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Grand Admiral of the Persian Imperial Navy

Grand Admiral Artemisia of the Persian Imperial Navy (The Lioness)
Artemisia The First, of Halicarnassus (Halicarnassius), A Living Legend
Ahreeman X
December 27, 2006

Artemisia I of Halicarnassus

Artemisia I of Halicarnassus

Once a while there comes a great hero, a spectacular character, a strong leader, a charismatic person and an important figure which helps developing the history of Iran for better. Once every millennium, maybe this figure will be a woman! Once a lifetime, this woman may leave her mark on the history of Iran for the future Iranian women to study and follow. This living legend is Artemisia! I give her the title of "Lioness" which she deserves most.

L. Persian Standard Bearer (Derafshdar) rising the Achaemenid Eagle Banner.
R. Persian Emblem Bearer (Derafshdar-e Shahin Zarin) rising the Cyrus Eagle Emblem.

Does Iranian youth, women or men, inside or outside Iran, know who Artemisia was? Do they know who Apranik was? Do they know who Pantea was? Do they know who Aryobarzan or Rostam Farokhzad were? Read:

Iranian Military Uniforms, Chapter 5: Achaemenian Uniforms Part 4: Artemisia and Xerxes

IPC Iran History

Practically no one knows these heroes! But I bet my last dollar that majority of Iranians know who Ali, Hussein , Hassan and other Arab Murderers and Barbarians were; furthermore, they are making shrines for them and had created Saints out of them!

Iranians do not know their own legends who built this nation but they Arab Worship and they kneel servitude to Arab fabricated Saints! I do not call this treason, but I call this "The Ultimate Persian Catastrophe". This situation occurs when a culture is about to become annihilated and be replaced with the foreign culture of the invader-occupier and oppressor, which are the Arabo_Muslim and filthy Tazi Barbaric Sub-Culture! It is simply a plain shame! What can we do? What can I do? Let me tell you what can I do! Gather around and let me tell you a true story of your great ancestors. Gather around and let me tell you the true history of your nation. Let me tell you the history, which Islamic Republic will never teach you in schools! Let me tell you the history, which you have been denied to know! Let me tell you a story so you can in return tell this story to your children and them to their own children and so on ……

I am the story-teller, I am the history-teller. This is how we shall resist the AIOG (Arabo-Islamic Occupational Government) and the Second Arabo-Islamic Invasion-Occupation of Iran. This is how we will keep the "Persianhood" Alive! Let me tell you a story about ……

The Leader and Head of the Mighty Imperial Persian Navy.
One of the bravest women of all times in the history of Persian Empire and the world.
One of the greatest Military minds of the world.
A typical Independent woman. The first female high ranking officer ever, in the history of the world. A true legend, Grand Admiral Artemisia, commander in Chief of the Persian Imperial Navy during Achaemenids Dynasty.


Artemisia (Latin), Artemesus (Greek), Artemesius (Roman), Artemis (Persian),
Artemis meaning: (The great speaker of the truth) also, (named after the great goddess of hunting Artemis sister of Apollo) or Artemisia, The Grand Admiral, leader of the Persian Navy during Xerxes, Xerxes' great love.

Grand Admiral Artemisia I, the Queen of Halicarnassus
A Persian Legend

Artemisia, simply a Persian Legend
(5th century BC)

Artemisia I (not to be mistaken with Artemisia II Queen of Halicarnassus)
Queen of Halicarnassus (Halicarnassius), a city-state in Anatolia (today's Turkey), and of the nearby island of Cos in about 480 BC. Artemisia ruled under the overlordship of the Persian Emperor Xerxes I (Kheshayar Shah) (reigned 486 BC - 465 BC) and participated in Xerxes' Persian Achaemenids' expedition and invasion of Greece (480 BC - 479 BC), which was a period during the "Persian-Greek Wars (499 BC - 479 BC).

Mardoniuses Persian Ground Troops on hill-top awaiting for the order of Arteshbod Mardonius to attack Greeks.

Named after Artemis, the Goddess of Hunting, Artemisia was the daughter of Lygdamis, a wealthy Greek Halicarnassian and a Cretan (Crete Island) mother. Now over here there are still other factors, which creates doubts that Artemisia was half-Greek and half-Cretan. There is no doubt that Artemisia was Queen of Halicarnassius a Greek City-State and later a colony of Persian Empire, yet the question is that was she originally:

a) A half-Greek and half-Cretan woman?
b) A native of Halicarnassius which was in Anatolia and back then considered Lydia (Present Turkey)?
c) A woman whom originally originated of elsewhere in Persian Empire?

No matter which theory is correct, She was considered a citizen of Persian Empire, her sympathies were for Persian Empire, her patriotism was towards Persian Empire, she worked her way to the top by credibility and worthiness to become first a navy officer and then The Grand Admiral of The Mighty Persian Navy. She was a woman who raised herself to a level above almost all men!

