Iran Politics Club      
               
Darius Inscription
     
Website For Thinking Iranians
 
Back to index   The Darius Inscription  

The Darius Inscription
Founding Documents by the Founding Fathers of The Persian Empire

The Darius Inscription
Darius I The Great


Darius Inscription are rock engravings on a cliff, about 100 meters above the ground level in Bistun. The Inscription is about an amazing journey through, Times and Life of Darius as written by himself. Inscription begins by these words:
Shahanshah Darius Says ......

Introduction

In the name of Iran,

Darius Inscription is basically a number of engravings which has carved on the rocks near Bistun area of the State of Kermanshah in Iran. The inscription is about Darius The Great. In this inscription, Darius talks about his times and life, battles, conquers, achievements, relations and Ahura-Mazda, the ancient Persian God. The document is almost impossible to read from the area beneath. After the carvings were completed, the ledge on below the inscription was removed so basically no one could tamper with them; therefore, it had made the monument to survive this far. The inscription has some damaged and broken areas, yet the fundamental message of Darius is very clear. Let's talk some specifics:

Darius Inscription
Darius The Great lived: 550 BC - 486 BC
Darius I the Great ruled: 522 BC - 486 BC
Date Inscription was written: 500 BC and onward
Inscription Type: Engravings on a cliff, about 100 meters above the ground level
Inscription Location: Bistun, Kermanshah, Iran
Ancient name of the location: Bagastana (Dwelling Ground of Gods)


The Darius Inscription, close view

For more elaboration on the geographical points and concepts of the Achaemenid Empire, please view below web pages:

Maps of Persian Achaemenid Empire (559 BC - 330 BC), Part One

Maps of Persian Achaemenid Empire (559 BC - 330 BC), Part Two


Top: Ahura Mazda
1st from left: Persian Spearman Guard
2nd from left: Persian Archer Guard
3rd from left: Darius doing the Persian Aryan Salute
On the right: Representatives of different nations under Persian Empire greeting Darius

The Engravings on the monument consists of four separate parts:

I. Ahura-Mazda, ancient God of Persia, oversees the Darius overlooking the ten different representatives of the various nations under the Persian Empire. Intaphrenes (Darius' Bow Carrier) and Gobriyas (Darius' lance carrier) are also present.

II. Under this engravings, lies a panel of cuneiform written in Ancient Spike Achaemenid Alphabet font, telling the story of Darius' Conquests, adventures and events which is as long as 515 lines of writings.

III. Next is the second panel of writing the same story in Akadian Language (a language spoken in Ancient Akad and Babylon), with a missing 5th column due to age.

IV. Next is a third panel of writing the same story in Elamite Language (The language of Elam Khashtara (State) and administrative lingo of the Achaemenid Empire) with 650 lines of writings, with a missing column.

The text of the document is in five parts.


A spiritual moment between Darius The Great and Ahura Mazda (as Faravahar) at Bistun

...... and Darius was a fair man, a just man, the protector of Aryans and all nations and races under the Empire. He was a great friend, supporter and benefactor to the good people of the land and a fierce enemy and eliminator to the untruthful people and enemies of the Persian Empire ......


Darius The Great doing the Persian Aryan Salute to Ahura Mazda

...... and Darius, returned the good with great appreciation and rewards, and the evil with great retaliations and punishments ...... and Darius restored and revived The Persian Empire and safe kept it from the enemies ...... Darius was a firm man and a just man ……


Darius The Great during Persian Aryan Salute

This document is one of the most valuable ancient Persian historical documents about the actual history of the Persian Empire. The original translation was done by L.W. King and R.C. Thompson and in their book: "The sculptures and inscription of Darius the Great on the rock of Behistun in Persia", published on 1907 at London, England, United Kingdom. Then the Dutch historian scholar, Jona Lendering done some elaborative changes to the document. Lastly, In addition to the rest, some revisions and additions has been made by me for better comprehension of the historical events and the geographical points. Please observe this valuable document. Below is the most accurate and detailed translation of the text.

