of Struggle for Independence of Iran
(651 AD - 873 AD)
February 5, 2007 = 2565 Shahanshahi
Chapter 5 - Occupation
6 - Iranian Female Freedom Fighters, Women's Freedom Movement
- Iranian Male Freedom Fighters
5 - Occupation Years
Years (651 AD - 873 AD)
a series of events during occupation years. Opponents of Ottoman
(3rd caliph of Rashedin) murdered him at 656 AD. They were basically
against his financial and administrative policies. At 656 AD,
Ali (4th caliph of Rashedin and the first Shiite Imam), cousin
and son-in-law of the Prophet Mohammed, seat of government in
Kufah started his caliphate. Civil war between the party of Ali
(Beginning of Shiite Movement) and his opponents from amongst
the Quraysh Tribe, occurred. During 656 AD, Ali was victorious
in the "Battle of the Camel" at Basra (North of Persian
Gulf, a port on Arvand River). Ali defeated his political opponents
Talha, Zubayr, and Ayisha. The once child bride of Mohammed
the Prophet, wedded to him at age 6 (According to Mohammed, he
did not have sex with her until age 9!) and daughter of Abu Bakr
(1st caliph of Rashedin), now a young warrior woman fought bravely
against Ali, but Ali was the ultimate symbol of savagery and violence,
so Ayisha was no match!
Ali was the
executioner of Mohammed, there was a time that he ordered an execution
and beheading of over 600 Prisoners of War (POW) in one day (Battle
of Khaybar). It is known that Ali himself, participated in beheading
the POWs, until he got exhausted and the blade of his famous sword
lost its sharpness! Ali was a kind of beast, whom his opponents
were no match for him, even a brave female warrior Ayisha! The
interesting point about Ayisha, was that she always had close
friends among the Arab Generals, she was having adulterous affairs
with them even when Mohammed was alive (And that was the reason
for Mohammed to come up with the Verse of Hejab, to cover up Ayisha
from the horny Arab Generals!). Ayisha was specifically having
sexual affairs after Mohammed's death with so many of these Generals.
Even though it was understood that no one shall sleep with Prophet's
wives (all 21 of them) even after his death, yet Ayisha made it
an exception! Ayisha was an independent and out of control type
of a woman and that was how she gained alliances against Ali.
At 657 AD,
Battle of Siffin between Ali and Mu'awiya occurred. 658 AD, was
an interesting year. Adruh arbitrated between Ali and Mu'awiya,
and refuses to pronounce Ali, the legitimate caliph. Syrian troops
proclaimed Mu'awiya the caliph. As we see, majority of Arabs did
not want Ali as the caliph, they were against his rule, many of
them rebelled against him, even though according to Shiites, Mohammed
appointed him as his heir and replacement. According to Shiites
the seat of caliphate had to be continuos and by inheritance in
Ali's family, which was in a way Mohammed's family! But other
Muslims of Sunni, believed in the election in the caliphate and
appointing the wisest as caliph. Protest in Ali's camp against
arbitration decision and departure from Kufah occurred next. A
group called Khavarej (Monafeqin) started to become a major
political force, they rebelled against the caliph and the whole
system of caliphate. Khavarej uprising was basically against the
oppression and brutality of Ali, yet Shiite twisted things around
and made Khavarej the evil ones and Ali the Saint! A party of
Khavarej defeated by Ali at Nahrawan, but spread amongst Arab
Bedouins and settled tribes all around the region. Iraq basically
became the center of social tension.
At 661 AD,
Khavarej murdered Ali, actually it was more like a revolutionary
execution of a bloodthirsty man named Ali, yet Shiites again twisted
the whole story and created myths like, Saint Ali was praying
when the assassin, Ibn al Muljem a member of Khavarej attacked
him and cracked his head wide open. Even with the cracked head,
wide open, Ali forgiven his attacker. He lasted a few days even
after that heavy attack, because of his strong physic, but Shiite
again added a spice of metaphysical to it and many brought reasons
that this was a sign of Righteousness on Ali's side! After a few
days He finally died.
