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Back to index   222 Years of Struggle for Independence of Iran
Part Two
 

222 Years of Struggle for Independence of Iran
(651 AD - 873 AD)
Ahreeman X
February 5, 2007 = 2565 Shahanshahi

Part 2

Chapter 5 - Occupation Years
Chapter 6 - Iranian Female Freedom Fighters, Women's Freedom Movement
Chapter 7 - Iranian Male Freedom Fighters

Chapter 5 - Occupation Years

Occupation Years (651 AD - 873 AD)

Let's review a series of events during occupation years. Opponents of Ottoman (3rd caliph of Rashedin) murdered him at 656 AD. They were basically against his financial and administrative policies. At 656 AD, Ali (4th caliph of Rashedin and the first Shiite Imam), cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet Mohammed, seat of government in Kufah started his caliphate. Civil war between the party of Ali (Beginning of Shiite Movement) and his opponents from amongst the Quraysh Tribe, occurred. During 656 AD, Ali was victorious in the "Battle of the Camel" at Basra (North of Persian Gulf, a port on Arvand River). Ali defeated his political opponents Talha, Zubayr, and Ayisha. The once child bride of Mohammed the Prophet, wedded to him at age 6 (According to Mohammed, he did not have sex with her until age 9!) and daughter of Abu Bakr (1st caliph of Rashedin), now a young warrior woman fought bravely against Ali, but Ali was the ultimate symbol of savagery and violence, so Ayisha was no match!

Ali was the executioner of Mohammed, there was a time that he ordered an execution and beheading of over 600 Prisoners of War (POW) in one day (Battle of Khaybar). It is known that Ali himself, participated in beheading the POWs, until he got exhausted and the blade of his famous sword lost its sharpness! Ali was a kind of beast, whom his opponents were no match for him, even a brave female warrior Ayisha! The interesting point about Ayisha, was that she always had close friends among the Arab Generals, she was having adulterous affairs with them even when Mohammed was alive (And that was the reason for Mohammed to come up with the Verse of Hejab, to cover up Ayisha from the horny Arab Generals!). Ayisha was specifically having sexual affairs after Mohammed's death with so many of these Generals. Even though it was understood that no one shall sleep with Prophet's wives (all 21 of them) even after his death, yet Ayisha made it an exception! Ayisha was an independent and out of control type of a woman and that was how she gained alliances against Ali.

At 657 AD, Battle of Siffin between Ali and Mu'awiya occurred. 658 AD, was an interesting year. Adruh arbitrated between Ali and Mu'awiya, and refuses to pronounce Ali, the legitimate caliph. Syrian troops proclaimed Mu'awiya the caliph. As we see, majority of Arabs did not want Ali as the caliph, they were against his rule, many of them rebelled against him, even though according to Shiites, Mohammed appointed him as his heir and replacement. According to Shiites the seat of caliphate had to be continuos and by inheritance in Ali's family, which was in a way Mohammed's family! But other Muslims of Sunni, believed in the election in the caliphate and appointing the wisest as caliph. Protest in Ali's camp against arbitration decision and departure from Kufah occurred next. A group called Khavarej (Monafeqin) started to become a major political force, they rebelled against the caliph and the whole system of caliphate. Khavarej uprising was basically against the oppression and brutality of Ali, yet Shiite twisted things around and made Khavarej the evil ones and Ali the Saint! A party of Khavarej defeated by Ali at Nahrawan, but spread amongst Arab Bedouins and settled tribes all around the region. Iraq basically became the center of social tension.

At 661 AD, Khavarej murdered Ali, actually it was more like a revolutionary execution of a bloodthirsty man named Ali, yet Shiites again twisted the whole story and created myths like, Saint Ali was praying when the assassin, Ibn al Muljem a member of Khavarej attacked him and cracked his head wide open. Even with the cracked head, wide open, Ali forgiven his attacker. He lasted a few days even after that heavy attack, because of his strong physic, but Shiite again added a spice of metaphysical to it and many brought reasons that this was a sign of Righteousness on Ali's side! After a few days He finally died.

