White Revolution of Shah and People
Book in Persian
Introduction and Review: Ahreeman X
Author: Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Originally Written: 1966
Republished by IPC: March 4, 2012
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Book - White Revolution 1966
Judgment of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in History
How do we judge a man? Do we only judge him by his gravest mistakes? Do we only see his flaws? Do we only judge him by the entire negative that he has done? The answer is no. At least the answer of a “Scientific Historian” is no. As a Scientific Historian, I shall be a fair judge of characters and dump both the positive and the negative, the services and the damages, the progress and the regression all and all on the scale and see which is more.
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran
Shah was not a Thief
Right off the bat let me clarify this issue for once and for all. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi made many mistakes, caused many catastrophes and had many flaws but he was not a thief. Before many of the new readers (who are not familiar with my writings) jump in the conclusion and call me a monarchist, please think before opening your mouth and accusing me of being a monarchist. Read my past works:
Monarchy or Republic Discussion Thread
I am Mohammad Reza Pahlavi’s greatest critic and I am also a “Fair Historian”. I write and deal with the facts. I do not polish them, I do not exaggerate them and I surely do not kiss up to any fraction or tribe of the Iranian Politics simply because I have no need and I do not care to butter up to any fraction or best said “Faction” of this opposition. Majority of this opposition lives in LaLa Land. The Iranian Opposition is the most outdated, irrational, illogical, arrogant, disunited and stubborn opposition in today’s world and the funny thing is that they do not care to “Change” for the better! Take a look:
* Monarchists believe in an outdated 19th century philosophy of Monarchy which is still in power in a few European Countries by tradition (Constitutional Monarchy) and a few non European countries by force (Absolutist Monarchy). Either way Monarchy is a flawed, irrational and an outdated philosophy. Review:
Monarchy or Republic Discussion Thread
Why Monarchy is Over and We Must Start a New
How Monarchists and Republicans View the World
Why Reza Pahlavi Cannot Lead the Iranian Opposition?
People who still believe in Monarchy (Small Number of Iranians) as the solution to the Iranian Problem and as the future regime of Iran, are terribly suffering from delusions, unrealistic assessments, biased judgment, out of touch vision and residency of the land named LaLa Land!
* Marxists believe in an outdated 1980s failed ideology which has basically died all over the world starting with the Ex Marxist Regimes and present “Totalitarian Capitalist” regimes of Russia and China. In today’s world, only a hand full of backward and reactionary regimes are still believed in Marxism (North Korea, Cuba, Venezuela, Bolivia, Nicaragua, etc.) Marxists are basically Dead Worshipers and Idealists who betray their own philosophy of “Progress and Change” by sticking on to the “Old, Failed and Outdated Ideals”.
* Socialists believe in an old and outdated 1990s philosophy which has been failing all over the Europe and has put Europe in to bankruptcy and verge of collapse due to its nature which is the “Culture of Entitlement” and “Big Government” taking care of all.
* Social Democrats AKA Jebhe Meli believes in an 1950s Dead Ideology based on Mossadeq Worship as a hero with failed economic policies (Socialism) and illogical demands. Jebheis have betrayed their own democratic ideals because throughout the years they have denied every other person believing in a different ideology to even speak in their forums (Old Jebhe Forum, Sites and TVs). Jebheis have suppressed the opposing views with the censor hammers in hand and become the lap dogs of the Islamic Regime only to survive.
* Mojahedin AKA MKO AKA PMOI believe in two outdated, failed and irrational philosophies of Islam and Marxism. Mojahedin are the most illogical faction of this doomed opposition. They believe in a Double Whammy! Mojahedin are Marxist Islamists who believe in Marxism (died in 1980s) and Islam (ill since 7th century and dead since 1910s death of the last Islamic Empire of the Ottomans). Not that they believe in contradictory ideas of Islam and Marxism but how can they progress a nation when they believe in two dead ideologies?
Why are Iranians so philosophically backward?
Why don’t they look toward the future?
So do not assume that I am a monarchist because I am not. I am a “Scientific Futurist”, “Secular Federal Republican” and a “Solid Nationalist”.
