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Back to index   222 Years of Struggle for Independence of Iran
Part Four

222 Years of Struggle for Independence of Iran
(651 AD - 873 AD)
Ahreeman X
February 5, 2007 = 2565 Shahanshahi

Part 4

Chapter 11 - Islamic Empire's Method of Ruling the Provinces
Chapter 12 - The Independence Year of Iran = 873 AD
Chapter 13 - Yaqub's Letter to Mu'tamid
Chapter 14 - Yaqub Leis Saffarid - Achievements, Legacy and Judgment in History
Chapter 15 - The Conclusion
Bibliography and Sources

Chapter 11 - Islamic Empire's Method of Ruling the Provinces

Islamic Empire's Method of Ruling the Provinces

You need to have in mind that Caliph was often conquering an Iranian State, but not keeping Arab Troops in them! Instead he would appoint the local Persian Governor or a new Persian Governor, popular in the region, to the post of governorship, and then send his adjutants to attend the tax collection, his clerics to attend to expansion of Islam and his justices to attend the judicial system and trials according to laws of Shari'a of Islam. So caliph's missionaries would attend the internal system of the state, yet a Persian governor would seemingly and superficially rule the state! These adjutants and missionaries of Caliph would often over expand their authority and behave unjust to the people; therefore, the locals would often revolt against them!

....and this is how the two Generals lived and died. They made a serious impact in the history of Iranian Resistance against the occupational force. Let's value Generals: Vandad Hormoz and Shervin from Tabarestan. Two Sepahbods who lived, loved, fought, and died........ eventually they passed the tradition to the next generation, Qaren son of Vandad Hormoz and Maziyar son of Shervin (this Maziyar is not to be mistaken with the legendary Maziyar of Qaren).

The Unique Situation of Daylaman (Gilan) and Tabarestan (Mazandaran)

The reader needs to keep in mind that for a great number of years after the occupation, many parts of these two Caspian Sea States were never touched or seen by a single Arab! The reason for this, was that these two states were protected by Alborz Mountains on their southern borders, as a natural blockage on the way of Arabs to invade them. Warriors of these states were conducting commando warfare in wild woods of North Iran and the various mountains of the region. All of this, made it impossible for the Arabs to conquer Caspian Sea Shores. As of this date, there are many parts of Gilan and Mazandaran, which were never touched by the Arabs and Muslim. The local people of these areas like Talesh in Gilan, are pure Aryans, their local language is very similar to Ancient Pahlavi of Sassanid Persian, and their traditions are pure Persian and without any Arabo-Islamic influence! The State of Gilan (Daylam) was to the most points virgin to the Arab Invasion, and state of Mazandaran (Tabarestan) was also partially virgin to the invasion; therefore, people of Gilan and Mazandaran are mostly of Aryan Race. These natural difficulties to conquer these two states, also helped them to remain isolated and safe during the further invasions of many other invaders in the history of Iran.

There are also a few other locations like Talesh, Gilan, which have their own local language similar to ancient Persian, were mostly untouched by Arabs, and kept their racial purity. These locations are mostly in Northern States of Iran and often are blocked with natural barriers such as mountain ranges and woods. One of these locations is Sangsar and the vicinity in State of Semnan, which are mostly Parthian Aryan and have their own local language very similar to Ancient Persian. Another location would be Taleqan (Talekan in ancient Persian) in the Central State (Markazi).

Maziyar of Qaren

Maziyar was the son of Qaren and Grand Son of Vandad Hormoz. Maziyar was the fifth generation of The House of Qaren. He was a brave Nationalist and faithful to Iranian Culture until his last breath of fresh air. Maziyar was appointed by Ma'mun as the governor of Tabarestan. At this point Maziyar the governor of Tabarestan, Babak the big shot in Azerbaijan and Afshin the Persian Aristocrat made a pact to once and for all free Iran off of Arabs and Islam. The plot was going smooth. Babak had his own on going rebellion for years and Maziyar started his covert work. Afshin, also known as "Kheizar Ibn Al Kavus", the Persian Prince had grown up in the Arab court. At the time of Caliph Mutasem (Mu'tasim), he was the most important Persian Aristocrat in the Arab court. Eventually Afshin became a commander of the army. Due to his interest for Persian Philosophy, religion and culture, he associated with Babak and Maziyar and joined the plot to over throw the Arab Occupational Regime, yet later on he got so scared of caliph's revenge and he backed off and changed his mind. On 837 AD, The caliph, Al-Mutasem, sends his army to Azerbaijan under General Afshin to put down the twenty year rebellion of the Khoramiya under Babak; as we mentioned earlier, due to his treachery and betrayal, Afshin arrested Babak and sent him to Baghdad to become a prisoner. And we all know, how caliph Mutasem cut him piece by piece! Due to Afshin's treachery, on 838 AD, Babak's Revolt was suppressed in Azerbaijan. At 839 AD, Maziyar's Revolt in Tabarestan occurs. Kuhyar, who was Maziyar's brother, was dreaming of ruling Tabarestan by himself; therefore, he spied on his own brother and reported Maziyar's actions to caliph. Later on Kuhyar and caliph's officials in Tabarestan arrested Maziyar and sent him to Baghdad.