Sincerely,

Dr. X

* * *

Darius Inscription
The Official Text


Darius I The Great on the Persian Imperial Throne

Part I

a) On Darius The Great's Empire

I. I am Darius, the great king, king of kings, the king of Persia, the king of countries, the son of Hystaspes, the grandson of Arsames, the Achaemenid.

II. King Darius says: My father is Hystaspes; the father of Hystaspes was Arsames; the father of Arsames was Ariaramnes; the father of Ariaramnes was Teispes; the father of Teispes was Achaemenes.

III. King Darius says: That is why we are called Achaemenids; from antiquity we have been noble; from antiquity has our dynasty been royal.

IV. King Darius says: Eight of my dynasty were kings before me; I am the ninth. Nine in succession we have been kings.

V. King Darius says: By the grace of Ahuramazda am I king; Ahuramazda has granted me the kingdom.

VI. King Darius says: These are the countries which are subject unto me, and by the grace of Ahuramazda I became king of them: Persia, Elam, Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, the countries by the Sea, Lydia, the Greeks, Media, Armenia, Cappadocia, Parthia, Drangiana, Aria, Kharasmia, Bactria, Sogdiana, Gandara, Scythia, Sattagydia, Arachosia and Maka; twenty-three lands in all.

VII. King Darius says: These are the countries which are subject to me; by the grace of Ahuramazda they became subject to me; they brought tribute unto me. Whatsoever commands have been laid on them by me, by night or by day, have been performed by them.


VIII. King Darius says: Within these lands, whosoever was a friend, him have I surely protected; whosoever was hostile, him have I utterly destroyed. By the grace of Ahuramazda these lands have conformed to my decrees; as it was commanded unto them by me, so was it done.

IX. King Darius says: Ahuramazda has granted unto me this empire. Ahuramazda brought me help, until I gained this empire; by the grace of Ahuramazda do I hold this empire.

b) On The Murder of Smerdis and Coup-de-tat of Gumata the Meq

X. King Darius says: The following is what was done by me after I became king. A son of Cyrus, named Cambysis, one of our dynasty, was king here before me. That Cambysis had a brother, Smerdis by name, of the same mother and the same father as Cambysis. Afterwards, Cambysis slew this Smerdis. When Cambysis slew Smerdis, it was not known unto the people that Smerdis was slain. Thereupon Cambysis went to Egypt. When Cambysis had departed into Egypt, the people became hostile, and the lie multiplied in the land, even in Persia and Media, and in the other provinces.

XI. King Darius says: Afterwards, there was a certain man, a Meq, Gumata by name, who raised a rebellion in Paishiyauvada, in a mountain called Arakadris. On the fourteenth day of the month Viyakhna [11 March 522] did he rebel. He lied to the people, saying: I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus, the brother of Cambysis.' Then were all the people in revolt, and from Cambysis they went over unto him, both Persia and Media, and the other provinces. He seized the kingdom; on the ninth day of the month Garmapada [1 July 522] he seized the kingdom. Afterwards, Cambysis died of natural causes.

XII. King Darius says: The kingdom of which Gumata, the Meq, dispossessed Cambysis, had always belonged to our dynasty. After that Gumata, the Meq, had dispossessed Cambysis of Persia and Media, and of the other provinces, he did according to his will. He became king.

c) Darius The Great punishes/kills Gumata and restores/revives the Persian Empire

XIII. King Darius says: There was no man, either Persian or Median or of our own dynasty, who took the kingdom from Gumata, the Meq. The people feared him exceedingly, for he slew many who had known the real Smerdis. For this reason did he slay them, 'that they may not know that I am not Smerdis, the son of Cyrus.' There was none who dared to act against Gumata, the Meq, until I came. Then I prayed to Ahuramazda; Ahuramazda brought me help. On the tenth day of the month Bagayadish [29 September 522] I, with a few men, slew that Gumata, the Meq, and the chief men who were his followers. At the stronghold called Sikayauvatis, in the district called Nisaia in Media, I slew him; I dispossessed him of the kingdom. By the grace of Ahuramazda I became king; Ahuramazda granted me the kingdom.