Artemisia was the ruler of Halicarnassus AKA Halicarnassius (near today's Bodrum, Turkey) and its neighboring islands, part of the Persian Empire then ruled by Xerxes (Kheshayar Shah I). Have in mind that back then, present Turkey and a part of Greece considered as a few states and protectorates of Iran, so all these citizens were rightful Persian Citizens. They had as much rights to be Iranians as the next person who was born in Persepolis! Iran was the only empire and superpower in the history of the world which never practiced slavery until Islam entered Iran! All citizens of the Persian Empire had equal rights under the Persian Law and under the Cyrus Cylinder (Law of Cyrus The Great). When Islam entered Iran (651 BC), it brought the present of slavery to Iran. It brought the present of prejudice to Iran and it brought the present of bigotry and Anti-Semitism to Iran.

Grand Admiral Artemisia and her legendary horse

When Xerxes went to war against Greece (480 BC - 479 BC), Artemisia led her powerful ships and helped Xerxes defeat the Greeks in the beginning phases of naval battle of Salamis. The Greeks offered a reward of 10,000 drachmas for capturing Artemisia, but no one succeeded in winning the prize.

A Persian Immortal Standard Bearer, battle screams!

Geo-politics of Greece and the Greek Problem

Understand that back then Iran was the sole superpower of the globe and Greece consisted of tens of separated and scattered city-states, each played their own tunes! Some of these city-states were pro Iran, some were anti Iran, some were neutral and some were even parts of Iran as protectorates!

Artemisia used politics to put her city-state under the protection of Persian Empire; she truly used politics when she participated in the naval battle supporting Xerxes in his Greek campaigns. But ultimately she opened her way and she opened up the way as a pioneer for all women to grow, when she saw the big picture. The little city-state of Halicarnassius was no more the issue! She was already a Queen, a navy commander, a warrior, a member of elite aristocracy, a war hero, and a famous woman, but she wanted it all! She wanted to register her name in history. Battles of Salamis, Thermopylae, Plataea and Mycale, also others were just great campaigns, some won and some lost. Persian Empire took a big risk, won a little, lost a little, yet held on to its past position and landmass in Europe before the Greek Campaign, now what? Now Artemisia of Halicarnassius wanted to become Artemisia of Persian Empire!

Persia was an empire stretched in three continents, east-west from borders of China to Greece and north-south from Central Russia to north Africa in Libya. Winning or losing a little landmass in Greece was irrelevant to Persian Shahanshahs; however, the Greek revolts and agitation could effect the Greek states of Iran and start an internal disturbance and that was the reason that Darius and then Xerxes had to take care of the Greek problem and teach Greeks a lesson!

Please study these maps:
Iran Historical Maps: Persian Achaemenid Empire - Part 3

So you will gain a better understanding of the geo-politics of Greece, the Greek Problem and also the Greek-Persian Wars (499 BC - 479 BC)

Try to picture this: The Greek problem back then was similar to the Azerbaijan problem of today! Back then elements from External Greeks were trying to annex the internal Greeks of the Persian Empire. The same way that today the Azeri elements from external Azerbaijan are trying to annex the internal Azerbaijan from Iran! Separatism, Rebellion, Anarchy, Chaos and internal interruption in Persian affairs must be dealt with severely and that was exactly what Xerxes done! Xerxes had to take care of the problem before this problem would have turned to a major political issue and an internal nightmare. I am 100% with Xerxes. If I was Xerxes, I would've done the same.

What did Artemisia want?

By this time Artemisia was a legend. She used this fame to first launch two different campaigns. She saw life as a large battlefield!

Artemisia's First Goal

First she wanted Xerxes! She was sexy, strong, built, a typical athletic woman with beauty and culture. She made an oath to get Xerxes. She was nuts about him. there was something about Xerxes that drove her crazy! Xerxes was a great military mind himself, his African, European, and Asian campaigns are well known. Xerxes was also a great flirt, a playboy, Ladies' man, and a very arrogant aristocrat.. Capturing his heart was a great task to do for Artemisia.

Xerxes' Guide on how to run an Empire!

Xerxes was a great Nationalist. He was a true believer in the Persian system of running an Empire. He used Cyrus' philosophy of human rights issue, legend to Cyrus Cylinder, The First Human Rights Document ever in the world, and he mixed it with Persian Expansionism of the Empire and Pan Iranism, Achaemenid's style and Fair based governing style of Darius his father, then mixed it all with his own Military Ingenuity. What a combination! This was how Xerxes governed Persia.

Artemisia's Tactic

To win Xerxes' heart was to impress him militaristically! Xerxes had seen it all, he had women throwing themselves at him from all parts of empire from Chinese border in the East and Aristocrats from Ariana and Bakhtar Satrapies (two states of the Persian Empire presently known as Afghanistan) all the way to Greek colonies of Persian Empire in the West and Europe. He had women lined up from Masagget (Fish Eaters) land and north shores of Caspian Sea at north all the way to Siranaik and Napata (present Libya) and Egyptian Southern borders of Africa in south!