Maziyar of Qaren

Abdullah was the Arab commander in charge to take Maziyar to Baghdad. Somewhere in the middle of the road, Maziyar disappointed and despaired from all the treacheries of Persians against Persians, asked Abdullah for wine! Maziyar did not have a great potential for drinking, so he got drunk and confessed about his association with Afshin. He confessed about how Afshin was going to invite the caliph to his palace, like Mansour done to Abu Moslem, and then they would rush him and kill him by a surprise! Abdullah used a messenger pigeon to send the news to Baghdad, right away. The news had reached Mutasem on the right time! At the night that Mutasem supposed to go to Afshin's banquet, instead he sent his troops to bring Afshin to his dungeon. Ibn Al Tahir of Taherids another Governor and Persian in the court of Arabs, was also involved in this whole plot and double betrayal to capture Afshin. Mutasem arrested both Maziyar and Afshin, and in a few months he killed both of them in a torturous manner.

On 841 AD, General Afshin died in prison, accused of apostasy to Zoroastrianism. In a way the justice have served him right. Afshin betrayed Babak and in return Ibn Al Tahir betrayed Afshin. Afshin paid big time for his treachery. He was always concerned about his position in the courthouse, but not that he lost his position, yet he died in the most torturous way and by betrayal of another Persian! What goes around, comes around!

This event had put an end to Babak and Maziyar's Rebellions and Afshin's treacherous alliance with those two.

Now, let's talk about the main event!

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The Independence Year of Iran = 873 AD

Yaqub Leis Saffarid, Iran's Greatest Freedom Fighter

Yaqub the greatest son of Sistan, was a working class hero. State of Sistan is in the South East of Iran and its capital and important city was Zaranj. Yaqub was born in a lower class neighborhood. No one could believe that Yaqub would grow up to be the greatest freedom fighter of Iran; furthermore, the savior of Iran from the Arabo-Muslim Invader-occupiers! Leis, Yaqub's father, was a working man from a working class neighborhood, Among Leises sons, Yaqub was the most brave and determined of them all. Yaqub had all the characteristics of a brave and just Chevalier (Pahlevan). In youth, Yaqub became a hard working Coppersmith. Later on in life, he joined the troops of commander Saleh, who was fighting the "Khavarej" (a sect of Muslim who rebelled against the caliphate. Ibn Al Muljem who committed the revolutionary elimination of Ali the 4th caliph, belonged to this sect.), and drafting troops. Yaqub showed worthiness; therefore, he climbed the levels of progress and eventually became Saleh's right hand. Finally Saleh took control of Sistan and Yaqub remained at Saleh's service. After Saleh, came Derham. Yaqub also remained faithful to Derham. After a while, in a confrontation, the governor of Khorasan arrested Derham and sent him to Baghdad, the control of caliphate on Sistan was reestablished. So Yaqub established an organized and powerful army and On 858 AD Yaqub Leis had risen against the government of Sistan and started his rebellion. After years of rebellion and struggle, Yaqub and Sistan's freedom fighters, gloriously entered Zaranj and took absolute control of Sistan. This event occurred on 867 AD. From this date, Yaqub officially started the Rule of Saffarid Dynasty of Iran.