The fact of the matter was that Ibn al Muljem was a member of a revolutionary group which got fed up with the oppression of Ali and his government, and he did act up, took charge and actually done something about it! After the Murder of Ali by Khavarej, his son Hassan renounced claims to the caliphate, because he was a weak person with no backbone and he was afraid for his life, but again Shiite created stories of him being a holy hermit, wanted to just pray to Allah in isolation!

Later on Hussein the greatest Martyr of Shiite done an uprising against Mu'awiya's son Yazid and tried to overthrow the caliphate of Bani Ummayad. This act of treason eventually became a heroic act in Shiite Books. Hussein the murderer of thousands of Persians and an outlaw bandit, an opportunist promiscuous flirt (with 1000 wives and concubines) became the greatest Saint of Shiites and every year they have a special celebration for his death and his gang of bandit's death, in Iran and in two days of Ashura and Tassoua. During these ceremonies, Shiites self mutilate themselves in methods of banging chains on their back (Chain banging), banging daggers on their heads (Dagger banging), and banging their hands on their chest (Chest banging) to feel the pain that Hussein suffered to save Shiite! So Shiites started following Ali and his 11 heirs after him, as the 12 Holy Imam's of Shiite. Basically Persians created heroes out of these murderers. This was a method of escapism from oppression and to create imaginary Saints from their oppressors just to survive the oppression, Persian style!

A Look in to The Important Historical Timeline of Events

Let's take a look at a few important historical time lines:

632 AD, Yazdgird III accedes the Sassanid throne

635 AD, The first Arabo-Persian Battle, the battle of Hafir had occurred, Persians lost this battle.

635 AD, Later part of the year, The battle of Euphrates River was won by Persians. Arabs were chased all the way back to Arabia.

636 AD, Due to Arabo-Muslim Invasion, Persians are defeated at al-Qadesiyeh; Rome lost its Asian Colonies and was reduced to Byzantium.

638 AD, The Capital Ctesiphone and organization of Sassanid Empire falls by the Muslim armies. Zoroastrianism, eclipsed by Islam, never to recover again. Iranians were given the three famous choices: Jaziyah (the heavy yearly tax ransom), Quran, or sword; therefore, a large numbers of Zoroastrians created the fourth choice and left Iran for India where they are now, known as Parsi people of India or Parsis of India.

641 AD, Persians were defeated at Nahavand and later on at Rey.

643 AD, Azerbaijan and Tabarestan fell in to Arabo-Muslim hands.

644 AD, Pars, Kerman, Sistan, and Makran fell in to Arabo-Muslim hands.

646 AD, Arabo-Muslim conquest of Khorasan had started.

649 AD, Most of Persian Sassanid Empire was in control of Arabo-Muslim forces by this time.

650 AD, The complete fall of Khorasan and the Eastern Territories

650 AD, The fall of Persepolis, the summer capital of the Persian Empire.

651 AD, Yazdgird III is assassinated at Marv (present Turkmenistan); Sassanian Empire officially ends. Yazdgird III defeated and eliminated, Persian Empire has completely and officially collapsed, this marks the beginning of the Arabo-Muslim occupation of Iran which lasted 222 years (651 AD - 873 AD), until Yaqub Leis Saffarid ended it at 873 AD (The Independence Year of Iran) .

694 - 714 AD, Al Haj'aj ibn al-Yusef, governor of Iraq (Back then, a major state of Iran called Mesopotamia with the capital of Ctesiphone, also the capital of the Persian Empire), pacifies the province disturbed by sectarian uprisings and revolts.

695 AD, Arabo-Muslims advance in Troxiana [Troxiana or Transoxiana or Ma Vara ol Nahr (Arabic) which is a portion of Central Asia approximately covering the modern Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and south-west Kazakhstan. Troxiana is geographically the region between Amu Darya and Sir Darya Rivers, which are on both sides of Aral Sea.]

696 AD, Arabic became the official language of the Islamic Empire, it replaced Persian, which in the eastern regions have been serving as the official language of the administration. Also, Dinar and Derham replaced the old Sassanid coins.