XIV. King Darius says: The kingdom that had been wrested from our line I brought back and I reestablished it on its foundation. The temples which Gumata, the Meq, had destroyed, I restored to the people, and the pasture lands, and the herds and the dwelling places, and the houses which Gumata, the Meq, had taken away. I settled the people in their place, the people of Persia, and Media, and the other provinces. I restored that which had been taken away, as is was in the days of old. This did I by the grace of Ahuramazda, I labored until I had established our dynasty in its place, as in the days of old; I labored, by the grace of Ahuramazda, so that Gumata, the Meq, did not dispossess our house.

XV. King Darius says: This was what I did after I became king.

d) Rebellions Era: Assina of Elam and Nidintu-Bel of Babylon

XVI. King Darius says: After I had slain Gumata, the Meq, a certain man named Assina, the son of Upadarma, raised a rebellion in Elam, and he spoke thus unto the people of Elam: 'I am king in Elam.' Thereupon the people of Elam became rebellious, and they went over unto that Assina: he became king in Elam. And a certain Babylonian named Nidintu-Bel, the son of Kin-Zer, raised a rebellion in Babylon: he lied to the people, saying: 'I am Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabonid.' Then did all the province of Babylonia go over to Nidintu-Bel, and Babylonia rose in rebellion. He seized on the kingdom of Babylonia [3 October 522].

XVII. King Darius says: Then I sent [an envoy?] to Elam. That Assina was brought unto me in fetters, and I killed him.

XVIII. King Darius says: Then I marched against that Nidintu-Bel, who called himself Nebuchadnezzar. The army of Nidintu-Bel held the Tigris; there it took its stand, and on account of the waters [the river] was unfordable. Thereupon I supported my army on [inflated] skins, others I made camel-borne, for the rest I brought horses. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda we crossed the Tigris. Then did I utterly overthrow that host of Nidintu-Bel. On the twenty-sixth day of the month Atriyadiya [13 December 522] we joined battle.

XIX. King Darius says: After that I marched against Babylon. But before I reached Babylon, that Nidintu-Bel, who called himself Nebuchadnezzar, came with a host and offered battle at a city called Zazana, on the Euphrates. Then we joined battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did I utterly overthrow the host of Nidintu-Bel. The enemy fled into the water; the water carried them away. On the second day of the month Anamaka [18 December 522] we joined battle.


Darius I The Great

Part II

a) Slaughter of the hostile Nidintu-Bel

XX. King Darius says: Then did Nidintu-Bel flee with a few horsemen into Babylon. Thereupon I marched to Babylon. By the grace of Ahuramazda I took Babylon, and captured Nidintu-Bel. Then I slew that Nidintu-Bel in Babylon.

XXI. King Darius says: While I was in Babylon, these provinces revolted from me: Persia, Elam, Media, Assyria, Egypt, Parthia, Margiana, Sattagydia, and Scythia.

b) The Revolt of Martiya of Elam

XXII. King Darius says: A certain man named Martiya, the son of Zinzakris, dwelt in a city in Persia called Kuganaka. This man revolted in Elam, and he said to the people: 'I am Ummanis, king in Elam.'

XXIII. King Darius says: At that time, I was friendly with Elam. Then there were Elamites afraid of me, and that Martiya, who was their leader, they seized and slew.

c) The Revolt of Phraortes of Media

XXIV. King Darius says: A certain Median named Phraortes revolted in Media, and he said to the people: 'I am Khshathrita, of the family of Cyaxares.' Then did the Medes who were in the palace revolt from me and go over to Phraortes. He became king in Media.

XXV. King Darius says: The Persian and Median army, which was with me, was small. Yet I sent forth an[other] army. A Persian named Hydarnes, my servant, I made their leader, and I said unto him: 'Go, smite that Median host which does not acknowledge me.' Then Hydarnes marched forth with the army. When he had come to Media, at a city in Media called Marus, he gave battle to the Medes. He who was chief among the Medes was not there at that time. Ahuramazda brought me help: by the grace of Ahuramazda my army utterly defeated that rebel host. On the twenty-seventh day of the month Anamaka [12 January 521] the battle was fought by them. Then did my army await me in a district in Media called Kampanda, until I came into Media.

d) The Revolt of Armenians

XXVI. King Darius says: An Armenian named Dadarsi , my servant, I sent into Armenia, and I said unto him: 'Go, smite that host which is in revolt and does not acknowledge me.' Then Dadarsi went forth. When he came into Armenia, the rebels assembled and advanced against Dadarsi to give him battle. At a place in Armenia called Zuzza they fought the battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did my army utterly overthrow that rebel host. On the eighth day of the month Thuravahara [20 May 521] the battle was fought by them.