The Start of Saffarid Dynasty

By entering Zaranj and controlling of Sistan (867 AD), Yaqub started the Saffarid Dynasty. Afterward, he defeated the Sammanid Ruler of Pashang and added Herat (in today's west Afghanistan) to his region. The capture of Herat has occurred during caliphate of Al-Mu'tazz. Let's state here that Yaqub ruled from 867 AD - 879 AD, during his rule, there came three different caliph in Baghdad who ruled the Islamic Empire:

866 AD - 869 AD Caliphate of Al-Mu'tazz
869 AD - 870 AD Caliphate of Al-Muhtadi
870 AD - 892 AD Caliphate of Al-Mu'tamid

After the seize of Herat, he seized Balkh in North Afghanistan and Takharestan, then he faced south and launched his southern campaign in Sind (Pakistan), the results were successful, both West Afghanistan and West Pakistan fell to his armies. Next, he returned inward to Iran and captured the whole state of Kerman in the South, this gave him a stepping stone to invade Shiraz the capital of the state of Pars. On 869 AD, Shiraz fell to Yaqub Leis. At this point, Yaqub was not ready to take on the Caliphate, so he used politics and instead of hostility, he sent many presents, silk, jewels and precious stones to caliph, to make him believe that all these conquering has occurred in the name of caliph. He wanted the caliph to understand that him and his troops were still faithful to Baghdad. This tactic worked and caliph blessed him and gladly accepted the presents. This gave Yaqub a peace of mind from the West, to concentrate on the East.

L. Amr O Leis Saffarid - Yaqub's faithful and brave brother, commander of Saffarid Army, and the second Shah of Saffarid Dynasty.
R. Yaqub Leis Saffarid - Liberator of Iran, Reviver of Persian Culture and Language, and the first Shah of Saffarid Dynasty.

Next, Yaqub started his famous campaign of Ariana and Bakhtar (today's Afghanistan). His plan was to create a powerful and organized military to be able to attach Arina and Bakhtar (Afghanistan), Transoxiana (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan) and Sind (Pakistan) to his region of control. Yaqub's troops went forward and captured the complete Northern area of Afghanistan, rest of Takharestan, and a good chunk of Transoxiana. Yaqub was a professional military man and by this time he was a great strategist. He knew better, not to put distance in between his concentrated armies. If he would move north to capture more areas of Transoxiana, he would have put miles of distance between his armies and this would cause openings for Afghan rebels to enter these openings and get out of their circle of surrender and possibly cause damage to his troops; therefore, satisfied with a take over of a good chunk of Transoxiana (Ma Vara ol Nahr), he faced back, South East to Afghanistan. On 871 AD, Kabul fell to Yaqub Leis. Next he concentrated on the South, he moved some of his armies to Qandahar and others to Sind and Baluchistan. By next year, Yaqub had the absolute control of almost the whole Afghanistan and Pakistan.

L. Saffarid Infantry Commander
R. Saffarid Soldier of the Javelin Units

Now, it was time for Yaqub to first finish the years of treachery of Taherids Dynasty in Khorasan and then officially to defy Caliphate. Taherids were governors of Khorasan for a long time. They were always servants of Caliphate of Baghdad, sometimes they ruled a larger area of east Iran and sometimes they were satisfied with only Khorasan, yet they always sacrificed the prosperity of Iran for their own personal gains. House of Taherids were always pro Caliphate of Baghdad. The best example was when Ibn Al-Tahir betrayed Afshin and served his caliphate in Baghdad. It was time for Yaqub to end Taherids reign of rule and with it, end all these little pitiful separated governorships of different states of Iran. all that these governorships could do, was to fight amongst themselves, collect taxes, send it to Baghdad and serve Caliphate's will! In a way the policy of Baghdad was to "Divide and Conquer", well, Yaqub had another destiny for Iran in mind. Yaqub, wanted to "Unite and Rule". Yaqub was fighting to unite all these governorships and get rid of Arabo-Muslim rule of Baghdad for once and for all. The first step was to get rid of caliph's puppet, Persian traitor big boys of Khorasan, The Taherids.

Yaqub, The Liberator

Khorasan's campaign started and with no mercy, Yaqub charged forward and freed Khorasan, city by city to the destination "Neyshabour". On 873 AD, The Taherids were completely defeated by Yaqub Leis who entered gloriously to Neyshabour. For the rest of 873 AD, he captured the rest of the huge state of Khorasan, and then concentrated on other states in central and South Iran. Next, he took control of central Iran, he marched through the central regions (today's States of Semnan, Markazi, Tehran) and he attached Esfahan, Yazd, Khuzestan and the Southern Sea Shores of Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman to the United Iran (today's states of Hormozgan and Bushehr).

Commander in Chief of Saffarid Cavalry

By the end of 873 AD, Yaqub had ended the rule of Taherids in Khorasan, and then freed and reunited the majority of Iranian States from the hands of Arabs, Arab Servants, Persian Traitors, and other Half-Breeds; therefore, 873 AD is marked as the official "Independence Year of Iran".