709 AD, Bukhara and Samarqand, important Persian Cities (present Uzbekistan) fell in to the Arab forces' hands.

711 AD, Kheivah, an important Persian City (present Turkmenistan) fell in to the Arab forces' hands.

712 AD, Kharazm (in Transoxiana) falls to the Arab forces.

738 AD, State of Soqdiana (Soqd in Transoxiana) falls to the Arab armies.

747 AD, Abu Moslem (Abu Muslim) raised the black banner of the Black Shirts in Khorasan, signaling the start of the revolution.

749 AD, Abbasid forces under leadership of Abu Moslem gain control of all Persia, and occupy Kufah in Iraq.

749 AD- 754 AD, Caliphate of Abu ibn al-Abbas al-Saffah. The last Umayyad caliph Marwan II was defeated in the decisive battle on the Great Zab and fell in Egypt (751 AD). Massacre of the Umayyad family and its high officials. Absolute Abbasid control of the Islamic Empire.

755 AD, Al-Mansour has Abu Moslem murdered.

756 AD, Execution of the Iranian writer 'Abdullah ibn al-Muqaffa' (Ibn Khordad-beh), the translator of Persian literature (Mirror for Princes, historical and philosophical works) into Arabic.

775 AD - 785 AD, Caliphate of Al-Mahdi. The rule of Iranian Barmecide family of Wazirs (until 803 AD). Campaign against new Mazdakite and Manichean sects.

775 AD - 780 AD, Uprising of Al-Muqanna' (the Veiled One) in Khorasan.

776 AD, Al-Muqanna' (the Veiled One) conquers Khorasan.

780 AD, The Bukhara wars, Al-Muqanna' and his "White Shirts", which had started the struggle in 775 AD, had defeated.

803 AD, Harun Al-Rashid murders his Wazir, Ja'far the Barmecide (Al Barmak), and orders the destruction of this powerful Wazirial family.

809 AD - 813 AD, Caliphate of Al-Amin. After the death of Harun Al-Rashid the empire was divided between his two sons. Al-Ma'mun, who was supported by Khorasanian troops, defeated Al-Amin and reunited the empire (813 AD).

813 AD, The Khorasanian army under Tahir Ibn Al-Hussain besieged and conquered Baghdad for Al-Ma'mun. Murder of Al-Amin.

816 AD - 837 AD, Revolts of Babak (Mazdakite sects of the Khoramiya, dualists who believed in the transmigration of souls and reincarnation) against the landed nobility and Arabs in Azerbaijan, from 827 AD, also in Western Persia. In Marv, Al-Ma'mun designates the eighth Shi'ite Imam 'Ali Al-Reza (d. 818 AD) as his successor: "short-lived attempt at reconciliation with the 'Alids and Shiites."

817 AD, Ma'mun nominates Imam Ali Al-Riza as his heir, apparent to the Caliphate.

820 AD, Al-Ma'mun appoints a Persian, Tahir Ibn Al-Hussain governor of Khorasan and the East.

820 AD - 873 AD, Tahir Ibn Al-Hussain establishes a dynasty (Taherids) that retains effective control of the region until dismissed by the Saffarids.

823 AD, Tahir Ibn Al-Hussein of Taherids Death and Caliph Al-Ma'mun appoints Talha Ibn Al-Tahir in his place.

830 AD, Talha Ibn Al-Tahir died, Abdullah Ibn Al-Tahir of Taherids replaces him.

837 AD, The caliph, Al-Mu'tasim, sends his army to Azerbaijan under General Afshin to put down the twenty year rebellion of the Khoramiya (Khoramdinan) under Babak.

838 AD, Babak's Revolt was suppressed in Azerbaijan.

839 AD, Maziyar's Revolt in Tabarestan occurs.

841 AD, The General Afshin dies in prison, accused of apostasy to Zoroastrianism.

849 AD, Abdullah Ibn Al-Tahir of Taherids passes away.

860 AD, Ahmed established the Sammanid Rule in Transoxiana.

866 AD - 869 AD, Caliphate of Al-Mu'tazz. Overthrow and murder of Al-Mustain.

867 AD, Takeover of Sistan by Yaqub Leis Saffarid, next he defeated the Sammanid Ruler of Pashang and added Herat to his region of reign.