The fact of
the matter was that Ibn al Muljem was a member of a revolutionary
group which got fed up with the oppression of Ali and his government,
and he did act up, took charge and actually done something about
it! After the Murder of Ali by Khavarej, his son Hassan renounced
claims to the caliphate, because he was a weak person with no
backbone and he was afraid for his life, but again Shiite created
stories of him being a holy hermit, wanted to just pray to Allah
Later on Hussein
the greatest Martyr of Shiite done an uprising against Mu'awiya's
son Yazid and tried to overthrow the caliphate of Bani Ummayad.
This act of treason eventually became a heroic act in Shiite Books.
Hussein the murderer of thousands of Persians and an outlaw bandit,
an opportunist promiscuous flirt (with 1000 wives and concubines)
became the greatest Saint of Shiites and every year they have
a special celebration for his death and his gang of bandit's death,
in Iran and in two days of Ashura and Tassoua. During these ceremonies,
Shiites self mutilate themselves in methods of banging chains
on their back (Chain banging), banging daggers on their heads
(Dagger banging), and banging their hands on their chest (Chest
banging) to feel the pain that Hussein suffered to save Shiite!
So Shiites started following Ali and his 11 heirs after him, as
the 12 Holy Imam's of Shiite. Basically Persians created heroes
out of these murderers. This was a method of escapism from oppression
and to create imaginary Saints from their oppressors just to survive
the oppression, Persian style!
A Look in to The Important Historical
Timeline of Events
a look at a few important historical time lines:
632 AD, Yazdgird
III accedes the Sassanid throne
635 AD, The
first Arabo-Persian Battle, the battle of Hafir had occurred,
Persians lost this battle.
635 AD, Later
part of the year, The battle of Euphrates River was won by Persians.
Arabs were chased all the way back to Arabia.
636 AD, Due
to Arabo-Muslim Invasion, Persians are defeated at al-Qadesiyeh;
Rome lost its Asian Colonies and was reduced to Byzantium.
638 AD, The
Capital Ctesiphone and organization of Sassanid Empire falls by
the Muslim armies. Zoroastrianism, eclipsed by Islam, never to
recover again. Iranians were given the three famous choices: Jaziyah
(the heavy yearly tax ransom), Quran, or sword; therefore, a large
numbers of Zoroastrians created the fourth choice and left Iran
for India where they are now, known as Parsi people of India or
Parsis of India.
641 AD, Persians
were defeated at Nahavand and later on at Rey.
643 AD, Azerbaijan
and Tabarestan fell in to Arabo-Muslim hands.
644 AD, Pars,
Kerman, Sistan, and Makran fell in to Arabo-Muslim hands.
646 AD, Arabo-Muslim
conquest of Khorasan had started.
649 AD, Most
of Persian Sassanid Empire was in control of Arabo-Muslim forces
by this time.
650 AD, The
complete fall of Khorasan and the Eastern Territories
650 AD, The
fall of Persepolis, the summer capital of the Persian Empire.
651 AD, Yazdgird
III is assassinated at Marv (present Turkmenistan); Sassanian
Empire officially ends. Yazdgird III defeated and eliminated,
Persian Empire has completely and officially collapsed, this marks
the beginning of the Arabo-Muslim occupation of Iran which lasted
222 years (651 AD - 873 AD), until Yaqub Leis Saffarid ended it
at 873 AD (The Independence Year of Iran) .
694 - 714
AD, Al Haj'aj ibn al-Yusef, governor of Iraq (Back then, a major
state of Iran called Mesopotamia with the capital of Ctesiphone,
also the capital of the Persian Empire), pacifies the province
disturbed by sectarian uprisings and revolts.
695 AD, Arabo-Muslims
advance in Troxiana [Troxiana or Transoxiana or Ma Vara ol Nahr
(Arabic) which is a portion of Central Asia approximately covering
the modern Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and south-west Kazakhstan. Troxiana
is geographically the region between Amu Darya and Sir Darya Rivers,
which are on both sides of Aral Sea.]
696 AD, Arabic
became the official language of the Islamic Empire, it replaced
Persian, which in the eastern regions have been serving as the
official language of the administration. Also, Dinar and Derham
replaced the old Sassanid coins.
709 AD, Bukhara
and Samarqand, important Persian Cities (present Uzbekistan) fell
in to the Arab forces' hands.