The Independence Year of Iran = 873 AD

At this point, Yaqub openly defied the Caliphate of Baghdad. He did not have to officially resent the caliphate, yet it was pretty obvious what Yaqub had in mind for Iran! Subjects of Caliphate saw their situation in danger and decided to do something about it. Yaqub ended up with a bloody battle against Hassan Ibn Al-Zeid, he captured Sari (capital of Tabarestan) and then Amol (another city in Tabarestan), and then seized control of the state of Tabarestan (Mazandaran). Elements of caliphate were causing insecurities and treacheries in South, so he charged to Pars and in a bloody campaign, he defeated the massive armies of Mohammed Ibn Al-Wasel. Then he secured Pars and furthermore, added all the surrounding areas and states of Lorestan, ILam, Bakhtiari, rest of Bushehr, and others to the United Iran.

Saffarid Armored Cavalry

At this point Yaqub had successfully freed and controlled, practically most of Iran except the Northwest. This was the last draw for caliphate. Caliph sensed the immediate danger to his caliphate.

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Chapter 13 - Yaqub's Letter to Mu'tamid

Yaqub's Letter to Mu'tamid

Al-Mu'tamid the Caliph of Baghdad openly and officially condemned Yaqub, he swore to Allah that Yaqub was a Muhareb and an Infidel. He declared that freedom of Iran was not Yaqub's only intention, yet Yaqub had further intentions in mind! He declared that every state of Iran that Yaqub freed, was actually, each, a property of Islamic Empire under supervision of Caliphate which in turn was the representative of Allah on The Planet Earth, so Yaqub had defied the power and the will of Caliphate; therefore, he defied the power and will of Allah. Caliphate Cursed and Condemned Yaqub Leis! This was Caliph's logic, so he cursed Yaqub:

"May The Curse of Allah be upon this infidel, Yaqub."
(Caliph Al-Mu'tamid al Allah of Abbasid)

At the time Yaqub was in Pars. When Yaqub heard the news, he smirked and said:

"It is time to end his holiness' authority!"

Yaqub gathered a concentrated army in Pars. He could move troops from all over Iran to Pars, but he did not want to weaken his positions in all different states, specially the border states. The recently liberated and fragile Independent Iran was yet vulnerable to Foreign and Domestic Invasions, also subjects of caliphate and Persian Traitors could develop a plot at any moment; therefore, he had to keep a sufficient amount of troops and armies in all sensitive states all over Iran. Finally he moved his quickly gathered Army of Pars, to the city of Ahvaz (State of Khuzestan). Caliph Al-Mu'tamid got very frightened, and changed his tone to a very soft tone! He officially gave the deeds to the States and Vicinities of Khorasan, Tabarestan, Gorgan, Rey and Pars to Yaqub, and declared him the official Governor of these States and Areas! Caliph did this to prevent Yaqub from committing a major offensive on Baghdad!

Yaqub's response was interesting! Allow me to translate this fabulous document.

Yaqub Leis Saffarid, from Coppersmith to Shah!
Persian Language exists because Yaqub existed!
Yaqub, Greatest Iranian who ever lived.

Yaqub Leis Saffarid's Famous Historical Response to Caliph Mu'tamid

Here's Yaqub's famous Historical response,

"To Caliph of Muslemin, Al-Mu'tamid ol al Allah of Abbasid:

When we heard of your generosity and action, to dedicate to us a numerous States and Provinces of Iran, it was intriguing! We told our brothers, that how can the Arab Caliphate of Baghdad be so generous to give us the deeds to our own states!? In fact, where does The Caliphate of Baghdad get the authority to give us such gifts? States of Iran have never belonged to Caliphate of Baghdad to grant their deeds to us! In fact, Baghdad was built on once, State of Mesopotamia, the first state of Iran. Baghdad was built on the ashes of Ctesiphone, over the dead bodies of hundreds of thousands of our fallen and murdered countrymen. You can see the wondering ghosts of our murdered ancestors walking around the glorious palaces and gardens of Baghdad at night! Isn't it true that Baghdad was built at the cost of Persian Blood? Caliph needs to answer these questions to the world. Can what caliph and his ancestors done to Iran be defined as Justice?

I, Yaqub Leis, son of Leis-e Sistani, a simple coppersmith, a simple working man, a son of Iran, by the power of the people of Iran, hereby reject, both,

The Caliphates authority to:

First, Curse and Condemnation of myself, my brothers and fellow Iranians.

Second, generosity and forgiveness of returning our own States and Provinces back to us!

I hereby refuse any further interference of Baghdad into Persian Affairs. We do not need the Caliphate of Baghdad to grant us the states of Iran, which we already have repossessed! Iran belongs to Iranians and no one else.