873 AD, After Yaqub Leis Saffarid (867 - 879) seizes control of Sistan, by this date (873 AD), he has ended the rule of Taherids in Khorasan, and then freed and reunited the majority of Iranian States from the hands of Arabs; therefore, this is the official "Independence Year of Iran". By the end of the ninth century he and his brother (Amr O Leis Saffarid) control, practically most of Iran except the Northwest.

876 AD, Unsuccessful attempt of Yaqub Leis Saffarid to take over Baghdad, the capital of Islamic Empire.

879 AD, Yaqub Leis Saffarid passed away.

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Chapter 6 - Iranian Female Freedom Fighters, Women's Freedom Movement

Iranian Female Freedom Fighters

The Start of The "Iranian Women's Freedom Movement"

Women played a very important role in the freedom movement of Iran. They struggled side by side of men. Women were the most oppressed fraction of Iranian society, simply because, after the establishment of Islamic Government and its fanatical backwarded Judicial laws of Shari'a and the imposing and enforcing of these Bedouin Nomadic Laws of the Desert onto the very sophisticated Persian Empire's culture, the women practically lost all their status in the Persian Society and became the second rate citizens of the country; furthermore, the property of men!

After the establishment of the Islamic Government, Iranians in general, first became another "Slave Race" for the Arabs and in later years, they became the "Second Rate Citizens" of the Islamic Empire. But women had even lesser value among the citizens of the Islamic Empire! Women in general are second rate human in Islamic Society. Their testimony in a court of law, counts as half, their inheritance from the will of their parents is half as the male, they cannot occupy certain positions like the judicial, military, high clerical, and high political executive offices, and many more unfair Islamic rules and regulations, isolates them from the rest of the society.

Now, women is general, are treated as unequal to the men, all around the Islamic World; however, imagine that you are a woman, and also a woman from a defeated Non-Muslim Nation, like the Persian Empire! This is like a Double Whammy! After the Arabo-Muslim Invasion-Occupation of Iran, Non Arab women were basically having the value and social status, similar as the "Concubines" and "Female Slaves". They were traded as property, same as cattle or land property. Tens of thousands of beautiful Persian Women were captured, shackled and chained, and then shipped on camel backs to Arabia and Caliph's courthouse. Once these women arrived, they were distributed among the Arab officials, generals and tribal chiefs. The prime and the most beautiful women of Iran were forced to join the harems of these Desert Animals. The women of Sassanid Imperial family were forced to wed the Inferior Beasts of the Desert.

If you were a Persian woman during those days, what would you do? Would you:

a) Gladly choose the harem of a stinking smelly, sweaty, half beast, barbarian Desert Rat Arabo-Muslim with a mouth smelled like rotten eggs?

b) Pick up arms and rather to fight to death, than to sleep with these animals?

When many forced into the first choice, yet many chose the second choice. Persian Women's Freedom Movement did not start from the middle of Zand or Qajar Dynasty's era! In reality,

"Persian Women's Freedom Movement", started from the first day of Arabo-Muslim Occupation of Iran 651 AD.

Let's glance through a selected leaders of this freedom movement, yet by no means this list covers all the brave female freedom fighters of Iran who lost their lives for the Mother Persia. From 651 AD and on going, Iran witnessed a rise of a different breed of warriors! The famous legendary female resistance warriors of Iran.

Female Freedom Fighters of Iran

Now, I shall state these female heroines' names, the meaning of their names in parenthesis, and a bit of their history:

Apranik
(Daughter of Elder)

The Female Symbol of Persian Resistance.
The Sassanid Commander, daughter of Piran, General of Yazdgird the Third. She fought gracefully, resistance fighting against Arab Oppressors during Arab Invasion, killed many of them and done many damages to the Arab Army.