711 AD, Kheivah,
an important Persian City (present Turkmenistan) fell in to the
Arab forces' hands.
712 AD, Kharazm
(in Transoxiana) falls to the Arab forces.
738 AD, State
of Soqdiana (Soqd in Transoxiana) falls to the Arab armies.
747 AD, Abu
Moslem (Abu Muslim) raised the black banner of the Black Shirts
in Khorasan, signaling the start of the revolution.
749 AD, Abbasid forces under leadership of Abu Moslem gain control
of all Persia, and occupy Kufah in Iraq.
749 AD- 754
AD, Caliphate of Abu ibn al-Abbas al-Saffah. The last Umayyad
caliph Marwan II was defeated in the decisive battle on the Great
Zab and fell in Egypt (751 AD). Massacre of the Umayyad family
and its high officials. Absolute Abbasid control of the Islamic
755 AD, Al-Mansour
has Abu Moslem murdered.
756 AD, Execution
of the Iranian writer 'Abdullah ibn al-Muqaffa' (Ibn Khordad-beh),
the translator of Persian literature (Mirror for Princes, historical
and philosophical works) into Arabic.
775 AD - 785 AD, Caliphate of Al-Mahdi. The rule of Iranian Barmecide
family of Wazirs (until 803 AD). Campaign against new Mazdakite
and Manichean sects.
775 AD - 780
AD, Uprising of Al-Muqanna' (the Veiled One) in Khorasan.
776 AD, Al-Muqanna'
(the Veiled One) conquers Khorasan.
780 AD, The
Bukhara wars, Al-Muqanna' and his "White Shirts", which
had started the struggle in 775 AD, had defeated.
803 AD, Harun Al-Rashid murders his Wazir, Ja'far the Barmecide
(Al Barmak), and orders the destruction of this powerful Wazirial
809 AD - 813 AD, Caliphate of Al-Amin. After the death of Harun
Al-Rashid the empire was divided between his two sons. Al-Ma'mun,
who was supported by Khorasanian troops, defeated Al-Amin and
reunited the empire (813 AD).
813 AD, The
Khorasanian army under Tahir Ibn Al-Hussain besieged and conquered
Baghdad for Al-Ma'mun. Murder of Al-Amin.
816 AD - 837 AD, Revolts of Babak (Mazdakite sects of the Khoramiya,
dualists who believed in the transmigration of souls and reincarnation)
against the landed nobility and Arabs in Azerbaijan, from 827
AD, also in Western Persia. In Marv, Al-Ma'mun designates the
eighth Shi'ite Imam 'Ali Al-Reza (d. 818 AD) as his successor:
"short-lived attempt at reconciliation with the 'Alids and
817 AD, Ma'mun
nominates Imam Ali Al-Riza as his heir, apparent to the Caliphate.
820 AD, Al-Ma'mun
appoints a Persian, Tahir Ibn Al-Hussain governor of Khorasan
and the East.
820 AD - 873
AD, Tahir Ibn Al-Hussain establishes a dynasty (Taherids) that
retains effective control of the region until dismissed by the
823 AD, Tahir
Ibn Al-Hussein of Taherids Death and Caliph Al-Ma'mun appoints
Talha Ibn Al-Tahir in his place.
830 AD, Talha
Ibn Al-Tahir died, Abdullah Ibn Al-Tahir of Taherids replaces
837 AD, The caliph, Al-Mu'tasim, sends his army to Azerbaijan
under General Afshin to put down the twenty year rebellion of
the Khoramiya (Khoramdinan) under Babak.
838 AD, Babak's
Revolt was suppressed in Azerbaijan.
839 AD, Maziyar's
Revolt in Tabarestan occurs.
841 AD, The General Afshin dies in prison, accused of apostasy
849 AD, Abdullah
Ibn Al-Tahir of Taherids passes away.
860 AD, Ahmed
established the Sammanid Rule in Transoxiana.
866 AD - 869
AD, Caliphate of Al-Mu'tazz. Overthrow and murder of Al-Mustain.
867 AD, Takeover
of Sistan by Yaqub Leis Saffarid, next he defeated the Sammanid
Ruler of Pashang and added Herat to his region of reign.