The reason which you see me defending Mohammad Reza Pahlavi’s achievements and his good deeds progressing Iran is not because Iam a Monarchist but because I am a Realist.
Yes, I still call him Alahazrat
Because that is what we referred to him in the Courthouse and Cabinet back at the Imperial Iran.
Yes, Shah was not a Thief
Stating my criticism of him:
Reasons for the Birth of IRI
I must insist that Alahazrat was no thief. Some say he was the head of a dictatorial regime and the regime and its administration was corrupt; therefore, this makes him corrupt. I say, in that manner they have a point but then again we must mix the positive and the negative in to the pan and see what he really achieved.
It is true that the Imperial Iran like all dictatorial regimes was corrupt (considering IRI is 10 times more corrupt). It is true that there existed bribery, kick backs, unjust appointments of officials (not by merit) and corruption all over the board. People were getting promoted in the government sector due to their connections and not due to their merit. The regime was corrupt, the administration was corrupt and the whole system was corrupt. But then again you cannot blame all of this on Shah, yet you can blame all of this to 1400 years of Islamic Sub Culture in Iran which provided a culture of corruption.
The Iranian Disease
Yes it is true that even the Imperial Family was corrupt. Alahazrat’s siblings were involved in bribery, business monopoly, kick backs, illegal drug trade and organized crime. It is also true that Alahazrat turned the blind eye, looked away, ignored and slide the issues under the Persian Carpet, but then again what did you want him to do? Arrest his own family? Not many rulers are strong enough to do such!
Then again you may say Alahazrat lived a lavish life so where did he bring the money? Let me clarify this issue. In an “Absolutist Monarchial” System the Monarch is technically free to do as he pleases with the national treasury, budget and income. Technically he could give himself as big of a salary as he desired. He could slush a percentage of every business, industry and natural resources in the land. He could pile up money on top of the money pile. But for someone in charge of the whole government and nation you must admit that he did not blown money away and bankrupt the treasury (such as Fath Ali Shah). On the contrary, his lifestyle (in comparison to many other global monarchs) was somewhat modest. I am not saying that he lived a humble and simple life (like Reza Khan his father) but he did not also go overboard. Take a look at his palaces and compare them to the palaces around the world. His palaces were pretty simple, not?
At least if Shah took one dollar off of treasury for what he saw fit as spending, he also took another dollar off of treasury and spent it for the people and the nation, but IRI has been taking the two dollars, slushing them under the Aba (Robe) of the Mullahs and not spending a dime for the public!
They say Shah was a thief. I say if so, then why he gave away a huge amount of his own land to the farmers (Land Reforms) during the White Revolution, to kick start the revolution? You want to brand him as a corrupt because he was the head of the corruption, fine but also take a look at all his services and achievements. Until this day, I criticize Alahazrat and I call him a weak man, a coward man, a betraying friend and many more … but I never did and I will never in the future call him a thief. In nature, he was not a thief, a fraud and a criminal.
Underneath All the Titles
Alahazrat Homayoun, Bozorg Arteshdaran, Nure Ariyai, Pahlaviye Dovom, Shahe Shahan, Shahe Aryai, Pedare Tajdar, Shahanshah Aryamehr, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi underneath all the titles was only a simple nationalist.
For Alahazrat’s final thoughts read his final book written and published while he was alive:
Answer to History (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi)
In the past we talked about all his flaws, mistakes and negative. Now let’s talk about some of his services to Iran most importantly about the White Revolution of Shah and People.
White Revolution of Shah and People was a series of reforms which was crucial to implement in Iran of the 1960s. The White Revolution jump started on 1963.
Shah jump started the White Revolution as a bloodless revolution (rare in 20th century) to modernize Iran, limit the power of feudals (Large land owners), Small Bourgeoisies (Mullahs and Mid Size Land Owners) and Old Aristocracy. Shah wanted to give the Working Class (Labor, Farmers and Lower Classes) a voice and to empower them so he could gain their support to be used for his future progressive plans for Iran.
In 1963 Alahazrat had put the White Revolution for a public vote in a national referendum. The great majority of Iranians voted for it and a small minority basically old aristocracy, feudals, old money, mullahs, clerics, religious fanatics and reactionary forces voted against it.