L. Apranik's legendary white horse
C. Commander Apranik
R. Apranik's Adjutant

Apranik, was a Sassanid High Ranking Commander of Army. Like her father, she decided to become a professional soldier. Piran was a famous Persian General, and when Arabs invaded our land Piran was like a solid rock standing on their way. Apranik was more like a TomBoy! Since childhood, she loved military. She was Father's Right hand, and the amazing Nationalistic Feelings that she developed during her teenage years, forced her to become a military person. Apranik, joined the mighty Persian Army. Due to her worthiness, and not her father's influence. She climbed the steps of progress, one by one and after her complete education, she managed to rise from a petty officer, to a full commander of the Persian Army. When Arabs invaded Iran, Apranik took the command of a major battalion of his father's Army. Her tactics were hit and run battles with the Arab Bandits. As she got wiser, she found out that "Organized Warfare" with the Desert Rats who invade and hide, and then reinforce and invade again, does not work; therefore, she started a campaign of a treacherous battle against the Arabo-Muslim Invader-Occupiers. For years to come, Apranik, first fought an official war with the invaders, and later on when all hopes were destroyed, Apranik, started her Hit and Run Rebellious Campaign against the Desert Beasts. Apranik's Commando Warfare were legendary.


Apranik takes a moment of peace in the garden

Apranik and her Ranks, never surrendered, they have fought an on going battle to the bitter ends. Apranik became a symbol for the "Persian Resistance". Her braveries were so known, that she became the talk of the "Persian Resistance" and Persians created an expression for her! Every time a female soldier would have shown bravery among the resistance, other soldiers would smile and call her:

"Who do you think, you are? Commander Apranik?"

Apranik, practically became a symbol of resistance, and one of the worthiest commanders of Persian Army, who did not even surrender her forces after the occupation. She kept on launching a Partisan Hit and Run Rebellious Battle against the Arabs, way after the Sassanid Main Army Collapsed. Separated Circles of Sassanid Immortals (Elite Persian Guards), Cavalry, Army and Navy kept on fighting the Arabo-Muslim for years after the occupation. Apranik's band of Resistance fighters, fought hard, even after the loss of Persian Empire and Sassanid Dynasty. Arteshbod General Rostam Farokhzad, Yazdgird III, and her loving father General Piran were all expired but Apranik would simply not surrender or die out! Apranik acted as a battery charger for resistances spirit. Apranik's famous words and policy were:

"No retreat, no surrender"
(Commander Apranik)

Apranik chose to fight with her soldiers, until the bitter end, she chose to be cut to pieces by the Arab Sword, than to become a whore in the Arab Bed ........ and eventually Apranik became a legend. The Legend of Apranik, is still living in every female freedom fighter of Iran's heart. May her great spirit rest in peace. Apranik Daughter of Piran or as they used to call her Apranik of Piran's name will always be in the "Persian Resistance Hall of Fame". This is what the Persian women were made of!

Negan
(Good Destiny)

A freedom Fighter Leader, Guerrilla Commander during Sassanids, one of the major resistance fighters of Iran against Arab Invasion. Negan was not a military woman, nor a woman of nobility, yet she had a heart full of love of Iran. Her heart was pounding for the Mother Land. she had decided to pick up the sword and lead a band of resistance fighters against the Arabo-Muslim Animals who invaded The Civilized World and Mother Persia.

Banu
(Lady)

The famous female commando and revolutionary Banu, was a lioness. The central area of activity for Banu was State of Atropatgan or Azar-Abadegan (Today's Azerbaijan). Wife of Babak Khoramdin (Persian Legendary Freedom Fighter), she fought side by side to her husband Babak, during the occupation of Iran by Arab Hounds. She fought to the end. Now this woman was amazing! She was the better half of Babak Khoramdin. Banu was a temperamental Azeri Woman, with determination of steel from Azerbaijan or as it used to be called State of "Atropatgan". This amazing woman was a skilled archer, she grew up with her bow and arrows! She was Babak's partner in life and death, in war and peace. Banu was a symbol of Pure Persian Pride, Azeri Style! Banu and Babak fought the Arab Occupation for years, they lived and they died as Proud Persians.

Buran
(Pretty)

The Persian Prime Minister of Islamic Empire during Caliph Ma'mun of Abassids, during the occupation of Iran by Arab oppressors, daughter of Hassan Sahl.