Xerxes been there and done that, it would take a different woman, an astonishing woman to impress him and to get his attention. What to do, what to do? Artemisia asked herself!?

Artemisia's Second Goal

Artemisia wanted to also achieve something else, this brings us to her second goal. She wanted a very high position and command in Persian CourtHouse to establish her absolute power and authority in the Persian Achaemenid's Court. Well, Persian Empire being the only Super Power in the known world back then, she wanted to be an important part of it!

Amazingly Artemisia did something to achieve her first and second goals!

Her first goal was to capture Xerxes' heart.
Her second goal was to establish herself as a power element in the Achaemenid's Empire by possessing an important position.

What she had done was to impress Xerxes by her brave Navy campaigns and bravery in battlefield. She gave naval support to Xerxes and Mardoniuses forces (Arteshbod Mardonius, Persian Field Marshal of Xerxes and of Royal family). She fought in the battle like a man. she showed military genius and ingenuity. She impressed the hell out of Xerxius (Roman for Xerxes). By doing this, she for sure captured his heart and definitely accomplished getting a high position in Persian government. Xerxes had never seen a woman quite like her!

Artemisia became Xerxes' lover, actually his greatest love until that day! Yet Xerxes never married her, funny how Xerxes later ended up marrying Esther his Jewish Princess! Yes, no matter how much this great love affair between Xerxes and Artemisia dragged on, yet they never got married! It was destiny for Esther to come along in the years ahead and to steal Xerxes' heart again!

Artemisia Captures Persia's Heart!

Grand Admiral Artemisia, Artemisia The First, of Halicarnassius, A Living Legend, had bigger fish to fry! The most amazing thing about this woman was her aggressiveness! Since the beginning, she knew what she wanted and she well planned it and she went after it, full speed. What could have stopped her? The woman fought like a man, had brains of a military genius, looks of a goddess, manners of an aristocrat and intellect of a wise-woman! She had it all, but that was never enough for her! Indeed she had bigger fish to fry and she wanted The World!

So at first, Artemisia became Xerxes' Great Passion and love, next she got appointed as the Grand Admiral, commander in Chief of the Mighty Persian Navy. What a great accomplishment for a woman, a citizen of Persian Empire, yet not of nor Persia, Parthia, or Media (three major Aryan Satrapies of the Empire) to become the Head of Fearful Achaemenid Navy! Hundreds of Achaemenid Navy Commanders and officers of the pure Aryan Race from the three main Satrapies had to bow and kneel in front of her mighty majesty, The Artemisia of Halicarnassius!

Persian System of Government
A Democratic Federal Empire!

Persia's system of government was a primitive and elementary form of A Democratic Federal Empire! Artemisia I, was not of the three main Satrapies, yet she was a Persian and according to Persian Law, all citizens of the Empire were Equal, in religion, rights, and in expression. Persia were governed like a fearful Empire, yet unlike what Herodot's pro-western revised history states, Persia was a Democratic system of government in nature. There was no slavery practiced at the time. Cyrus even freed 42,000 Jews from slavery of Babylonians. Darius kept up the tradition and of course Xerxes followed the tradition of his ancestors Cyrus and Darius the fair Shahanshah. Persia being an Empire with many colonies and Expansionism policy, emphasizing on Pure Persian Pride, Aryan Culture, Zoroastrianism, and Aryan Race, yet it was in an absolute Democratic style of the internal governing system and state of homeostasis. It might sound contradictory but Persia was a Democratic and Federal Empire in nature. Internally, all citizens of the Persian Empire had equal rights. Once one would dedicate and devote himself to the Empire, as a servant of the Empire he would have equal rights to everyone else of his own social class in the whole Empire. Now do not mix this with the differences between social classes and the social system.

Aristocracy, Holy Zoroastrian Temple system, Military, administrative, merchantship, public, etc., they all had their own social classes, but this was the norm of the world during that era and century. Still Persian Empire was a Democratic Empire internally and in comparison to many totalitarian slavery systems of Empires and Kingdoms of that era in 6th, 5th, and 4th centuries BC, Persia was a role model. One can easily refer to History books; even Bible and Torah had mentioned this fact. Persian Justice was legendary.

Persian Empire and Federalism


Satrapy = Satrapy (Pahlavi Sassanid), Khashtarah (Pahlavi Avestai), Khashtareh (Modern Pahlavi), Framandari (Ancient Persian), Farmandari (Mid Persian), Ostan (Modern Persian), State (English)

Satrapies = Plural for Satrapy (States)

Satrap = Governor

Protectorate = A land with the status of a level lower than statehood, yet higher than a colony.

Persian Empire consisted of many Satrapies and protectorates.