XXVII. King Darius says: The rebels assembled for the second time, and they advanced against Dadarsi to give him battle. At a stronghold in Armenia called Tigra they joined battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did my army utterly overthrow that rebel host. On the eighteenth day of the month Thuravahara [30 May 521] the battle was fought by them.

XXVIII. King Darius says: The rebels assembled for the third time and advanced against Dâdarši to give him battle. At a stronghold in Armenia called Uyama they joined battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did my army utterly overthrow that rebel host. On the ninth day of the month Thaigarcish [20 June 521] the battle was fought by them. Then Dadarsi waited for me in Armenia, until I came into Armenia.

XXIX. King Darius says: A Persian named Vaumisa, my servant, I sent into Armenia, and I said unto him: 'Go, smite that host which is in revolt, and does not acknowledge me.' Then Vaumisa went forth. When he had come to Armenia, the rebels assembled and advanced against Vaumisa to give him battle. At a place in Assyria called Izala they joined battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did my army utterly overthrow that rebel host. On the fifteenth day of the month Anamaka [31 December 522] the battle was fought by them.

XXX. King Darius says: The rebels assembled a second time and advanced against Vaumisa to give him battle. At a place in Armenia called Autiyara they joined battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did my army utterly overthrow that rebel host. At the end of the month Thuravahara [11 June 521] the battle was fought by them. Then Vaumisa waited for me in Armenia, until I came into Armenia.

e) The end to the revolt of the Meds

XXXI. King Darius says: Then I went forth from Babylon and came into Media. When I had come to Media, that Phraortes, who called himself king in Media, came against me unto a city in Media called Kunduru to offer battle. Then we joined battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did my army utterly overthrow that rebel host. On the twenty-fifth day of the month Adukanisha we fought the battle [8 May 521].

XXXII. King Darius says: Thereupon that Phraortes fled thence with a few horseman to a district in Media called Rhagae. Then I sent an army in pursuit. Phraortes was taken and brought unto me. I cut off his nose, his ears, and his tongue, and I put out one eye, and he was kept in fetters at my palace entrance, and all the people beheld him. Then did I crucify him in Ecbatana; and the men who were his foremost followers, those at Ecbatana within the fortress, I flayed and hung out their hides, stuffed with straw.

XXXIII. King Darius says: A man named Tritantaechmes, a Sagartian, revolted from me, saying to his people: 'I am king in Sagartia, of the family of Cyaxares.' Then I sent forth a Persian and a Median army. A Median named Takhmaspada, my servant, I made their leader, and I said unto him: 'Go, smite that host which is in revolt, and does not acknowledge me.' Thereupon Takhmaspada went forth with the army, and he fought a battle with Tritantaechmes. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda my army utterly defeated that rebel host, and they seized Tritantaechmes and brought him unto me. Afterwards I cut off both his nose and ears, and put out one eye, he was kept bound at my palace entrance, all the people saw him. Afterwards I crucified him in Arbela.

XXXIV. King Darius says: This is what was done by me in Media.

f) The Revolt of Parthians

XXXV. King Darius says: The Parthians and Hyrcanians revolted from me, and they declared themselves on the side of Phraortes. My father Hystaspes was in Parthia; and the people forsook him; they became rebellious. Then Hystaspes marched forth with the troops which had remained faithful. At a city in Parthia called Vispauzatis he fought a battle with the Parthians. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda my army utterly defeated that rebel host. On the second day of the month Viyakhna [8 March 521] the battle was fought by them.