Caliph might be the Caliphate of the Universe, but he is not the Caliphate of Iran.


Yaqub Leis Saffarid"

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What amazing words: "Caliph might be the Caliphate of the Universe, but he is not the Caliphate of Iran." Imagine the powerful effect of these words amongst all the colonies and nations under Caliphate of Baghdad in those days! Imagine what kind of spirit of rebellion against Baghdad, these words had caused! These words were not just heard around Iran, but all over the Islamic Empire! People around the world started to think that maybe after all, the Caliphate is vulnerable and Caliph is possibly not the representative of Allah on Earth!

Saffarid Cavalry Swordsman Officer

The Campaign of Mesopotamia (Iraq)

Yaqub could not stand Caliphate's arrogance and hypocrisy. Yaqub decided to charge all the way to Baghdad. Yaqub entered Iraq and moved toward Baghdad. Al-Muwaffaq, brother of Caliph, took the lead of the Muslim forces and entangled with Yaqub in Iraq. Muwaffaq, declared that Caliph is the legal descendant of Mohammed The Prophet of Islam (PBUH); therefore, he is the representer and the light of Allah on the planet Earth. He conducted a famous speech in the battle ground and his men spread the written copies of his speech among Yaqub's troops. Muwaffaq influenced the deep religious feelings and believes of a great number of Muslim in Yaqub's Army. He logic with them, that Yaqub is taking arms against descendant of Prophet and legal protector of Caliphate of Islam. Yaqub is committing a sin (Kofr) and he is in fact a Sinner (Kaffir). The soldiers of Yaqub must join the soldiers of Islam to save Islam from Yaqub the infidel. Once more, The fanatical religious propaganda of the Snakes of Baghdad effected the naive and simple religious minds of Iranian soldiers; therefore, many of Iranian troops joined the forces of Islam and fought against Yaqub to save Baghdad, Caliphate, and Islam from the infidel hands of Yaqub!

Saffarid Standard Bearer

Yaqub charged all the way to vicinities of Baghdad, yet due to Arabo-Islamic Propaganda and "Religious illiteracy" of Iranians, he got defeated in Iraq and had to retreat to Khuzestan. On 876 AD, Unsuccessful attempt of Yaqub Leis Saffarid to take over Baghdad, the capital of Islamic Empire, caused him great disappointment from religiously naive and politically illiterate Iranian soldiers of his ranks! He changed his mind to conquer Baghdad. He was so close yet so far to end the tradition of Caliphate in Baghdad.

For more information about Yaqub Leis and Saffarids, review:

Pictorial History of Iranian Military Uniforms - Chapter 14: Saffarids

Atlas of Iran Maps - Chapter 7: Saffarid Kingdom

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Chapter 14 - Yaqub Leis Saffarid - Achievements, Legacy and Judgment in History

Yaqub Leis Saffarid - Achievements, Legacy and Judgment in History

From 876 AD to 879 AD, Yaqub concentrated on internal rebuilding of Iran and reviving Iranian Culture. During all his times of rule 867 AD - 879 AD, he had done these two tasks, yet during his later years, he concentrated more on them. A had a question to answer and a point to make: Yaqub is a great conqueror but is he a great builder?

Yaqub's Cultural Efforts

Yaqub, played an important role in reviving the Persian Language, Literature and Culture. When it comes to revival of Persian Culture, Yaqub's name comes right up there with Ferdowsi. Yaqub was a great Nationalist. Many try to smear his name by branding a religious Shiite or Muslim on his name, but I can hereby testify that he was as much of a Muslim as I am! His deep concern was freedom of Iran, uniting Iran, and reviving our Culture.

Abolqasem Ferdowsi Tusi was the original reviver of the Persian Language,
Yaqub Leis Saffarid was the original reviver of the Persian Culture.

Today's Iranians would have not been speaking Persian, if it wasn't for Yaqub's efforts!

Greatest of the Greats
L. Abolqasem Ferdowsi Tusi - Reviver of Persian Language
R. Yaqub Leis Saffarid - Reviver of Persian Culture and Liberator of Iran

Let's concentrate on Yaqub Leis Accomplishments. Yaqub, made the Persian Language, the official Language of his court. This was the first time after the Arabo-Muslim Invasion, that the Persian Language became the official Language of Iran. Yaqub forced his whole courthouse and government to speak Persian. To speak Arabic in his government offices, universities, and private sector meant punishment, and he did enforce it. Once a Persian official was speaking Arabic to another one, in his presence, Yaqub ordered the arrest of both! He enforced the revival of Persian Language. He officially banned speaking Arabic in public places! You may not understand what great effort it took to do this task in those days! Back in those days, for 222 years, Iranians have been speaking Arabic as the first language and the official tong of the state. Persian was either forgotten or spoken only in homes as a native or local language!