Persian Empire was not only democratic in nature, yet it was the first ever Federal system in the world! Each Khashtarah (State) had absolute internal autonomy to do as they pleased in their own internal affairs. Achaemenid Empire was the first ever Federal system in the globe! It was a primitive form of Federalism in comparison to today's Federal systems, but imagine back then when everyone including China, Egypt, Greece and Rome practiced slavery and colonialism, we granted internal autonomy to all our states. Our states had control over their affairs, their Educational system, local languages and even their own military forces! The only things that Persepolis required was absolute obedience to central government on international political and military affairs, and of course everyone had to learn Persian as the first or second language. How could they not to? Persian Empire owned the world and was the sole superpower in the globe. Persian was the International Language back then!

So as you see, Federalism is what made Persia strong! Even in times of war, each Khashtarah, specifically border Khashtarahs had to provide their own military force and combine they had to defend Mother Persia! They had to defend the Empire because the Empire guaranteed their internal autonomy, rights, freedom, independence, equality and humanity! This was the system, which Cyrus Built. Achaemenid Empire was a very primitive form but the very first Democratic Federal Empire of its kind in the world. Of course after Achaemenids, Federalism was not as strong as during their era, until it totally faded away by entrance of Islam to Iran.

Islam destroyed Persian style of Federalism, Equal Rights and Democracy; Islam replaced these factors with central brutal government, prejudice and slavery. This is Islam in a nutshell!

Greco-Roman Historical Lies

So all the garbage you hear from Western source historians about savagery and barbarianism and primitive Persian Empire are nonsense. Especially the Greek Philosophers and Historians who lined up garbage by philosophizing all day long in Grecian Peninsula and calling Persians Barbarians! The fact of the matter is that when Rome did not even exist and Greece was consisted of tens of city-states fighting amongst themselves, we owned the world and we civilized the world and we taught the world the true meaning of civilization!

While Rome and Greece were practicing slavery and brutality, we owned a Democratic Federal Empire! So all this nonsense is basically Greek envy and jealousy because they never did and they never could have become as relevant, even a faction of as relevant as the Persian Empire to evolve the global civilization! Persians taught the world the meaning of civilization!

Western Anti Persian Propaganda
Yesterday and today!

The only difference is that yesterday Greco-Roman Philosophers were spreading lies in universities and public about Persians being Barbarians, but today the Hollywood had taken over this task! Yesterday Aristotle spread Anti Persian lies and hatred by calling Persians barbarians in Athens and today Oliver Stone does this task in Hollywood!

Ask yourselves, if Persians were such barbarians, then how come 1/3 of Greeks themselves jumped over each others' shoulders to join the Persian Empire, become Persian protectorates or states? Why would Greeks themselves denied that they were Greeks, yet they called themselves Persian Citizens of the Empire? Because they were fed up with the Greek dysfunctional system which had brought nothing for them but disunity, wars, destruction and injustice even amongst themselves. This should ring a bell for you to comprehend who was civilized and democratic and then who was envious and barbaric, no?

So what could Romans and Greeks do? They had to revise history and pretend that they were the civilized democratic people and we were the savages! They had to pretend that they started the western civilization! They had to pretend that the world owes them because they built the western civilization! They had to pretend that they stopped the barbaric Persians from destroying the western civilization!

The Fact about Persia

The fact is that we taught Greeks and Romans the meaning of civilization! They were running around killing each other while we owned a democratic federal Empire and we owned the world! We had such great system that even a non-Persian Aryan woman such as Artemisia could rise to the highest level of power in the Empire! Now could this have had occurred in Greece or Rome? End of the subject and I rest my case!

Artemisia's Desires

Artemisia ended up having two things that her heart desired, Xerxes and a high-ranking position in the Persian government, Grand Admiral of The Mighty Persian Navy.

Through the years Artemisia proved that Xerxes made the right choice by appointing her to the important position. Artemisia fought many naval battles and led Persian Navy through many campaigns in the world. Being the Head of the Most powerful Empire of the world's Naval Force was a great task with many responsibilities, which she had proved to be worthy of.

Herodot on Artemisia

Artemisia is the only woman Herodotus attributes with the virtue of courage, or "Andreia"; an almost impossible quality for a woman to possess since it literally meant "Manliness".