Buran's time was later on during the occupation years. When Arabo-Muslim ruled every aspect of life in Persia, and when fighting by the sword and arch was not possible, Buran the wise daughter of Hassan Sahl launched a different type of a battle! She grew up to become a politician. Furthermore, she became the first female Wazir (Prime Minister); morely, the first Non Arab Wazir of the whole Islamic Empire! Just imagine the sound of that! A female Persian Wazir in the Arabo-Muslim court of Ma'mun, The Caliph of Abbasid! A Persian woman with that kind of power, could do many goods for Iran, and indeed she did. She actually fought the Arab Hierarchy from within. She was in the inside, way inside; therefore, she started her famous "Changes From The Within" reforms. Buran, Daughter of Sahl, fought the political war and forced many reforms for embetterment of Persians' Lives to the Abbasid's Government. During her years in office, she fought for the rights of Minorities (Non Arabs) in the Islamic Empire. A very interesting woman indeed. She made life much easier for Persians and other Non-Arabs under the reign of the Islamic Empire.

Azad
(Free)

The central area of activity for Azad was State of Daylam (today's Gilan).
A Daylami (Gilani) Guerrilla Commander, a partisan leader from Caspian Sea shores in north Iran, who fought for many years with her band of freedom fighters against the Arab Oppressors, during the Occupation era.

Azad was from Daylam (Today's State of Gilan). Daylam had a history of rebellion. Until this day, State of Gilan has been the mother and the home for many of the Revolutionaries and freedom fighters of Iran. Azad-e Daylami (Azad of Daylam) was one of the very first brave daughters of this region. She became one of the most famous freedom fighters of the region and a symbol of Persian Resistance against the Forced Religion and Government of Islam.

The Continuos Battle of Women's Movement

Women actively took part in many of the future movements for freedom of Iran and repossession of their human rights from Arabo-Muslim. Women were the most oppressed segment of Iranian society by the Arabo-Muslim and they were a significant part of the many Revolutionary Movements of Iran including the Sanbad movement in Neyshabour of Khorasan (Northeast of Iran), Ostadsis' movement in Sistan (Southeast of Iran), Moqanna' and Sarbedaran movement in Khorasan (Northeast of Iran), and Babak Khoramdin's movement in Azerbaijan (Northwest of Iran). To this date, the Iranian Women's Movement battles continues on …

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Chapter 7 - Iranian Male Freedom Fighters

Iranian Male Freedom Fighters

Now that we have an idea about our Sister Freedom Fighters, we can start about our Brother Freedom Fighters. To talk about the different movements of Iranian Resistance and their struggle for Independence of Iran, we must study the leaders of these movements. These leaders were basically the theoreticians of these movements, and to start studying these leaders, we shall start from the very beginning and from the very first leader of the resistance during the occupation years.

Abu Moslem [Abu Muslim (Arabic) or Behzadan (Persian)] and The "Black Shirts"

Abdol Rahman Ibn Muslim, famous by the name of "Abu Moslem", originally named Persian with the name of "Behzadan", was basically the first male freedom fighter of Iran (except Yazdgird) after the collapse of Sassanid Dynasty and the end of Yazdgird III Resistance. Abu Moslem was born in the city of Balkh in the state of Khorasan. He still after more than 1200 hundred years remains to be a legendary and highly respected revolutionary figure.


Abu Moslem Khorasani, leader of the Black Shirts
Wearing the Black Shirt and rising the Black Flag

Abu Moslem's official Flag was "The Black Flag" and his followers wore "Black Shirts"; therefore, they been called "The Black Shirts". The center for the Black Shirts Freedom Movement was the state of Khorasan. This state is the largest state of Iran at the present, yet have in mind that during those days, Khorasan was many times larger than its today's boundaries.

There are different accounts of his origin and background by different sources but the definite truth is that he was an ethnic Tajik of the state of Khorasan, which was dominated by Tajiks at the time. It was during his imprisonment for anti Umayyads activities that he met the Abbasid imam who was also briefly incarcerated in 741. The Abbasid imam were set out to overthrow the Umayyad dynasty so taking advantage of the situation Abu Moslem sided with Abbasids and led to numerous revolts in Khorasan that eventually led to the demise of Umayyad Dynasty.