Yaqub the reviver and savior of Iranian Culture and Language

What Yaqub had done for Persian Language was a Revolutionary Act! You as an Iranian would have not been speaking Persian if it wasn't for what Yaqub had done back then! After 222 years, Yaqub forced Iranians to speak Persian again and he made Persian the official language of the government! Do you comprehend how much guts and how much efforts it takes to take on such task? We owe our culture to Yaqub. This simple Coppersmith, saved Iranian Culture.

Ferdowsi Tusi (940 AD -1020 AD) wrote Shahnameh (Book of Kings) Poetry Book in Persian without the use of a single Arabic Word on 1010 AD, and he revived the Persian Language. But way before him, Yaqub united and ruled Iran from 867 AD to 879 AD and he played a crucial role, so the Persian Language was not lost forever. Yaqub built so many schools, libraries, institutes and expanded so many universities in Iran. He encouraged the internal writers, poets, scientists and other scholars to teach and emphasize on Persian literature, science and history. He invited all kinds of Foreign and Domestic scholars and scientists to Iranian Universities to research and to teach, for example the University of Gondi Shapour (built by Shapour The Great) in Khuzestan, to educate the masses of Iran.

Ferdowsi, the great Persian poet
Wrote Shahnameh (Book of Kings) without the use of a single Arabic word, while ¼ of Persian words are Arabic and ¼ are Arabic rooted!

Gondi Shapour University and its famous Library were almost destroyed by Arabs [during first AIOG (Arabo-Islamic Occupational Government) on 651 AD]; however, Yaqub had revived and restored both the Gondi Shapour University and Library. Once again he made this university a place for research, study and debates!

He wanted nothing but the best for our masses and he knew that he had a hard task to remove the effects of 222 years of ignorance, illiteracy and brainwash by Caliphate of Baghdad! Yaqub forced Persian Poets to write poetry in Persian and the Persian Writers to write literature in Persian, then he generously rewarded them. Iranian Literature, Poetry, Science and Arts started a fresh rebirth during his reign. Yaqub, always emphasized on reviving the ancient Persian traditions, celebrations, New Year, and Culture. He practically forced the state to force the people to once more celebrate Iranian Celebrations such as Nowruz, Sadeh and Mehregan.

Yaqub's Efforts to Reconstruct Iran

Yaqub was determined to rebuild and reconstruct Iran. After the reunification of Iran, he started a massive campaign to build a new Iran. He built universities, schools, hospitals, dams, castles, monuments, government buildings, parks, roads and many other constructions and monuments. His agenda was the speedy progress of Iran. some called him The Construction Lord of Iran.

Now, we shall review Yaqub's most important accomplishments and efforts to build a powerful proud Iran.

Yaqub Leis Saffarid's Accomplishments

Yaqub accomplished many achievements, that we shall state some of them here:

1. Establishment of The Independence of Iran after 222 years of Arabo-Muslim Supremacy (873 AD).
2. Creation of a United Iran.
3. Expansion of Iran's rule by attachment of the most of Iranian States (except the North West) to Iran.
4. The revival of Persian language.
5. The revival of Persian literature.
6. Honoring and study of the Iranian great men of science, philosophy and art.
7. The Election of Persian Language as the official language of the nation after 222 Years.
8. Enforcement of the courthouse, government officials, and government personnel to speak
9. Enforcement of Educational Institutes to only teach in Persian.
10. Building and reconstruction of Universities, Libraries and schools of Iran.
11. Building and reconstruction of the nation.
12. Revival of Persian Traditions and Culture.
13. Moved the capital to Zaranj in Sistan and made this city a cultural center.
14. Invited the domestic and foreign scholars and scientists to teach in Iranian Universities.
15. Massive campaign for a Cultural Revolution in Iran.
16. Massive Educational Reconstruction of Iran.
17. Revived the sense of Persianhood amongst the people and made Iranians to once more be proud of themselves.

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Yaqub Leis Saffarid, Legacy and Judgment in History

This was a brief description on efforts of a man who we call "The Greatest Freedom Fighter of Iran" and "The Savior of Iran". We can never describe everything that Yaqub Accomplished in those 12 short years of his rule. Yaqub had achieved so many things in those short 12 years that so many Iranian Monarchs could never achieve in 30, 40 or 50 years of their reigns!