Herodot, being a Greek, naturally revises the historical tales in a way to make Greeks civilized and superior to Persians! However even knowing that Herodot's tails are bias for Greeks and against Persians, yet it is interesting to read a couple of his sayings on Artemisia. Herodot even though not being a fair historian, he still cannot deny to give Artemisia credit for being a great military mind and a very wise character! Heres what Herodot had to say:

"If the other lower officers I shall make no mention, since no necessity is laid on me; but I must speak of a certain leader named Artemisia, whose participation in the attack upon Greece, notwithstanding that she was a woman, moves my special wonder. She had obtained the sovereign power after the death of her husband; and, though she had now a son grown up, yet her brave spirit and manly daring sent her forth to the war, when no need required her to adventure. Her name, as I said, was Artemisia, and she was the daughter of Lygdamis; by race she was on his side a Halicarnassian, though by her mother a Cretan. She ruled over the Halicarnassians, the men of Cos, of Nisyrus, and of Calydna; and the five Triremes (Battle Ships) which she furnished to the Persians were, next to the Sidonian, the most famous ships in the fleet. She likewise gave to Xerxes sounder counsel than any of his other allies. Now the cities over which I have mentioned that she bore sway were one and all Dorian; for the Halicarnassians were colonists from Troezen, while the remainder were from Epidaurus. Thus much concerning the sea-force. Artemisia was a great asset to Xerxes."

Above is Artemisia's behavior in early days of her acquaintance with Xerxes. So Artemisia was not just another commander, but a great military advisor to Xerxes.

Again later Herodot talks about how Artemisia was a wise advisor to Xerxes. And he mentions about Artemisia's talks with Mardonius. Let's talk about Mardonius, who was Mardonius? Heres a historical bit about him.

Mardonius (Marduniyeh)
Field Marshal of Persian Imperial Army

On 479 BC, associated in the Plataea, Boeotia wars.
Arteshbod Mardonius (Arteshbod = Highest Degree of Generals or Field Marshal in Persian Military Ranks) The Achaemenid general, a nephew of King Darius I and married to Darius' daughter Artazostra (Artadokht). In 492 BC he was sent to succeed the satrap (governor) Artaphernes in Ionia, with a special commission to attack Athens and Eretria. Contrary to the usual Achaemenid's "Non Interference Policy in Local Affairs", he abolished the ruling "tyrants" and restored "democracies" in Ionia, thereby removing a major source of unrest. He then crossed the Hellespont and invaded Thrace and Macedonia. His fleet was wrecked off Mt. Athos with enormous loss, however, and because of this setback he was deprived of his command.

According to the Greek historian Herodotus, Mardonius was one of those who encouraged King Xerxes I, Darius' successor, to invade Greece. After the Achaemenid defeat at Salamis he persuaded Xerxes to return to Asia and himself stayed behind with a large army. He unsuccessfully attempted to separate Athens from the other Greek allies, and, withdrawing from Attica, he finally was defeated and killed in battle at Plataea in September 479 BC.

On this part, Artemisia is supposedly speaking to Mardonius (Marduniyeh) Persian General and sending a message through Mardonius to the Persian Emperor Xerxes. And Herodotus rendering of Artemisia's advice to Xerxes:

"Say to the king, Mardonius, that these are my words to him: I was not the least brave of those who fought at Euboea, nor were my achievements there among the meanest; it is my right, therefore, O my lord, to tell thee plainly what I think to be most for thy advantage now. This then is my advice. Spare thy ships, and do not risk a battle; for these people are as much superior to thy people in seamanship, as men to women. What so great need is there for thee to incur hazard at sea? Art thou not master of Athens, for which thou didst undertake thy expedition? Is not Greece subject to thee? Not a soul now resists thy advance. They who once resisted, were handled even as they deserved. Now learn how I expect that affairs will go with thy adversaries. If thou art not over-hasty to engage with them by sea, but wilt keep thy fleet near the land, then whether thou abidest as thou art, or marchest forward towards the Peloponnese, thou wilt easily accomplish all for which thou art come hither. The Greeks cannot hold out against thee very long; thou wilt soon part them asunder, and scatter them to their several homes. In the island where they lie, I hear they have no food in store; nor is it likely, if thy land force begins its march towards the Peloponnese, that they will remain quietly where they are at least such as come from that region. Of a surety they will not greatly trouble themselves to give battle on behalf of the Athenians. On the other hand, if thou art hasty to fight, I tremble lest the defeat of thy sea force bring harm likewise to thy land army. This, too, thou shouldst remember, O king; good masters are apt to have bad servants, and bad masters good ones. Now, as thou art the best of men, thy servants must needs be a sorry set. These Egyptians, Cyprians, Cilicians, and Pamphylians, who are counted in the number of thy subject-allies, of how little service are they to thee!"

And these were Artemisia's wise words of wisdom to Xerxes.

Persian-Greek Wars (499 BC - 479 BC)

Persian-Greek Wars
L. Greek Elite Hoplite Heavy Infantryman
R. Persian Immortal Guard Archer

Let us concentrate on Persian-Greek Wars. The wars which Xerxes reluctantly had seen no other choice but to start!

Ships under Artemisia's command

During Persian-Greek Wars (499 BC - 479 BC), at first Artemisia commanded only the five ships in which she disposed at Xerxes' service; however, later on and even after the war she commanded a great number of ships. Eventually in later years, she commanded the whole Persian Naval Force.