Darius, Shahanshah of Iran

Part III

a) Continuation of the Parthian Episode

XXXVI. King Darius says: Then did I send a Persian army unto Hystaspes from Rhagae. When that army reached Hystaspes, he marched forth with the host. At a city in Parthia called Patigrabana he gave battle to the rebels. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda Hystaspes utterly defeated that rebel host. On the first day of the month Garmapada [11 July 521] the battle was fought by them.

XXXVII. King Darius says: Then was the province mine. This is what done by me in Parthia.

b) The Revolt of Frada of Margiana

XXXVIII. King Darius says: The province called Margiana revolted against me. A certain Margian named Frada they made their leader. Then sent I against him a Persian named Dadarsi, my servant, who was satrap (Governor) of Bactria, and I said unto him: 'Go, smite that host which does not acknowledge me.' Then Dadarsi went forth with the army, and gave battle to the Margians. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda my army utterly overthrew that rebel host. Of the twenty-third day of the month Atriyadiya [28 December 521] was the battle fought by them.

XXXIX. King Darius says: Then was the province mine. This is what was done by me in Bactria.

c) The Revolt of Vahyazdata of Persia

XL. King Darius says: A certain man named Vahyazdata dwelt in a city called Tarava in a district in Persia called Vautiya. This man rebelled for the second time in Persia, and thus he spoke unto the people: 'I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus.' Then the Persian people who were in the palace fell away from allegiance. They revolted from me and went over to that Vahyazdata. He became king in Persia.

XLI. King Darius says: Then did I send out the Persian and the Median army which was with me. A Persian named Artavardiya, my servant, I made their leader. The rest of the Persian army came unto me in Media. Then went Artavardiya with the army unto Persia. When he came to Persia, at a city in Persia called Rakha, that Vahyazdata, who called himself Smerdis, advanced with the army against Artavardiya to give him battle. They then fought the battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda my host utterly overthrew the army of Vahyazdata. On the twelfth day of the month Thuravahara [24 May 521] was the battle fought by them.

XLII. King Darius says: Then that Vahyazdata fled thence with a few horsemen unto Pishiyauvada. From that place he went forth with an army a second time against Artavardiya to give him battle. At a mountain called Parga they fought the battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda my host utterly overthrew the army of Vahyazdata. On the fifth day of the month Garmapada [15 July 521] was the battle fought by them. And they seized that Vahyazdata, and the men who were his chief followers were also seized.

XLIII. King Darius says: Then did I crucify that Vahyazdata and the men who were his chief followers in a city in Persia called Uvadaicaya.

XLIV. King Darius says: This is what was done by me in Persia.

d) Battle of Arachosia

XLV. King Darius says: That Vahyazdata, who called himself Smerdis, sent men to Arachosia against a Persian named Vivana, my servant, the satrap of Arachosia. He appointed a certain man to be their leader, and thus he spoke to him, saying: 'Go smite Vivana and the host which acknowledges king Darius!' Then that army that Vahyazdata had sent marched against Vivana to give him battle. At a fortress called Kapisa-kanis they fought the battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda my army utterly overthrew that rebel host. On the thirteenth day of the month Anamaka [29 December 522] was the battle fought by them.

XLVI. King Darius says: The rebels assembled a second time and went out against Vivana to give him battle. At a place called Gandutava they fought a battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda my army utterly overthrew that rebel host. On the seventh day of the month Viyakhna [21 February 521] the battle was fought by them.

XLVII. King Darius says: The man who was commander of that army that Vahyazdata had sent forth against Vivana fled thence with a few horsemen. They went to a fortress in Arachosia called Arsada. Then Vivana with the army marched after them on foot. There he seized him, and he slew the men who were his chief followers.

XLVIII. King Darius says: Then was the province mine. This is what was done by me in Arachosia.

e) The Second Babylonian Revolt

XLIX. King Darius says: While I was in Persia and in Media, the Babylonians revolted from me a second time. A certain man named Arakha, an Armenian, son of Haldita, rebelled in Babylon. At a place called Dubala, he lied unto the people, saying: 'I am Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabonid.' Then did the Babylonian people revolt from me and they went over to that Arakha. He seized Babylon, he became king in Babylon.

