding her 2 white horse chariot, while holding the lantern of wisdom to shine all over the Aryans (Noble People), Fouman, Gilan, Iran


Anahita Persian Goddess of Water riding her 2 white horse chariot, holding the lantern of wisdom to shine all over the Aryans (Noble People), Fouman, Gilan, Iran


Anahita Persian Goddess of Water Statue, Fouman, Gilan, Iran


Classic Interpretation of Anahita
Anahita Persian Goddess of Water and her Lion on the Mount Damavand of the Alborz Range, North Iran


Traditional Interpretation of Anahita
Anahita Persian Goddess of Water Tile, Persepolis background


Sci-Fi Futuristic Interpretation of Anahita
Anahita Persian Goddess of Holy Water Science Fiction Art


Anahita with Qoqnos (Phoenix) Bird.

Anahita Temple of Kangavar
Anahita Temple of Kangavar, Kermanshah is the largest Anahita Temple of Iran.


Anahita Temple of Kangavar, Kermanshah, Iran


Anahita Temple at Kangavar, Kermanshah, Iran


Anahita Temple, Kangavar, Kermanshah, Iran

Anahita Blesses and Ahura Mazda Grants the Ring of Power to Khosrow II
Taq-e Bostan: Anahita with a barsam (left) is blessing Khosrow II (center), while Khosrow receives the Ring of Power from Ahura (right).


Granting of the Persian Ring of Power to Shahanshah Khosrow II
Anahita (left) blesses Khosrow II (center) while Ahura Mazda (right) grants the Ring of Power to him, so he can officially become the Shahanshah of Iran.
A Persian Royal Knight rides at the bottom of the inscription.


Granting of the Persian Ring of Power to Shahanshah Khosrow II - Far View
Anahita (left) blesses Khosrow II (center) while Ahura Mazda (right) grants the Ring of Power to him, so he can officially become the Shahanshah of Iran.


Granting of the Persian Ring of Power to Shahanshah Khosrow II - Mountain View
Sassanid Inscription, Taq-e Bostan, Kermanshah, Iran
Anahita (left) blesses Khosrow II (center) while Ahura Mazda (right) grants the Ring of Power to him, so he can officially become the Shahanshah of Iran.

Official Inauguration of Bahram by Goddess Anahita
Anahita (right) grants the Ring of Power to Bahram Chubin Shahanshah of Persia (center).


Inauguration of Bahram
Anahita Persian Goddess grants the Ring of Power to Bahram


Inauguration of Bahram
Anahita Persian Goddess (right) grants the Ring of Power to Bahram (left)
Taq-e Bostan, Kermanshah, Iran

Anaram
Goddess and guardian of 30th of each month

Arishvang
Goddess and the guardian of wealth, economy and power

Ashi
Goddess of happiness and fulfillness

Ashtad
Goddess of guiding people into good deeds

Azarvan
Azarvan is the Goddess of palm trees and the guardian of greenery
.


Azarvan Persian Goddess of Palm Trees and Greenery

Drvaspa
The ancient Persian Goddess who protects cattle, children, and friendship. The fourteenth day of
the month is dedicated to her.

Izha
The Indo-Iranian Goddess of the Sacrifice. Her name means "Offering".

Piti Ram
Piti Ram is the Aryan Persian Goddess of Sex and Lust. Goddess of Relaxation and peacefulness. Piti Ram has sexual and erotic aspects to her and her roots goes back to the Vedai Era when the Persians, Indians and other Aryans lived together.


Piti Ram the Aryan Persian Goddess of Sex and Lust


Piti Ram Aryan Persian Goddess of Sex and Lust

Sepandar Maz
Lady Goddess and guardian of the Earth which brings fertility.

* * *

Persian Arch-Angels and Angels (Amesha Spentas)

Amshaspanadan or Amesha Spentas are The Zoroastrian Arch-Angels. In Zoroastrianism, the name of the seven divine beings who belong to the retinue of the highest god (Ahura Mazda), The Amesha Spentas (beneficent immortals), comes directly after him, and can be compared with arch-angels. They are gods without being gods and creatures without being creatures. Ahura Mazda connects with the material world through Seven Emanations called Amesha Spentas. Zoroastrians do not worship them but worship through them to Ahura Mazda. Each Amesha Spenta has an Arch-Rival Daeva (Div) who battles them. Amesha Spentas are of 3 Angels (Females) and 4 Arch-Angels (Males) which makes 7. Number 7 is the holy Zoroastrian number. The Holy Seven Amesha Spentas are: Ameretat, Armaiti, Haurvatat, Sraosa, Arashtat, Khshathra Vairya, and Vohuman.