Alahazrat’s plan was to industrialize and modernize Iran by all means possible. He wanted to empower the labors to own factory shares and the farmers to own land. Doing all these changes, he relied on creating a “Big Government” in charge of every aspect of the Iranians’ life. This massive bureaucracy and government hierarchy had become a grand corrupt force which also developed a “Culture of Entitlement” for the people and created a “Nanny State”. This is why until this day Iranians expect the government to take care of them.
As Alahazrat stated:
“Iranian People are like my children. They love their father. They are lost without me.”
This mentality, no matter how correct it may seem at the time, was in a broad vision wrong because it created a “Culture of Entitlement” and the “Big Government” to take care of everything. Once the people failed to sacrifice and work hard and once the government did not implement the White Revolution Principles properly to fundamentally create a long lasting change, then everything fallen apart.
White Revolution looked great on the paper but once it was in practice, many aspects of it collapsed and failed. The Big Government and the Corruption were foremost responsible for this failure.
On the bright side, the White Revolution in general was a progressive move which pushed Iran forward.
The White Revolution was called the White Revolution of Shah and People because it started by the Shah and then people voted on it. The White Revolution started on 1962 and it practically continued until 1978 and the end of the Imperial Regime. It was a continuous Revolution.
Principles of the White Revolution
White Revolution started with 6 main principles on 1962 turning to next 12 major principles (The Original Principles) and down the road a total of 19 principles. Have in mind that on 1963 the White Revolution was put in to public referendum. So we had:
6 Primary Principles
6 Secondary Principles
7 Additional Principles
Total of 19 Principles
White Revolution Principles were:
* 6 Primary Principles
1. Abolishment of Feudalism
Land Reforms were implemented in the manner that government bought Feudals’ lands at a so-called fair price (in reality very cheap) and sold them to peasants (farmers) at 30 % below market value with payable loans of 25 years with very low interest. This principle was very revolutionary for its time. This principle turned the peasants (measly slaves) to farmers and land owners overnight. Unfortunately the tools needed and the resources needed to flourish this project was not distributed well amongst the farmers, there were corruptions in administration and no supervision on the complete process, so the majority of farmers down the road sold these lands and rushed the big cities for work. Land Reforms was a great idea on the paper which fallen apart in the practice; however, this principle created many enemies for the Shah. Feudals, Old Aristocracy and Mullahs hurt by these reforms and lost their lands, become sworn enemies of the Shah and carried the grudge until 1978 when they caused his downfall. Land Reforms freed about 40 % of the Iranian population (back then) and turned them to land owners. Please note that Shah jump started this principle by giving away a great amount of his own lands to the farmers.
2. Nationalization of Jungles and Pasturelands
This principle nationalized and protected the forests and pasturelands. This principle caused the cultivation and development of these lands. Trees were planted, new forests were created, more pasturelands fertilized for cattle and green belts were created around the big cities and borders of the national highways.
3. Selling Government Owned Factories’ Stocks to the Private Sector
Government sold stocks of the manufacturing factories and other enterprises to public. This way the old aristocracy and feudals could also become factory owners owning shares and becoming a part of the industrialization platform.
4. Labors Profit Sharing of Private Industry
A share of profit was granted to labors and industrial workers in the private sector. About 20 % share of the profit were granted to the combine labors in their factories. Bonuses were given based on their productivity and cost reduction.
5. Election Reforms and Women’s Rights to Vote
National elections were reformed and women were given the rights to participate and vote in the elections. Mullahs and Islamic Clerics were heavily opposing this principle and despised Shah for it.
6. Education Corps
Creation of the Education Corps which both men and women were serving in them for their “Draft Period”. Women were allowed to serve in Education, Health and Agriculture Corps, also in some Military Personnel offices and units and other armed forces. These Education Corpsmen and women turned Iranians from an illiterate nation to a nation of literate rural population and educated urban population. If you had a High School Diploma, you could serve in Education Corps to educate your fellow Iranians. Education Corps built schools, taught in schools and brought literacy to children and adults in small villages, towns and cities of Iran. They were a blessing for the rural population.