Specification of Persian Navy Ships

A Trireme from Artemisia's Naval Force

Trireme Ships
Each of Artemisia's trireme ships were 125 ft long, equipped with fire thrower and stone thrower
Catapults. Crew consisted of 170 rowers and 30 battle crews, which makes a total of 200 Seamen per ship. Many of these ships were led by female captains!

A Mighty Imperial Navy Trireme Battle Ship

Transport Vessels
There were also a great number of Transport Vessels to carry land catapults, weapons, cargo, horses and troops.

A Persian Naval Transport Vessel

Persian Engineering and Bridges

In addition, Persians basically engineered and build bridges out of a great number of boats and small vessels and ships, tied together each, piece by piece and set on a stable layer of wooden logs which themselves were strengthen and stabilized by two massive cables on each side of the boats stretching from the narrowest point between Asia minor to Europe from Hellespont.

Persian Armored Soldier
Unlike the claims of Oliver Stone in his Hollywood Spoof "Alexander, The Movie" and other Hollywood Lies, many battalions and corps of the Persian Army, Navy and Elite Immortals, were heavily armored. Oliver Stone portrayed the Mighty Imperial Persian Forces as barbarians who were wearing Rags and Robes similar to Arabs!

Persians used these bridges to cross troops and equipment from Asia to Europe and to invade Greece. In those times, this was an engineering masterpiece!

Persian Land Catapults operated by special Halicarnassian Catapult-men of Artemisia. These Catapults were portable by wheels so they could have easily been transported on battle ships to throw fireballs and stones at enemy ships.

Artemisia, Early Days

Let us jump back in times. Artemisia married the king of Halicarnassius in 500 BC, just prior to the Ionian Revolt that helped trigger the war between Greece and Persia. Her husband, whose name has been lost to history, probably died only a few years later. Taking to the throne herself, she made her name not as an ally of Greece, but as a loyal subject of Persia! This was pure politics. Her major claim to fame occurred during the battle of Salamis, which King Xerxes of Persia watched from his golden throne on the shore. Lets talk a bit about Xerxes.

About Xerxes

Xerxes (Latin), Xerxesus (Greek), Xerxius (Roman), Kheshayar (Persian),
Kheshayar Sha, Kheshayar the First, Kheshayar Shah The Great, Kheshayar Achaemenid, Shahanshah of Iran, one of the great military minds in history of Iran. Basically Iran was at her greatest landmass and extent during Xerxes Achamenid's reign.

War against the Greeks! With the tranquillity of the empire reestablished, Xerxes would willingly have devoted himself to peaceful activities. But many of those around him were pressing for the renewal of hostilities. His cousin and brother-in-law Arteshbod (General) Mardonius, supported by a strong party of exiled Greeks, incited him to take revenge for the affront that Darius had suffered at the hands of the Greeks at Marathon (490 BC). The impressionable Xerxes gave way to pressure from his entourage and threw himself into patient diplomatic and military preparations for war, which required three years to complete (484 BC - 481 BC). Herodot notes that never before had such an effort been undertaken. Troops were levied in all the satrapies (Khashtareh or states) (Khashtareh = Khashtarah in Avestaian Persian meaning state), and a navy, intended to be the army's supply line, was gathered. The care lavished on this enterprise shows that the King did not regard it as a minor operation. There has been much later speculation on the real causes for the expedition. They could not have been economic, because Greece was not important then.

Grand Admiral Artemisia I and Shahanshah Xerxes I
Lovers walking at Persepolis

Perhaps it was only the manifestation of a royal absolutism: Xerxes, whose character was later distorted in Greek legend, was neither foolish nor overly optimistic; although sensible and intelligent, he was nevertheless, according to G. Glotz:

"a sovereign by divine right, to whom opposition was as annoying as sacrilege . . . nervous in temperament, fallen from youthful fire into indolence, incited to make a war he didn't like. . . ."

In my opinion, Xerxes simply could not let go of Greek revolts and he had to set an example. Greek protectorates of Iran were themselves fed up with Greek treachery and anarchy of Anti Iran Greek States! Greek agitators had made the whole Grecian and Anatolian Regions unstable and unsafe. Their goal was to replace stability with chaos! Xerxes was a victim of his own circumstances and had to start a war, which he really did not want to get in to!

Grand Admiral Artemisia I and Shahanshah Xerxes I
The Original Portrait

Persian-Greek Wars Continues on ……
Persian-Greek Wars (499 BC - 479 BC)

Persian Soldiers in action

Persian-Greek Wars
Persian Army and Navy Routes

Persian-Greek Wars
The Battle Map showing campaigns
There were four different Greek Factions:
Greek States fighting against Persia
Greek States fighting pro Persia
Greek States which were Protectorates of Persia
Greek States which were Neutral

At the head of his armies, he left Sardis for the Hellespont and had two boat bridges placed across the strait. A storm destroyed them, and Xerxes had the sea whipped as punishment. With the bridges remade, for seven days he oversaw the crossing of the army 5,000,000 men according to Herodotus and 360,000 by modern estimate, supported by 700 to 800 ships. Their passage was facilitated by a massive engineering works: a channel was dug across the Isthmus of Actium so that the peaks of Mount Athos might be avoided. Nevertheless, the army's size was of no help, partly because of misinformation about the enemy terrain and partly because of the appearance of a national feeling in Greece. But oh lord this Army was formidable! There were men from Asian, African, European and all corners of the Persian Empire gathered in this campaign!