Ameretat
Angel (Female)

Ameretat Persian Angel of Immortality - Amesha Spenta
She is one of the Amesha Spentas, Ameretat meaning Immortal (not dying, living) is the personification of immortality. Ameretat associates with plants. She is the protector of plants. The fifth month is dedicated to her. Her eternal opponent is the Arch-Demon of aging, Zarich.


Ameretat Persian Angel of Immortality

Armaiti
Angel (Female)

Armaiti Persian Angel of Devotion - Amesha Spenta
Armaiti meaning The Beneficent of Devotion, she is one of the great Amesha Spentas. Armaiti (Beneficent Devotion and Holy Serenity) is the personification of holy devotion, the daughter of the creator and represents righteous obedience. She is associated with the earth and in that capacity she is the goddess of fertility and the dead, who are buried in the earth. The fifth day of every month and the twelfth month of every year are dedicated to her. Her eternal opponent is the Arch-Demon of discontent, Nanqaithya.


Armaiti Persian Angel of Devotion

Haurvatat
Angel (Female)

Haurvatat Persian Angel of Perfection - Amesha Spenta
Haurvatat meaning Wholeness and Integrity is one of the seven Amesha Spentas. She is the personification of perfection and is associated with water and life after death. She brings prosperity and health. The third month of the Zoroastrian calendar is dedicated to her. She is the eternal opponent of the Arch-Demoness of Hunger, Tawrich.


Haurvatat Persian Angel of Perfection

Arashtat
Arch-Angel (Male)

Arashtat Persian Arch Angel of Truth and Justice - Amesha Spenta
Arashtat or Arash-Tat or Asha Vahishta (Truth and Justice) is The "excellent order" and personification of the 'best and real truth". He is the God of truth and the guardian of honesty. Arashtat protects the physical and moral order on the Earth. Arashtat associates with fire. He is the most prominent of the (male) Amesha Spentas and the principal adversary of the world of the demons. Arashtat and his scale spread justice around the globe. The second month of the calendar is dedicated to him. His eternal opponents are the Demoness of lie, Drug and the Arch-Demon of apostasy, Indra.


Arashtat Persian Arch Angel of Truth and Justice

Khshathra Vairya
Arch-Angel (Male)

Khshathra Vairya Persian Arch Angel of Power - Amesha Spenta
One of the Amesha Spentas, Khshathra Vairya (Desirable Dominion, Righteous Power) is the personification of desirable dominion and is associated with sky and metal. Even though he would rather defend the royalty, yet he is the protector of the poor. He enforces peace by using his various weapons. His attributes are the helmet, the shield and the spear. The sixth month of the calendar is dedicated to him. His eternal opponent is the Arch-Demon Saurva. Khshathra Vairya often holds a Persian Sword and the Persian Ring of Power which displays his power.


Khshathra Vairya Persian Arch Angel of Power

Sraosa
Arch-Angel (Male)

Sraosa Persian Arch Angel of Obedience - Amesha Spenta
Sraosa or Spenta Mainyu (Holy Creative Spirit) is the great Amesha Spenta. He is the personification of obedience and the messenger of the great god Ahura Mazda. He associates with human beings. He also guides the souls of the deceased to find their way to the after-life. His symbolic animal is the Rooster, whose crowing will call the pious to their holy Aryan duties. The seventeenth day of the month is dedicated to Sraosa. His eternal rival is the Arch-Demon Aesma the Daeva.


Sraosa Persian Arch Angel of Obedience

Vohuman
Arch-Angel (Male)

Vohuman Persian Arch Angel of Wisdom - Amesha Spenta
Vohu Manah or Vahuman (good sense) is one of the Amesha Spentas, and the personification of wisdom. He is the protector of the animals. Vohuman especially protects the cow. The Sacred Cow of Zoroastrians who feeds milk to the Aryans, labors their farms and assists with their agriculture. Vohuman takes the souls of the just to Paradise. The eleventh month is dedicated to him. His eternal opponent is the Arch-Demon Aka Manah.


Vohuman Persian Arch Angel of Wisdom

* * *

Faravashis (Foruhars)

Or Arda Fravash (Guardian Angels) are personal guardian angels. Every person is accompanied by a guardian angel, who acts as his or her guide through life. Ahura Mazda ordered Zarathushtra to call upon Faravashis for help as needed. Faravashis ultimately become one with people's souls in after life. They are the manifestation of Ahura's will. Faravashis are often represented as bird-like angel creatures. Faravashis' shapes are originated from Faravahar, the winged symbol of Zoroastrianism which itself represents a Dual Creature of half man (Ahura Mazda) and half beast (Ahreeman). In original Zoroastrian doctrine, Ahura Mazda and Ahreeman were two faces (sides) of one being.

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