873 AD, After
Yaqub Leis Saffarid (867 - 879) seizes control of Sistan, by this
date (873 AD), he has ended the rule of Taherids in Khorasan,
and then freed and reunited the majority of Iranian States from
the hands of Arabs; therefore, this is the official "Independence
Year of Iran". By the end of the ninth century he and his
brother (Amr O Leis Saffarid) control, practically most of Iran
except the Northwest.
876 AD, Unsuccessful
attempt of Yaqub Leis Saffarid to take over Baghdad, the capital
of Islamic Empire.
879 AD, Yaqub
Leis Saffarid passed away.
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6 - Iranian Female Freedom Fighters, Women's Freedom Movement
Female Freedom Fighters
of The "Iranian Women's Freedom Movement"
a very important role in the freedom movement of Iran. They struggled
side by side of men. Women were the most oppressed fraction of
Iranian society, simply because, after the establishment of Islamic
Government and its fanatical backwarded Judicial laws of Shari'a
and the imposing and enforcing of these Bedouin Nomadic Laws of
the Desert onto the very sophisticated Persian Empire's culture,
the women practically lost all their status in the Persian Society
and became the second rate citizens of the country; furthermore,
the property of men!
establishment of the Islamic Government, Iranians in general,
first became another "Slave Race" for the Arabs and
in later years, they became the "Second Rate Citizens"
of the Islamic Empire. But women had even lesser value among the
citizens of the Islamic Empire! Women in general are second rate
human in Islamic Society. Their testimony in a court of law, counts
as half, their inheritance from the will of their parents is half
as the male, they cannot occupy certain positions like the judicial,
military, high clerical, and high political executive offices,
and many more unfair Islamic rules and regulations, isolates them
from the rest of the society.
is general, are treated as unequal to the men, all around the
Islamic World; however, imagine that you are a woman, and also
a woman from a defeated Non-Muslim Nation, like the Persian Empire!
This is like a Double Whammy! After the Arabo-Muslim Invasion-Occupation
of Iran, Non Arab women were basically having the value and social
status, similar as the "Concubines" and "Female
Slaves". They were traded as property, same as cattle or
land property. Tens of thousands of beautiful Persian Women were
captured, shackled and chained, and then shipped on camel backs
to Arabia and Caliph's courthouse. Once these women arrived, they
were distributed among the Arab officials, generals and tribal
chiefs. The prime and the most beautiful women of Iran were forced
to join the harems of these Desert Animals. The women of Sassanid
Imperial family were forced to wed the Inferior Beasts of the
If you were
a Persian woman during those days, what would you do? Would you:
choose the harem of a stinking smelly, sweaty, half beast, barbarian
Desert Rat Arabo-Muslim with a mouth smelled like rotten eggs?
b) Pick up arms and rather to fight to death, than to sleep with
forced into the first choice, yet many chose the second choice.
Persian Women's Freedom Movement did not start from the middle
of Zand or Qajar Dynasty's era! In reality,
Women's Freedom Movement", started from the first day of
Arabo-Muslim Occupation of Iran 651 AD.
through a selected leaders of this freedom movement, yet by no
means this list covers all the brave female freedom fighters of
Iran who lost their lives for the Mother Persia. From 651 AD and
on going, Iran witnessed a rise of a different breed of warriors!
The famous legendary female resistance warriors of Iran.
Female Freedom Fighters of Iran
Now, I shall
state these female heroines' names, the meaning of their names
in parenthesis, and a bit of their history:
(Daughter of Elder)
Symbol of Persian Resistance.
The Sassanid Commander, daughter of Piran, General of Yazdgird
the Third. She fought gracefully, resistance fighting against
Arab Oppressors during Arab Invasion, killed many of them and
done many damages to the Arab Army.