* 6 Secondary Principles
7. Health Corps
Health Corpsmen and Corps-women were trained to serve their country by bringing health, vaccination and medical care to villages and small towns of rural Iran. They built clinics, hospitals and they freed the rural Iranians from infections, diseases and severe illnesses.
8. Agriculture Corps
These agriculture corpsmen and corps-women took on the task of the development and reconstruction of Iran’s agriculture, farming and livestock industry. They were educated with the latest agriculture techniques and methods so they could transfer the knowledge to the farmers and cattle owners. They provided knowledge, resources and tools to develop lands and raise production.
9. Houses of Equity and Judicial Soviets
Houses of Equity were built and 5 elected village elders were serving terms of 3 years as arbitrators in judicial soviets operating in these houses. The roles of these judicial soviets were to settle minor offenses and disputes in the villages.
10. Nationalization of Waters
Water resources become public. Many dams were built to maximize irrigation and fertile land development by less water usage. Inner Iranian Plateau has limited water resources and they had to be used wisely. As the result the fertile land mass was increased and agricultural production somewhat increased.
11. National Modernization
The urban and rural modernization and reconstruction of the nation went speedy. Agriculture Corps, other corps, labor force and other construction forces helped building new clinics, hospitals, schools, libraries, public baths, storages and administrative offices in various villages and small towns. Next they installed generators and water pumps to facilitate the flow of electricity and water in the areas. They stored machines and tools for agriculture in the storages and distributed them as loaners to the farmers.
12. Administrative and Educational Reforms
The Iranian administrative and educational system reformed for the better trying to fight corruption and upgrading the school curriculums to cope with the modern global challenges and technology.
* 7 Additional Principles
13. Stock Options for Labors and Public
100 % of the shares in Government owned industries and 49 % of the shares in the Private Sector industries became available to purchase primarily to the labors (of that industry) and secondarily to the public. Labors could gain stocks as a part of their salaries.
14. Price Stabilization
Campaign against “Unethical Business Practices” and “Merchandise Storage to Raise High Prices” (Ehtekar) was launched in 1975. This campaign took firm stands against the price manipulation, narrowing the supplies to create great demand, and unjust price gouging. The government heavily fined the retailers, wholesalers, merchants, factory owners and other businesses who participated in the price gouging. These price gougers were imposing outrageous prices on the public because no alternative retailer was available. Even though government created some government supermarkets and wholesale to Clients Markets, yet they were strictly for certain government employees (Military, Other Public Servants) and not general public; therefore, the public had no other option but to purchase goods from the price gouging retailers, wholesalers and manufacturers all manipulating the market. Government even went as far as taking serious steps imprisoning and revoking the licenses of the Iranian violators and imposing sanctions on Foreign and International Businesses. In many cases government confiscated stored merchandise in warehouses and sold them to public in a low fixed price.
15. Free Public Education
Free public education was provided from kindergarten all the way to universities. More public schools were created. Free meals were given to students from Kindergarten all the way to 14 years of age. As of result, a great number of students started attending the public schools, private schools, colleges, universities and sent abroad for higher education in universities.
16. Free Food for Needy Mothers and Babies
Needy Mothers and their newborns up to age 2 were given free food, nutrition and supplies.
17. National Insurance and Social Security
National Insurance up to 100 % of their salaries was offered to the government employees during their retirement ages. National Insurance was offered to government employees and social Security was introduced and the plan was to cover all Iranians. During the final years of the Imperial Iran, certain government employees would retire after 20 years of service and the rest after 30 years of service. After retirement they would receive 100 % of their wages as pensions. Compare this to United States where you have to work until 65 to get partial amount of your wages as retirement in the private sector.
18. Cost Monitoring for Renting and Buying Properties
As of 1977 as the continuation of the White Revolution principles and in the spirit of the White Revolution, agencies were created to monitor the cost for renting and purchasing properties. They made sure that the renting or purchasing price of the apartments, condominiums and houses remained reasonable and affordable for all.
19. Fighting Corruption
Measures have been introduced to fight corruption in the national level. The Imperial Inspection Commission was formed. People of proven integrity were assigned to work as administrators and inspectors to monitor both the government and private sector. Unfortunately by this time (Final years of Imperial Iran) the corruption was deep in the bone marrow of the regime and the whole system. The intentions were good and the inspectors had done some good but it was too little and too late.