L. King Darius says: Then did I send an army unto Babylon. A Persian named Intaphrenes, my servant, I appointed as their leader, and thus I spoke unto them: 'Go, smite that Babylonian host which does not acknowledge me.' Then Intaphrenes marched with the army unto Babylon. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda Intaphrenes overthrew the Babylonians and brought over the people unto me. On the twenty-second day of the month Markazanash [27 November] they seized that Arakha who called himself Nebuchadnezzar, and the men who were his chief followers. Then I made a decree, saying: 'Let that Arakha and the men who were his chief followers be crucified in Babylon!'


Portrait of a Darius The Great's Statue

Part IV

a) Review and Conclusion

LI. King Darius says: This is what was done by me in Babylon.

LII. King Darius says: This is what I have done. By the grace of Ahuramazda have I always acted. After I became king, I fought nineteen battles in a single year and by the grace of Ahuramazda I overthrew nine kings and I made them captive.

One was named Gumata, the Meq; he lied, saying 'I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus.' He made Persia to revolt.
Another was named Assina, the Elamite; he lied, saying: 'I am king the king of Elam.' He made Elam to revolt.
Another was named Nidintu-Bel, the Babylonian; he lied, saying: 'I am Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabonidus.' He made Babylon to revolt.
Another was named Martiya, the Persian; he lied, saying: 'I am Ummannis, the king of Elam.' He made Elam to revolt.
Another was Phraortes, the Mede; he lied, saying: 'I am Khshathrita, of the dynasty of Cyaxares.' He made Media to revolt.
Another was Tritantaechmes, the Sagartian; he lied, saying: 'I am king in Sagartia, of the dynasty of Cyaxares.' He made Sagartia to revolt.
Another was named Frada, of Margiana; he lied, saying: 'I am king of Margiana.' He made Margiana to revolt.
Another was Vahyazdata, a Persian; he lied, saying: 'I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus.' He made Persia to revolt.
Another was Arakha, an Armenian; he lied, saying: 'I am Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabonidus.' He made Babylon to revolt.

LIII. King Darius says: These nine king did I capture in these wars.

LIV. King Darius says: As to these provinces which revolted, lies made them revolt, so that they deceived the people. Then Ahuramazda delivered them into my hand; and I did unto them according to my will.

LV. King Darius says: You who shall be king hereafter, protect yourself vigorously from lies; punish the liars well, if thus you shall think, 'May my country be secure!'

b) The Affirmation of the truth of the records

LVI. King Darius says: This is what I have done, by the grace of Ahuramazda have I always acted. Whosoever shall read this inscription hereafter, let that which I have done be believed. You must not hold it to be lies.

LVII. King Darius says: I call Ahuramazda to witness that is true and not lies; all of it have I done in a single year.

LVIII. King Darius says: By the grace of Ahuramazda I did much more, which is not graven in this inscription. On this account it has not been inscribed lest he who shall read this inscription hereafter should then hold that which has been done by me to be excessive and not believe it and takes it to be lies.

c) The Affirmation that it is pious to make known the records

LIX. King Darius says: Those who were the former kings, as long as they lived, by them was not done thus as by the favor of Ahuramazda was done by me in one and the same year.

LX. King Darius says: Now let what has been done by me convince you. For the sake of the people, do not conceal it. If you do not conceal this edict but if you publish it to the world, then may Ahuramazda be your friend, may your family be numerous, and may you live long.

LXI. King Darius says: If you conceal this edict and do not publish it to the world, may Ahuramazda slay you and may your house cease.

LXII. King Darius says: This is what I have done; by the grace of Ahuramazda have I always acted. Ahuramazda brought me help, and the other gods, all that there are.

d) The importance of righteousness

LXIII. King Darius says: On this account Ahuramazda brought me help, and all the other gods, all that there are, because I was not wicked, nor was I a liar, nor was I a tyrant, neither I nor any of my family. I have ruled according to righteousness. Neither to the weak nor to the powerful did I do wrong. Whosoever helped my house, him I favored; he who was hostile, him I destroyed.