Abu Moslem was an energetic Parthian and capable leader who overcome the initial resentment caused among Arabs by his non-Arab origin. He very well took advantage of deep social division and anti Arab, and freedom seeking sentiments in Khorasan. He recruited from various discontented and dispossessed social groups and created a coalition of rebellious Arabs and Khorasanians.

On June 15, 747, Abu Muslim raised the Famous Black Banner of revolution and the revolt quickly spread throughout Khorasan and to other provinces. The revolt eventually led to the overthrow of Umayyad caliph and the last Umayyad caliph, Marwan II was defeated and killed in 750. Abu Moslem was the leading factor in defeat of Umayyads and rise of Abbasids. As Al-Saffah became the first Abbasid caliph in 749, Abu Moslem was given the governorship of Khorasan in reward for his services. The Abbasids still depended on him on all affairs of the state specially the military and political affairs.

The Abbasids were basically enthroned and to a great extend influenced by Abu Moslem as he was a leading politician, powerful military leader and a very popular figure in many provinces especially among non-Arabs. As Abu Moslem's power and popularity grew, the Abbasids became more and more suspicious of him especially that he was inclined to separate Khorasan from the rest of Abbasid states. Al-Mansour the second Abbasids Caliph was in fear of Abu Moslem's ever increasing popularity. After having Abu Moslem quell an uprising by the uncle of Al Mansour, stripped away the governorship of Khorasan from him.

On 755 AD, Al-Mansour had Abu Moslem murdered.

When Abu Moslem arrived at his invitation to his court, Al Mansour started his plot. Al Mansour asked for Abu Moslem's sword, and he pretended that he wants to observe the famous sword which has crumbled a Dynasty into nothingness. After he got Abu Moslem's sword away from him, then he started down talking to him. He started criticizing Abu Moslem about how he rode ahead of Caliph on the way to Mecca, about how he always has written his name above Caliph's name on his letterheads, about how he has ordered the execution of Salman ibn al Kasir, a friend of Abbasids, as a common criminal, about how his boldness was way out of control to even ask for the hand of Al Mansour's Ant! In return, Abu Moslem, stated with a soft voice that it is best for the Caliph to keep him as a valuable pawn against Caliph's enemies, yet Al Mansour responded that Caliph has no enemy except of Abu Moslem! At this point, as the prior plan, Arab Guards rushed Abu Moslem who was stripped of his sword, and they violently slaughtered him. Even though Abu Moslem was fighting with his bare hands, yet this was no match with a numerous sharp swords of the Arab Guards. After his unfair elimination, Caliph ordered the guards to wrap his bloody body and roll it inside the carpet that was under his feet! In a way this was symbolic. Caliph wanted to show that Abu Moslem's value is as good as the dirt under his feet! So Al Mansour treacherously put him to death and in this way eliminated a potential rival for the throne and the possibility of losing the province of Khorasan.

The unavenged and cowardly murder of Abu Muslim, a legendary hero among Khorasanis and Tajiks, inspired many later uprising against Abbasids.

Abu Moslem was a Nationalist who saw the opportunity in the unstable Arab Caliphate situation, and he wanted to use this political unstable situation, to serve Iran and Khorasan. along the way, he practically changed and replaced an Arab Dynasty with another one, also he done a lot of good for Iranians. He lowered the rate of oppression against the Persians and he clearly showed that Persians are a determining factor in the life of the Caliphate. Many claim that there was time for him to totally rebel against the Arab Caliphate and first free Khorasan and then Iran, yet he failed to do so and he served the Caliph as his servant, so it served him good to die by the hands of Caliph! This statement, is very biased! First of all, Abu Moslem gave Khorasan an autonomy, and as much freedom as he could to Iran. Secondly, at the time being, it was logical to use politics to play games with Arab Dynasties and create the basic atmosphere of rebellion for the future massive revolts. This was only the first step and Abu Moslem was only the first major freedom fighter after Yazdgird III. He started something, a base to eventually build a column on top of it. Some even go as far as call him a traitor! Not that he was not a traitor, yet he was a wise politician and a Nationalist.