Apranik's legendary white horse
C. Commander Apranik
R. Apranik's Adjutant
a Sassanid High Ranking Commander of Army. Like her father, she
decided to become a professional soldier. Piran was a famous Persian
General, and when Arabs invaded our land Piran was like a solid
rock standing on their way. Apranik was more like a TomBoy! Since
childhood, she loved military. She was Father's Right hand, and
the amazing Nationalistic Feelings that she developed during her
teenage years, forced her to become a military person. Apranik,
joined the mighty Persian Army. Due to her worthiness, and not
her father's influence. She climbed the steps of progress, one
by one and after her complete education, she managed to rise from
a petty officer, to a full commander of the Persian Army. When
Arabs invaded Iran, Apranik took the command of a major battalion
of his father's Army. Her tactics were hit and run battles with
the Arab Bandits. As she got wiser, she found out that "Organized
Warfare" with the Desert Rats who invade and hide, and then
reinforce and invade again, does not work; therefore, she started
a campaign of a treacherous battle against the Arabo-Muslim Invader-Occupiers.
For years to come, Apranik, first fought an official war with
the invaders, and later on when all hopes were destroyed, Apranik,
started her Hit and Run Rebellious Campaign against the Desert
Beasts. Apranik's Commando Warfare were legendary.
takes a moment of peace in the garden
her Ranks, never surrendered, they have fought an on going battle
to the bitter ends. Apranik became a symbol for the "Persian
Resistance". Her braveries were so known, that she became
the talk of the "Persian Resistance" and Persians created
an expression for her! Every time a female soldier would have
shown bravery among the resistance, other soldiers would smile
and call her:
do you think, you are? Commander Apranik?"
became a symbol of resistance, and one of the worthiest commanders
of Persian Army, who did not even surrender her forces after the
occupation. She kept on launching a Partisan Hit and Run Rebellious
Battle against the Arabs, way after the Sassanid Main Army Collapsed.
Separated Circles of Sassanid Immortals (Elite Persian Guards),
Cavalry, Army and Navy kept on fighting the Arabo-Muslim for years
after the occupation. Apranik's band of Resistance fighters, fought
hard, even after the loss of Persian Empire and Sassanid Dynasty.
Arteshbod General Rostam Farokhzad, Yazdgird III, and her loving
father General Piran were all expired but Apranik would simply
not surrender or die out! Apranik acted as a battery charger for
resistances spirit. Apranik's famous words and policy were:
retreat, no surrender"
to fight with her soldiers, until the bitter end, she chose to
be cut to pieces by the Arab Sword, than to become a whore in
the Arab Bed ........ and eventually Apranik became a legend.
The Legend of Apranik, is still living in every female freedom
fighter of Iran's heart. May her great spirit rest in peace. Apranik
Daughter of Piran or as they used to call her Apranik of Piran's
name will always be in the "Persian Resistance Hall of Fame".
This is what the Persian women were made of!
Fighter Leader, Guerrilla Commander during Sassanids, one of the
major resistance fighters of Iran against Arab Invasion. Negan
was not a military woman, nor a woman of nobility, yet she had
a heart full of love of Iran. Her heart was pounding for the Mother
Land. she had decided to pick up the sword and lead a band of
resistance fighters against the Arabo-Muslim Animals who invaded
The Civilized World and Mother Persia.
female commando and revolutionary Banu, was a lioness. The central
area of activity for Banu was State of Atropatgan or Azar-Abadegan
(Today's Azerbaijan). Wife of Babak Khoramdin (Persian Legendary
Freedom Fighter), she fought side by side to her husband Babak,
during the occupation of Iran by Arab Hounds. She fought to the
end. Now this woman was amazing! She was the better half of Babak
Khoramdin. Banu was a temperamental Azeri Woman, with determination
of steel from Azerbaijan or as it used to be called State of "Atropatgan".
This amazing woman was a skilled archer, she grew up with her
bow and arrows! She was Babak's partner in life and death, in
war and peace. Banu was a symbol of Pure Persian Pride, Azeri
Style! Banu and Babak fought the Arab Occupation for years, they
lived and they died as Proud Persians.