Yaqub practically revived our culture and saved our language from extinction. When no one was speaking Persian in Iran anymore, Yaqub forced Iranians to speak Persian! When no one cared to unify Iran under one Nation, Yaqub united most states of Iran. When no one cared to rebuild Iran, Yaqub started a massive construction campaign to rebuild the nation. Yaqub is one of the few Shahs of Iran who truly deserves the title of "Great". Yaqub-e Leis-e Saffari The Great, the starter of the Saffarid Dynasty, the liberator of Iran, the reviver of Persian Culture and Language, the uniter of Iran, Yaqub was a freeman who lived proud. The Brave Chevalier (Pahlavan) and a Gentleman, who honored Iranian Soil. The brave son of Sistan who lived, loved and died as a Persian. Many state that Yaqub is indeed the legendary Rostam of Shahnameh (both were from Sistan)!

On 879 AD, Yaqub Leis Saffarid, one of the greatest Iranians of all times, the liberator of Iran had passed away. the heart of Yaqub stopped beating but the heart of Iran remained beating forever. Yaqub was a symbol of Iranian Working Class Hero. It was the destiny, that a simple coppersmith from a far away barren Sate of Sistan grew up to liberate and save Iran and Iranians! May his great brave spirit rest in peace. Yaqub was a true Revolutionary and a Nationalist.

After him, Amr O Leis his brother, the rest of the Leis Dynasty of Saffarids and following dynasties of Iran, lost and gained territories, lost and won battles, but never again went under Absolute Arabo-Muslim Rule and Absolute Annihilation of Persian Culture, ever again.

.......and the legend of Yaqub went on forever..........

Persians, never ever forget what Yaqub had done for Iran. Tell your children, so in returns they can tell their own children of what Yaqub had done for Iran. This is how we keep our culture alive.

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Chapter 15 - The Conclusion

The Conclusion

222 years of enslavement of Persians and Persian Culture by the hands of Arabo-Muslim and Persian Traitors has started on 651 AD, by the absolute collapse and death of Yazdgird III and has came to an end on 873 AD by the efforts of Yaqub Leis Saffarid.

Many Iranian Freedom Fighters have fought and died during these years. They died so Iran would become free. They sacrificed their lives for this soil. The history of Iran during this 222 years have been never put together and written as a unified single cluster, as you have read. The history of Iran during these 222 crucial years have been obscured, revised, twisted and faded during the last 28 + years and by the hands of the Islamic Regime of Tehran.

Islamic Republic of Iran has been brainwashing and conducting a massive Arabo-Islamic Campaign to abolish our 8000 years old History, specifically those 222 Years of struggle against Arabo-Muslim Occupation. IRI does this, simply because IRI in itself is the "Second Arabo-Islamic Invasion-Occupation of Iran.

1st AIOG (Arabo-Islamic Occupational Government) = 651 AD - 873 AD
2nd AIOG (Arabo-Islamic Occupational Government) = 1979 - ?

The question is when will we end this second occupation?

This is not an Iranian government but this is the government of Arabo-Muslim, Arab Worshipers, Half-Breeds and Persian Traitors who sold Iran for Money and power to Mullahs and Allah!

IRI, is a foreign made, imported Arabo-Muslim occupational government of Iran. By teaching the true history of Iran, which is banned by Islamic Republic, we shall teach, and enlighten the youth to their history and culture. Only by this historical education, the youth can learn from the history to build the future. Without the proper knowledge of the past, how can we build the future? Without learning from mistakes of the past, how can we avoid those mistakes, in the future? How can we not know of our struggle for freedom during the first Arabo-Islamic invasion of Iran on 651 AD, yet fight and struggle for our freedom during the second Arabo-Islamic invasion-occupation of our land on 1979 AD? How can we not learn of what Arabo-Muslim and Persian Traitors done to our ancestors, and then try to liberate and secure the secular free Iran of the future?

We forgot to learn and study our true history before, and look what happened? 1979 Islamic Reaction is what happened! That is why once more on 1979, the history repeated itself. The same forces, the same traitors, the same religious fanaticism, the same treachery, the same betrayal of Iran happened again on 1979. Why did it happen again? Because we failed to study the lessons that we learned from 651 AD! That is why I always state:

"Many are schooled, yet only a few are truly educated."

"To Study The mistakes of the past, avoids the difficulties of the future."