L. A Special Red Guard Persian Officer of Artemisia's Forces
Artemisia's Persian Red Guards were a "Special Amphibian Force" similar to today's US Navy Seals.
R. A Persian Seaman of Artemisia's Forces

After a few successes (Battle of Thermopylae, mid-August 480 BC), Xerxes occupied Attica and pillaged and burned Athens to the ground on September 21 (this was due to teaching the Greeks not to rebel and riot and causing Anarchy and sometimes establishing Tyrannical states against The Persian Empire). The funny thing was that so-called Democratic Greeks would riot and then create little pro-Grecian alliance "Dictatorships" in city-states around Asia Minor and Grecian Peninsula, inside the Persian Protectorates! This was simply due to envy and hatred towards Persians!

L. Artemisia (on the right) walking while discussing battle strategy with one of her female captains (on the left)
R. Two Persian Imperial Immortal Guards assigned to escort Artemisia while visiting Persia

But on September 29 at Salamis, a naval battle, which he had initiated with beginning wining phases, turned into a defeat. Without a fleet to bring supplies to the army, he had to retreat; he crossed over into Asia, leaving Mardonius in Thessaly. During an indecisive battle near Plataea (Battle of Plataea), on Aug. 27, 479 BC, Mardonius was killed, and his death obliged the army of occupation to withdraw.

Persian Armored Immortal Spearman

Hostilities continued for 13 years, but thenceforth Xerxes involved himself only slightly. Withdrawal to Persia, Achaemenian Empire lost all recently occupied areas of Greece and could not hold on to Athens and Sparta but it managed to withhold its European Colonies inside Greece and Macedonia. Xerxes retired to Susa and Persepolis the Capital of Satrapy of Persia. He started using up more of enormous resources he had gathered, by launching a vast construction program. At the capital city of Persepolis, Darius' architects, working from a unified plan of great scope, had already begun construction on a gigantic terrace of the Apadana (an audience hall), the Tripylon, a palace, and a treasury. When Xerxes became King of kings (Shahanshah), he had laid the enameled-brick facing on the exterior of the Apadana and finished his father's palace. Then he erected other monuments: his own palace, southeast of Darius' and similar to it in plan, and a mysterious building called the Harem by archaeologists, a line of small, identical rooms that may have been Xerxes' treasury. He also undertook construction of the "Hall of a Hundred Columns", or Throne Room, but he was able to finish only the paving and the base of the walls (the walls themselves and the decoration of this gigantic hypostyle hall were the work of Artaxerxes I). These buildings marked an evolution toward the colossal and toward a style that was perhaps more pretentious than that typical of Darius' reign. Xerxes' Style of Architecture!

Persian Light Infantryman

Back to Artemisia before we twist the subject absolutely to Xerxes, him being one of my favorite Characters in Persian History I can talk for hours about him!

Replica of Artemisia's personal Trireme

After the few starting victorious naval battles, Artemisia in Salamis, Finding herself trapped between the deadly Greek triremes and the utterly bewildered Persian fleet, she determined to break out. Pursued by a trireme she calmly and expertly rammed a friendly ship blocking her exit, and made her escape. Xerxes, knowing her to have sunk an enemy and exasperated at his own side's general incompetence, declared:

"My men have become women, and women men."
(Xerxex I)

Artemisia in action
Artemisia amongst her personal Elite Halicarnassian Seamen fighting hand to hand combat with Greeks in a battle on the sea! In sea-battle, Artemisia would turn to a fierce warrior. It is written that Artemisia was manly; she traveled, campaigned and lived with and amongst seamen; fought like a Wild Lioness and worshiped by her seamen. The Elite Halicarnassian Seamen were a famous fierce warrior group.

Needless to say the Athenians were not well pleased; they had offered an especially high reward for her capture because they could not believe a woman would join a war against them. Despite her able command of Navy ships in the major naval battle with the Greeks off the island of Salamis near Athens, the Persian fleet suffered a severe defeat. Herodotus claims that Xerxes acted on her advice when he decided to retreat from Greece at once rather than to risk another engagement.

L. A Female Captain of Artemisia's Naval force raising her battle axe
R. a ceramic portrait of Artemisia I of Halicarnassius

Capturing Persia's Heart

Artemisia captured Xerxes' heart and admiration. Now it was time to capture Persia's heart and admiration!