Prime Minister of Islamic Empire during Caliph Ma'mun of Abassids,
during the occupation of Iran by Arab oppressors, daughter of
was later on during the occupation years. When Arabo-Muslim ruled
every aspect of life in Persia, and when fighting by the sword
and arch was not possible, Buran the wise daughter of Hassan Sahl
launched a different type of a battle! She grew up to become a
politician. Furthermore, she became the first female Wazir (Prime
Minister); morely, the first Non Arab Wazir of the whole Islamic
Empire! Just imagine the sound of that! A female Persian Wazir
in the Arabo-Muslim court of Ma'mun, The Caliph of Abbasid! A
Persian woman with that kind of power, could do many goods for
Iran, and indeed she did. She actually fought the Arab Hierarchy
from within. She was in the inside, way inside; therefore, she
started her famous "Changes From The Within" reforms.
Buran, Daughter of Sahl, fought the political war and forced many
reforms for embetterment of Persians' Lives to the Abbasid's Government.
During her years in office, she fought for the rights of Minorities
(Non Arabs) in the Islamic Empire. A very interesting woman indeed.
She made life much easier for Persians and other Non-Arabs under
the reign of the Islamic Empire.
area of activity for Azad was State of Daylam (today's Gilan).
A Daylami (Gilani) Guerrilla Commander, a partisan leader from
Caspian Sea shores in north Iran, who fought for many years with
her band of freedom fighters against the Arab Oppressors, during
the Occupation era.
Azad was from
Daylam (Today's State of Gilan). Daylam had a history of rebellion.
Until this day, State of Gilan has been the mother and the home
for many of the Revolutionaries and freedom fighters of Iran.
Azad-e Daylami (Azad of Daylam) was one of the very first brave
daughters of this region. She became one of the most famous freedom
fighters of the region and a symbol of Persian Resistance against
the Forced Religion and Government of Islam.
The Continuos Battle of Women's Movement
took part in many of the future movements for freedom of Iran
and repossession of their human rights from Arabo-Muslim. Women
were the most oppressed segment of Iranian society by the Arabo-Muslim
and they were a significant part of the many Revolutionary Movements
of Iran including the Sanbad movement in Neyshabour of Khorasan
(Northeast of Iran), Ostadsis' movement in Sistan (Southeast of
Iran), Moqanna' and Sarbedaran movement in Khorasan (Northeast
of Iran), and Babak Khoramdin's movement in Azerbaijan (Northwest
of Iran). To this date, the Iranian Women's Movement battles continues
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7 - Iranian Male Freedom Fighters
Male Freedom Fighters
Now that we
have an idea about our Sister Freedom Fighters, we can start about
our Brother Freedom Fighters. To talk about the different movements
of Iranian Resistance and their struggle for Independence of Iran,
we must study the leaders of these movements. These leaders were
basically the theoreticians of these movements, and to start studying
these leaders, we shall start from the very beginning and from
the very first leader of the resistance during the occupation
Moslem [Abu Muslim (Arabic) or Behzadan (Persian)] and The "Black
Ibn Muslim, famous by the name of "Abu Moslem",
originally named Persian with the name of "Behzadan",
was basically the first male freedom fighter of Iran (except Yazdgird)
after the collapse of Sassanid Dynasty and the end of Yazdgird
III Resistance. Abu Moslem was born in the city of Balkh in the
state of Khorasan. He still after more than 1200 hundred years
remains to be a legendary and highly respected revolutionary figure.
Moslem Khorasani, leader of the Black Shirts
Wearing the Black Shirt and rising the Black Flag
official Flag was "The Black Flag" and his followers
wore "Black Shirts"; therefore, they been called "The
Black Shirts". The center for the Black Shirts Freedom Movement
was the state of Khorasan. This state is the largest state of
Iran at the present, yet have in mind that during those days,
Khorasan was many times larger than its today's boundaries.
different accounts of his origin and background by different sources
but the definite truth is that he was an ethnic Tajik of the state
of Khorasan, which was dominated by Tajiks at the time. It was
during his imprisonment for anti Umayyads activities that he met
the Abbasid imam who was also briefly incarcerated in 741. The
Abbasid imam were set out to overthrow the Umayyad dynasty so
taking advantage of the situation Abu Moslem sided with Abbasids
and led to numerous revolts in Khorasan that eventually led to
the demise of Umayyad Dynasty.
was an energetic Parthian and capable leader who overcome the
initial resentment caused among Arabs by his non-Arab origin.