As of the results, many reforms have been implemented but many were implemented half way and incomplete. They were implemented like Milk without cereal! For instance lands were given to farmers but not proper supplies, seeds, soils, fertilizers, equipments, tractors and other tools were provided for them to rent or to use to develop their lands and as the result, the farmers sold their lands and rushed the cities for low skill labor jobs which this in turn had caused mass population increases at the cities.
The White Revolution was effective in this manner that it somewhat modernized, industrialized and facilitated Iran to develop her roadways, railways, industries, public and private sector, land and factories. On the other hand economy did not become a fully productive economy based on internal production of all goods, yet instead many goods were just assembled in Iran rather than being produced from the scratch. Goods such as automobile and machinery were assembled in factories and not built, manufactured and produced from scratch.
The White Revolution was meant to jump start a massive and powerful economy by primarily using the oil money to develop and promote manufacturing, agriculture, industry and business. It meant to develop and flourish the Labors and Farmers’ lives and empower them to back Shah, Imperial Regime and to be a solid supporter of the Shah’s Plan to progress Iran and to challenge the old aristocracy, feudals and Mullahs; however, wrong implementations, bad administrations and sad policies along with corruption has made an elite group to gain from the oil money rather than the workers.
A new social class of elite was born and ruled Iran. The number of the skilled workers decreased to the point that we had to import not just skilled workers and technicians but even servants from the Philippines, East Asia and South East Asia. With all the land reforms, we ended up importing food from abroad!
So the rich got richer and the poor got poorer. The old feudals gave their place to the new land owners who bought farmers’ lands and ran them. The new land owners were the Corrupt Pahlavi Family, Courthouse Insiders and Local Big Farmers. Government also started owning the manufacturing and the business either directly or indirectly! Any business wanting to bloom in Iran had to pay bribes and had to create connections with the bureaucracy of corruption starting from the top Pahlavi Imperial Family, Regime’s Administration, New Aristocracy and down to the Local Officials. Corruption took over Iran and if you think it was bad then, all you have to do is to take a good look at today’s Iran. IRI is 10 times more corrupt than the Imperial Regime. At least Imperial Iran was secure and safe but IRI’s Iran is insecure and not safe. Gangs, Thugs, Criminals, Organized Crime, Band of Con Artists, Cut Throats, Frauds, and Murderers run the country starting from the Clerics and the Government all the way down to petty administrators and public criminals.
Who Opposed the White Revolution?
Mullahs and Feudals opposed the Imperial Regime and the White Revolution because both of these social classes were Small Bourgeoisies and land owners who lost land, slaves (peasants), money and power. For instance Khomeini himself was a land owner. Mullahs were not just opposing the White Revolution because they lost land and slave labor but also because the White Revolution educated the women and gave them the right to vote. It also educated the villagers. Mullahs and Feudals wanted their women bare feet and pregnant in the kitchen with no rights other than the right to become Siqeh (one of many temporary wives). Mullahs wanted their peasants ignorant and illiterate so they would follow them blindly. They wanted ignorant, illiterate and backward people to follow them and to be controlled by them.
Shah’s Greatest Mistake!
So it was natural that Feudals and Mullahs opposed the White Revolution. Unfortunately Shah as a religious Muslim (unlike his father Reza Khan who was a secular man) never found the courage to stand firm against the Mullahs, Mosque and Islam. Shah prosecuted the Marxists, Socialists, Democrats, Republicans, Nationalists and everyone else who opposed him except the Mullahs! On the contrary Shah allowed the Mullahs to flourish and to become powerful. It seemed like the Mullahs had “Get Out of Jail for Free Card” and the “Green Light” in the Imperial Iran! This would eventually bring Shah’s downfall at 1979.
Imperial Iran needed a hardcore secular leader to stand firm against the Islam and Muslim. Iran needed a leader like Reza Shah the Great. Unfortunately Mohammad Reza Pahlavi with all of his good intentions was a “Religious Superstitious Muslim” and a “Weak Man” to stand against the Mullahs and the Fanatic Muslims. He never prosecuted the Muslims and the Mullahs and he gave them a free hand to establish the Islamist Opposition and to later on create the Islamic Revolution. This is directly one of Shah’s gravest mistakes.