Artemisia proved to be a worthy military and political advisor, a great naval commander, and a great passionate lover to Xerxes. She was a great woman, the first female high ranking officer ever appointed and assigned in history of the world. The most important military position ever given to a woman in the history of Iran and the world. She became Commander in Chief of the Mighty Persian Imperial Navy. Artemisia was a great woman, a fine officer, a Persian Heroin, a remarkable character and a living Legend of all times. Artemisia stole Xerxes' heart but mostly she captured Persians hearts, her popularity as a military commander, a strong independent woman, a role model, and a great Patriot of The Persian Empire had established her a special place in Persians' Hearts! Artemisia's legend went on and on and on from one generation to another......

Greek Philosophers' and Hollywood Lies

All western source history is based on Greek Philosophers-Historians or Hollywood Lies. In old times Aristotle used to call Iranians Barbarians and Xenophone used to call Iranians Tryrants and savages! Now days Hollywood makes spoofs such as 300 Spartans and in these movies 100 Greek Spartans battle 100, 000 or 300, 000 Iranians, show braveries and slaughter a bunch of Persians like flies or cockroaches! Then Oliver Stone creates his "Alexander Movie" spoof and in it, Alexander the drunken, epileptic, psychotic, delusional, homosexual, alcoholic who burned Persepolis to the ground and invaded and pillaged Persia, becomes God and Princess Roxanna becomes a black, savage and primitive Persian petty princess! In one scene Alexander on horse top battles Indian cavalry on elephant tops 4 times of his size! Why not? If one lies, then they must lie so big that it will be so unbelievable to deny!

The Reality was that Alexander was a wanna be Persian and admirer of Cyrus The Great who could never be accepted as a Persian so he leveled the Persian Empire in her weaken times. In his delusional mind he both revenged from Persians and also became a Persian! Later on he called himself a Persian and ruled Persia as a Persian King! Greeks always dreamt of being Persian because in reality we were the center of civilization and they were a few scattered city-states fighting amongst themselves!

If you study Greek Philosophers-Historians and Hollywood history, then Greco-Romans become foundation of the western civilization and Persians become barbarians! If you study the Real History, then you will notice that everything told to you in western history books and Hollywood Movies have been nothing but lies! The reality is that Persians invented the global civilization and Greco-Romans were always envious of Persian Empire and that is why they had always invaded Persia and most of the times they got defeated by Persians! Persians defeated and humiliated Roman Empire in three separate occasions but you never read about this in western books or see it on Hollywood screens!

My point is that do not rely on Western so-called history, fabricated by Greek Philosophers-Historians and Hollywood Spoofs! Same goes for Artemisa! If you watch spoofs like "300 Spartans", then Xerxes becomes a Tyrant and Artemisia becomes a slut! But what was the reality?

Final Words

Artemisia of Halicarnassius, the local Queen, the Grand Admiral of The Persian Navy, the First high ranking Female Officer in the world, the most important military rank ever given to a woman, a great patriot, a great Persian, and a true Legend. Artemisia The Living Legend, The Glory of Persian Empire at its best, she made History. Artemisia's Legend goes on in every single Persian Girl's little heart. And the legend goes on .......

The bottom line is that Artemisia was a woman who worked hard for everything that she achieved. She established to drag herself up from an irrelevant local queen to ruler of Halicarnassius, to a navy commander, to commander in chief of the Persian Navy, to Xerxes' advisor and then captured Xerxes' heart but most important captured Persia's heart!

A Mythical Portrait of Artemisia on Unicorn's back
Artemisia, a woman of distinguished courage and amazing abilities, admired for her brave deeds and noble qualities, became so popular and raised to the level of a national heroine by Persians. Eventually Persians created Myths about Artemisia. This portrait shows The Mythical Artemisia, The Ultra Female Warrior on Unicorn's Top! To be honest with you, this portrait is not really much short of the truth, because Artemisia in reality was a strong and formidable female warrior!

Persian, live Persian, Die Persian, Name your children Persian, Worship Persian, Love Persian soil, Speak Persian, Learn Persian Literature, Read Persian Poetry, Carry The Persian Torch for the next generation of Persians......

Persian, learn Persian history, without the knowledge of your past, you will have no future. Without knowledge of your past, you will be lost speaking foreign Arabic words, living Arabic Cultures and Traditions, praying to Foreign Arabic Religion and Gods. You will be stranger to your own culture and traditions. Persian, learn your fruitful Persian History.

One Dead Persian worths as much as Ten Living Arab Worshipers.

Persian, Live Persian, Love Persian and Die as a Proud Persian
Iran will rise again

Stay tuned for more Persian Heroines article Series.

The Real Face of Artemisia
Grand Admiral Artemisia I of Halicarnassus, Commander in Chief of the Imperial Persian Navy

Pure Persian Pride
A Lover of Iran,

Dr. X

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