He very well took advantage of deep social division and anti Arab,
and freedom seeking sentiments in Khorasan. He recruited from
various discontented and dispossessed social groups and created
a coalition of rebellious Arabs and Khorasanians.
On June 15,
747, Abu Muslim raised the Famous Black Banner of revolution and
the revolt quickly spread throughout Khorasan and to other provinces.
The revolt eventually led to the overthrow of Umayyad caliph and
the last Umayyad caliph, Marwan II was defeated and killed in
750. Abu Moslem was the leading factor in defeat of Umayyads and
rise of Abbasids. As Al-Saffah became the first Abbasid caliph
in 749, Abu Moslem was given the governorship of Khorasan in reward
for his services. The Abbasids still depended on him on all affairs
of the state specially the military and political affairs.
were basically enthroned and to a great extend influenced by Abu
Moslem as he was a leading politician, powerful military leader
and a very popular figure in many provinces especially among non-Arabs.
As Abu Moslem's power and popularity grew, the Abbasids became
more and more suspicious of him especially that he was inclined
to separate Khorasan from the rest of Abbasid states. Al-Mansour
the second Abbasids Caliph was in fear of Abu Moslem's ever increasing
popularity. After having Abu Moslem quell an uprising by the uncle
of Al Mansour, stripped away the governorship of Khorasan from
On 755 AD, Al-Mansour had Abu Moslem
When Abu Moslem
arrived at his invitation to his court, Al Mansour started his
plot. Al Mansour asked for Abu Moslem's sword, and he pretended
that he wants to observe the famous sword which has crumbled a
Dynasty into nothingness. After he got Abu Moslem's sword away
from him, then he started down talking to him. He started criticizing
Abu Moslem about how he rode ahead of Caliph on the way to Mecca,
about how he always has written his name above Caliph's name on
his letterheads, about how he has ordered the execution of Salman
ibn al Kasir, a friend of Abbasids, as a common criminal, about
how his boldness was way out of control to even ask for the hand
of Al Mansour's Ant! In return, Abu Moslem, stated with a soft
voice that it is best for the Caliph to keep him as a valuable
pawn against Caliph's enemies, yet Al Mansour responded that Caliph
has no enemy except of Abu Moslem! At this point, as the prior
plan, Arab Guards rushed Abu Moslem who was stripped of his sword,
and they violently slaughtered him. Even though Abu Moslem was
fighting with his bare hands, yet this was no match with a numerous
sharp swords of the Arab Guards. After his unfair elimination,
Caliph ordered the guards to wrap his bloody body and roll it
inside the carpet that was under his feet! In a way this was symbolic.
Caliph wanted to show that Abu Moslem's value is as good as the
dirt under his feet! So Al Mansour treacherously put him to death
and in this way eliminated a potential rival for the throne and
the possibility of losing the province of Khorasan.
and cowardly murder of Abu Muslim, a legendary hero among Khorasanis
and Tajiks, inspired many later uprising against Abbasids.
was a Nationalist who saw the opportunity in the unstable Arab
Caliphate situation, and he wanted to use this political unstable
situation, to serve Iran and Khorasan. along the way, he practically
changed and replaced an Arab Dynasty with another one, also he
done a lot of good for Iranians. He lowered the rate of oppression
against the Persians and he clearly showed that Persians are a
determining factor in the life of the Caliphate. Many claim that
there was time for him to totally rebel against the Arab Caliphate
and first free Khorasan and then Iran, yet he failed to do so
and he served the Caliph as his servant, so it served him good
to die by the hands of Caliph! This statement, is very biased!
First of all, Abu Moslem gave Khorasan an autonomy, and as much
freedom as he could to Iran. Secondly, at the time being, it was
logical to use politics to play games with Arab Dynasties and
create the basic atmosphere of rebellion for the future massive
revolts. This was only the first step and Abu Moslem was only
the first major freedom fighter after Yazdgird III. He started
something, a base to eventually build a column on top of it. Some
even go as far as call him a traitor! Not that he was not a traitor,
yet he was a wise politician and a Nationalist.