Sanbad (Piruz)

After 755 AD, when Al-Mansour had Abu Moslem murdered, a powerful Persian General (Sepahbod) of Abu Moslem's Army, named Sepahbod Piruz (Arabs called him Firuz or Sanbad) [Arabs do not have the four Persian letters of Alphabet: "P, Zh, G, CH" and basically, they cannot pronounce them], raised a revolt in the memory and revenge of Abu Moslem (Behzadan). Sanbad (Piruz), was of the city of "Neyshabour" in North Khorasan. He started the rebellion from Neyshabour, then it expanded to the rest of Khorasan, Tabarestan (Mazandaran) and North Iran. Sanbad was of the Zoroastrian Faith and he openly disputed the fundamentals of Islam. He refused the barbaric Arab religion and denied the authority of Caliphate as the representation of God (Allah) on the Planet Earth. The rebellion fired up and eventually Mansour The second Abbasid Caliph have sent a powerful army to end Sanbad's rebellion. Finally Sanbad was murdered treacherously and Sanbad's Rebellion ended.

Ostadsis

Son of Sistan (South East Province of Iran), Ostadsis-e Sistani was a freeman who risen against the injustice and oppression of Mansour The second Abbasid Caliph. The central region of his revolt was Sistan, yet later on it has expanded to Khorasan at North East. Eventually Mansour arrested him and his sons; later on they were all put to death.

The Barmecide Family of Wazirs (Ministers)

By the 8th century, the Iranian Barmecide Family was practically running the Islamic Empire of the Abbasids. Barmecide Family was a Nobel Persian Family of Prime Ministers, Ministers and Politicians who were in office during the Abbasid Era. The head of family was "Khaled Barmecide". Khaled was a commander in Abu Moslem's Army. The starter of the tradition was "Yahata Barmecide", son of Khaled Bamecide and the starter of the Barmecide Wazir Tradition. Yahya and his four sons, Ja'far, Fazl, Musa, and Mohammed were wazirs and ministers of Abbasid Dynasty from Caliph Mansour to Caliph Harun Al Rashid's Era. Harun Al Rashid (786-809), Probably the most capable of the Abbasid caliphs, he militarily brought back unity to the Muslim Empire by suppressing the Barmecide family which had been meddling in caliphate politics; by defeating the Byzantines, who had been retaking territory from the Muslims; and by suppressing a local independence movement in Muslim Tunisia (center of Ex-Carthaginian Empire). His court provided the setting for many of the stories of the One Thousand and One Nights saga.

Without the permission of Harun Al Rashid, Ja'far Barmecide, The Grand Wazir (The Prime Minister), had married Abbase (sister of Harun). They married and ended up having two children. This marriage which was not by the blessing of Harun, also the massive power of Barmecide Family in Islamic Empire, worried Harun. Barmecide Family practically changed the face and internal organization of the Islamic Empire, from a Nomadic Facade to a Civilized Facade. They helped building a powerful Islamic Empire, yet in secret they expanded the power of Persians inside the Islamic Empire's Hierarchy. They positioned themselves in the center of power and they appointed many Persians to the sensitive positions of the Empire. Barmecide Family were talented politicians and they well organized the executive and Military branches of the Islamic Empire, they organized the economy and gave a social order to the empire.

By 803 AD, Harun Al Rashid, had ended a long and well planed destruction of Barmecide powerful wazirial family. Harun Al Rashid had ended the power of the Barmecide family in Baghdad (The Capital) and the Islamic Empire.

This is how he operated, eventually Barmecides became a threat in the eyes of Abbasid Caliphate and specifically Harun! So by a well plan, first, Harun jailed Yahya The Father of Barmecide Family and murdered him in the prison. Next, Harun used the unblessed Marriage Episode of Ja'far and Abbase, and killed Ja'far Barmecide. Next he arrested Ja'far's brothers who were all, Political or Military Leaders of The Empire and they occupied the seats of different Ministries in The Empire. Harun, jailed Fazl, Musa and Mohammed Barmecide and one by one murdered them in jail. Eventually Harun al Rashid eliminated the whole Barmecide Family and with that their powerful and deep influence in the Arab Abbasid Caliphate. This was the last of Barmecide Dominance. Arabs were always in mistrust of Persians! Next page

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