"To be illiterate to our true history, makes us merely slaves to our future."

"Educate yourselves to true history and philosophy, so you will not remain slaves to superstitions."

"To be Persian, is to live Persian, to love Persian, and to die as a Free and a Proud Persian."

"To be Persian is a state of mind. No one has the automatic right by the privilege of to be born Persian, because Persianhood is something which must be earned!"

More power to All Freedom Fighters of Iran

Fighting for a free Iran
A lover of Iran,

Dr. X

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Bibliography and Sources


The Historical documents below, written by Persian, Arabic, English, Greek, Armenian, and American Historians, Geographers and Philosophers, also different documents and historical articles researched and written by myself has been used to create this historical book.


I. History of Tabari by Abu Jaffar Tabari, compiled by Dr. Mohamad Javad Mashkur
II. History of Tabarestan by Mir Seyed Zahir Al Din-e Mar'ashi, intro by Dr. Mohamad Javad Mashkur
III. Iran in Ancient Times (Iran dar Ahde Bastan) by Dr. Mohamad Javad Mashkur
IV. History of Tabarestan by Ibn Esfandyar (Baha-eDin Mohammad Kateb)
V. Javame'ol Hekayat va Lavame'ol Ravayat by Seyed Din Mohammad Ufi of Bokhara
VI. Tajarob al Amam va Ta'aqob al Hamam by Ibn Maskuyeh
VII. Kamel al Tavarikh by Ibn Asir
VIII. Historikon by Procope de Byzantine
IX. Historikon de Persicus y Rome by Procope de Byzantine, translated by Mohamad Saeedi
X. Qarar Akhbar Molouk al Fars va Sirham (Shahnameh Sa'alabi) by Abdol Malek Ibn al Mohammad Ibn Ismail al Sa'alabi Abu Mansour-e Neyshabouri, translated by Mahmoud Hedayat
XI. History of Muslim Nations by Carl Brukelman, translated by Dr. Hadi Jazayeri
XII. Complete History of Iran by Dr. Abdollah Razi
XIII. History of Sistan compiled by Malek ol Shoaraye Bahar
XIV. Majma'ol Tavarikh compiled by Malek ol Shoaraye Bahar
XV. History of Bel-Azari by Abu Al Abbas Bel-Azari
XVI. Shahnameh by Abolqasem Ferdowsi Tusi
XVII. Farsnameh by Ibn Balkhi
XVIII. Siyasatnameh by Khajeh Nizam ol Molk
XIX. Travel Diaries of Faustus de Byzantine by Faustus de Byzantine
XX. Mazdak by Maurice Simashko, translated by Sohrab Dehkhoda
XXI. Shiite-ism by Dr. Ahmad Kasravi
XXII. Ctesiphone in Smoke, Fire and Blood by Dr. Kourosh Aryamanesh
XXIII. Issues of "Message of Us, the Free" (Payame Ma Azadegan) aka "Persian Journal of Libertarians" Newspaper by Dr. Kourosh Aryamanesh and Guardians of the Persian Culture (Pasdaran-e Farhang-e Iran)
XXIV. Rome's Enemies: Parthians and Sassanid Persians by Peter Wilcox
XXV. Political Encyclopedia by Dariush Ashuri
XXVI. Parade at Persepolis - Published by The Imperial Iranian Armed Forces Committee for the Celebration of The 2500th Anniversary of The Founding of The Persian Empire, Supreme Commander's Staff, Public Relations Department
XXVII. Encyclopedia of Zarin compiled by M. Azinfar
XXVIII. The World Almanac 2007, The Authority since 1868, published by St. Martin's Press
XXIX. Al Masalek va Al Mamalek (a Historic-Geographical Guide) by Ibn Khordadbeh (Obaydollah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Khordadbeh)
XXX. Sovar al Aqalim va Masalek va al Mamalek (Historic-Geographical Encyclopedia) by Abolqasem Mohammad Ibn Huqel Baghdadi al Movaseli
XXXI. Nezhat al Qolub (Regional Geographical Guide) by Hamdollah Mostoufi Qazvini
XXXII. Atlas of World History by John Haywood, Ph.D
XXXIII. Atlas of World History by Rand McNally
XXXIV. Atlas of The World History by Hammond
XXXV. Collection of Iranian Historical Maps # 1 by Geographical and Cartographical Institute of Sahab
XXXVI. Collection of Ancient Historical Maps # 2 by Hammond
XXXVII. A great number of historical documents, essays, articles and illustrations - researched, written and graphic designed by Ahreeman X.

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