Shah’s 2nd gravest mistake was the establishment of the “Rastakhiz” Party as the sole political party of Iran and abolishment of all other political parties. This action gave a clear sign to the intellectuals that Iran as of then was moving extremely fast towards a Hardcore Dictatorship. Not that Shah was not implementing gradual democracy to step by step creating a democratic system, yet he went further away creating a One Party State controlling every aspect of people’s lives.
Alahazrat had good intentions and he was a good hearted nationalist who wanted to do much good for Iran and Iranians. To implement his White Revolution correctly and as he desired, he had to fight the corruption in a grand scale starting from his own family all the way down to petty administrators. To “Change” the System he had to “Destroy” the “Old System” and not to create a “New Corrupt System” to replace it. He had to build everything from scratch, cleanse Iran from corruption and establish a new practical system.
Alahazrat was not the man to do this task. In comparison to Reza Khan who stood firm against the Muslims and Mullahs, Alahazrat was a weak man.
Reza Shah the Great, the Real Story
Historical Relation between Monarchy and Shiite
White Revolution was a platform and a plan which if it was implemented properly, then Iran would have been functioning extremely well and with a great future prospect to succeed. Unfortunately neither the planner (Shah) nor the administrators (Imperial Regime) have implemented it properly; therefore, everything was implemented halfway and incomplete. White Revolution was one of those ideas which were really great, revolutionary and progressive on the paper but once implemented, it went upside down.
Even though the White Revolution was not implemented correctly, yet it did some good and it became a stepping stone for the future progress. The White Revolution had caused so much hatred of the Shah amongst the Mullahs and the Feudals which down the road, these groups along with Bazaar drafted and established the everyday average religious and ignorant masses of the streets as an army of Muslims to create an Islamic Revolution to bring down the complete system of the Imperial Iran.
Was the White Revolution Progressive?
Was the White Revolution implemented properly?
Not at all.
Was the White Revolution a major cause for the Down Fall of the Shah and the Imperial Regime?
If implemented properly, could the White Revolution have saved Iran?
Was Shah at Fault for this catastrophe?
Shah, the Hero or the Villain?
The same as his whole life, this action (White Revolution) like all his other actions could be translated in to two meanings! Shah was well intentioned and he had grand plans to drag Iran out of the dark ages and speed her on “Toward the Great Civilization”; however, unlike his father (Reza Shah the Great) he never had the means, the will and the guts to take on the great challenge.
This would put him in the gray area and damage his status as a hero and turn him to a villain. He was always on the shady area of life. On the bright side, Shah had done many goods for Iran and one of his greatest achievements was the White Revolution of Shah and People. Even not implemented correctly, yet what was done was good enough to be used as a stepping stone for the progress of Iran.
Overall and in general Shah was a progressive man with big plans for Iran. He was a good nationalist and wanted nothing but glory for Iran. Alahazrat meant well but he did not find the will to turn his dreams to reality and push Iran in “Toward the Great Civilization”.
May his spirit rest in peace; he has done his part to the best of his ability to serve Iran. Let us not always remember him by his worst and as the final Shah of Iran who handed Iran to Islam but also let us to be fair and to remember him by his good services such as the White Revolution.
After Alahazrat’s most important book:
Answer to History: The Final Version (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi)
This book will be the second of Alahazrat’s books published in IPC. In the future we shall publish the rest of his books.
In this book Alahazrat is vastly talking about his plans and his dreams for Iran. In this book Alahazrat talks about the White Revolution, the details of its nature, how it was supposed to work and if it did work or not. Shah elaborates about the White Revolution and its legacy for Iran. As Alahazrat used to state:
“’Independent National Policy’ of Iran is the role which she will play in the ‘Global Politics’.”
Purchase and read books of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi:
We offer you the Persian Version for free to read and to cherish. Please enjoy this wonderful book in Persian:
White Revolution of Shah and People (1966)
More Books by Mohammad Reza Pahlavi:
Answer to History: Final Version (1979)
Shah of Iran Comic Book: Recaptured Glory (1977)
Pure Persian Pride
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