LXIV. King Darius says: You who may be king hereafter, whosoever shall be a liar or a rebel, or shall not be friendly, punish him!

e) The Blessings and Condemnations

LXV. King Darius says: You who shall hereafter see this tablet, which I have written, or these sculptures, do not destroy them, but preserve them so long as you live!

LXVI. King Darius says: If you shall behold this inscription or these sculptures, and shall not destroy them, but shall preserve them as long as your line endures, then may Ahuramazda be your friend, and may your family be numerous. Live long, and may Ahuramazda make fortunate whatsoever you do.

LXVII. King Darius says: If you shall behold this inscription or these sculptures, and shall destroy them and shall not preserve them so long as your line endures, may Ahuramazda slay you, may your family come to nought, and may Ahuramazda destroy whatever you do!

f) Darius The Great's Supporters

LXVIII. King Darius says: These are the men who were with me when I slew Gumata the Meq, who was called Smerdis; then these men helped me as my followers:
Intaphrenes, son of Vayaspara, a Persian; Otanes, son of Thukhra, a Persian; Gobriyas, son of Mardonius, a Persian; Hydarnes, son of Bagabigna, a Persian; Megabyzus, son of Datuvahya, a Persian; Ardumanis, son of Vakauka, a Persian.

LXIX. King Darius says: You who may be king hereafter, protect the family of these men.

LXX. King Darius says: By the grace of Ahuramazda this is the inscription which I have made. Besides, it was in Aryan script, and it was composed on clay tablets and on parchment. Besides, a sculptured figure of myself I made. Besides, I made my lineage. And it was inscribed and was read off before me. Afterwards this inscription I sent off everywhere among the provinces. The peopleunitedly worked upon it.


Darius The Great's Tomb at Naqsh-e Rostam. A glorious view from the ground. This is the tomb where Darius rests. Cyrus started the Persian Empire but Darius established the Persian Empire. Here rests the Great Organizer, the Great Builder, the Great Shahanshah of Iran, Darius The Great.

Part V

a) A new rebellion on Elam (Autumn 521 BC)

LXXI. King Darius says: The following is what I did in the second and third year of my rule. The province called Elam revolted from me. An Elamite named Atamaita they made their leader. Then I sent an army unto Elam. A Persian named Gobriyas, my servant, I made their leader. Then Gobriyas set forth with the army; he delivered battle against the Elamites. The Gobriyas destroyed many of the host and that Atamaita, their leader, he captured, and he brought him unto me, and I killed him. Then the province became mine.

LXXII. King Darius says: Those Elamites were faithless and Ahuramazda was not worshipped by them. I worshipped Ahuramazda; by the grace of Ahuramazda I did unto them according to my will.

LXXIII. King Darius says: Who so shall worship Ahuramazda, divine blessing will be upon him, both while living and when dead.

b) War against the Scythians (520/519 BC)

LXXIV. King Darius says: Afterwards with an army I went off to Scythia, after the Scythians who wear the pointed cap. These Scythians went from me. When I arrived at the river, I crossed beyond it then with all my army. Afterwards, I smote the Scythians exceedingly; [one of their leaders] I took captive; he was led bound to me, and I killed him. [Another] chief of them, by name Skunkha, they seized and led to me. Then I made another their chief, as was my desire. Then the province became mine.

LXXV. King Darius says: Those Scythians were faithless and Ahuramazda was not worshipped by them. I worshipped Ahuramazda; by the grace of Ahuramazda I did unto them according to my will.

LXXVI. King Darius says: Who so shall worship Ahuramazda, divine blessing will be upon him, both while living and when dead.

* * *


Darius The Great's Tomb at Naqsh-e Rostam
Darius The Great rests in his Tomb, upon the cliff and watches us. After 8000 Years of Iranian History Where are we now?
Darius will judge us!
Darius' Judgement shall be upon us!
Shahanshah Darius Says ......

Back to History Index

 
Support IPC
 
 
 
IPC operating since March 30, 2000
 
 
 
Duplication of contents are allowed, only by naming the source & link to IPC
All rights are protected & reserved by Iran Politics Club © 2000 IPC