AD, when Al-Mansour had Abu Moslem murdered, a powerful Persian
General (Sepahbod) of Abu Moslem's Army, named Sepahbod Piruz
(Arabs called him Firuz or Sanbad) [Arabs do not have the four
Persian letters of Alphabet: "P, Zh, G, CH" and basically,
they cannot pronounce them], raised a revolt in the memory and
revenge of Abu Moslem (Behzadan). Sanbad (Piruz), was of the city
of "Neyshabour" in North Khorasan. He started
the rebellion from Neyshabour, then it expanded to the rest of
Khorasan, Tabarestan (Mazandaran) and North Iran. Sanbad was of
the Zoroastrian Faith and he openly disputed the fundamentals
of Islam. He refused the barbaric Arab religion and denied the
authority of Caliphate as the representation of God (Allah) on
the Planet Earth. The rebellion fired up and eventually Mansour
The second Abbasid Caliph have sent a powerful army to end Sanbad's
rebellion. Finally Sanbad was murdered treacherously and Sanbad's
Son of Sistan
(South East Province of Iran), Ostadsis-e Sistani was a freeman
who risen against the injustice and oppression of Mansour The
second Abbasid Caliph. The central region of his revolt was Sistan,
yet later on it has expanded to Khorasan at North East. Eventually
Mansour arrested him and his sons; later on they were all put
The Barmecide Family of Wazirs (Ministers)
By the 8th
century, the Iranian Barmecide Family was practically running
the Islamic Empire of the Abbasids. Barmecide Family was a Nobel
Persian Family of Prime Ministers, Ministers and Politicians who
were in office during the Abbasid Era. The head of family was
"Khaled Barmecide". Khaled was a commander in Abu Moslem's
Army. The starter of the tradition was "Yahata Barmecide",
son of Khaled Bamecide and the starter of the Barmecide Wazir
Tradition. Yahya and his four sons, Ja'far, Fazl, Musa, and Mohammed
were wazirs and ministers of Abbasid Dynasty from Caliph Mansour
to Caliph Harun Al Rashid's Era. Harun Al Rashid (786-809), Probably
the most capable of the Abbasid caliphs, he militarily brought
back unity to the Muslim Empire by suppressing the Barmecide family
which had been meddling in caliphate politics; by defeating the
Byzantines, who had been retaking territory from the Muslims;
and by suppressing a local independence movement in Muslim Tunisia
(center of Ex-Carthaginian Empire). His court provided the setting
for many of the stories of the One Thousand and One Nights saga.
permission of Harun Al Rashid, Ja'far Barmecide, The Grand Wazir
(The Prime Minister), had married Abbase (sister of Harun). They
married and ended up having two children. This marriage which
was not by the blessing of Harun, also the massive power of Barmecide
Family in Islamic Empire, worried Harun. Barmecide Family practically
changed the face and internal organization of the Islamic Empire,
from a Nomadic Facade to a Civilized Facade. They helped building
a powerful Islamic Empire, yet in secret they expanded the power
of Persians inside the Islamic Empire's Hierarchy. They positioned
themselves in the center of power and they appointed many Persians
to the sensitive positions of the Empire. Barmecide Family were
talented politicians and they well organized the executive and
Military branches of the Islamic Empire, they organized the economy
and gave a social order to the empire.
By 803 AD,
Harun Al Rashid, had ended a long and well planed destruction
of Barmecide powerful wazirial family. Harun Al Rashid had ended
the power of the Barmecide family in Baghdad (The Capital) and
the Islamic Empire.
This is how
he operated, eventually Barmecides became a threat in the eyes
of Abbasid Caliphate and specifically Harun! So by a well plan,
first, Harun jailed Yahya The Father of Barmecide Family and murdered
him in the prison. Next, Harun used the unblessed Marriage Episode
of Ja'far and Abbase, and killed Ja'far Barmecide. Next he arrested
Ja'far's brothers who were all, Political or Military Leaders
of The Empire and they occupied the seats of different Ministries
in The Empire. Harun, jailed Fazl, Musa and Mohammed Barmecide
and one by one murdered them in jail. Eventually Harun al Rashid
eliminated the whole Barmecide Family and with that their powerful
and deep influence in the Arab Abbasid Caliphate. This was the
last of Barmecide Dominance. Arabs were always in mistrust of
Persians! Next page
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