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Part One
 

8000 Years of Iranian History!
The Oldest Civilization in the World: 3 Parts
Ahreeman X
December 8, 2006

8000 Years of Iranian History Parts Index
_________________________________
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3

Part One

8000 Years of Iranian History! - Part One:
Chapter One: Introduction and Preface
Chapter Two: Ancient History of Iran
Chapter Three: Susa

Chapter One
Introduction and Preface

Introduction

I was sitting in my home office, behind my desk and thinking about the depth of this issue, about how we always discuss this issue, about how we need to solve this issue for once and for all! To understand, analyze and to solve this issue, we need historical knowledge, and the best way to gain that is to research, study, logic and reason about history. We need to do a wide research of history to answer this question.


Persian Rhyton
Achaemenian Era 500 BC

Nationalism is the key to many of our questions. You best recognize what it means to be a true Nationalist from many of our brothers and sisters who lost their lives for this land. This soil is holy, is valuable, is cherished, is blessed. This soil is what you are about, what we are about, what Iran is about. This soil is what we have been protecting for thousands of years. This soil is everything that we are about. This soil is about our culture, traditions, art, music, knowledge, philosophy, humanity, race, blood, language, and the very lifeline that runs through our bodies, the very veins and bloodline which runs through our body, it is the food for our souls, without it, we will have no souls. You best recognize that this soil is sacred, this is what Iran comes down to. This soil is what Yaqub Leis Saffarid the savior and liberator of Iran who put an end to 222 years of Arab supremacy of Iran, used to worship! This soil is what Nader Shah Afsharid used to swear upon it. This soil is what Hakim Abol Qasem Ferdowsi Tusi, the reviver of the Persian Language; the Iranian Shakespeare poet used to value and cherish. This soil is what my ancestors prayed to. This soil is what I bow to and what I kiss, for ever and ever more..... You best recognize what is the meaning of the true Nationalism.

Many are schooled, yet only a few are truly educated! Many know their history; many learned about their history, some half way and some all the way. Many saw the conflict, many realized that Arabo-Islamic forces invaded us about 1400 years ago and destroyed every shred of our Aryan Culture, our Persian Culture; yet, when we kicked them out, and put an end to their 222 years of colonialism, we continued worshiping their God (Allah), their way of life, their traditions, and their sub-culture.

We celebrated their holidays like Eyd-e Qorban and Fetr; we mourned during the death anniversaries of their leaders, the same leaders who killed and slaughtered Persians and our ancestors by the dozens and by the thousands, like Ali, Hassan, Hussein, and others..... We worshiped their prophet Mohammed whose very evil plans ruined our Persian Empire, our way of life, and our Persian heritage. What species other than Persians worship their oppressors, their executioners? Hard to find such species indeed! How did this happen? What were the roots of these problems?

Many saw these conflicts, saw these betrayal of Iran, saw this selling of Iran by the pound, saw this historical contradiction, many saw this abomination of worshiping our enemy! An enemy who we kicked out of Iran, yet we worshiped its very own culture, traditions, religion, etc.

Many had pretended that they were blind, so they selected not to bother with this contradiction, others simply ignored the problem. Many saw the conflict, understood it but yet ignored it and turned the other way. Many saw the conflict and had a hard time digesting it, yet eventually they justified it for themselves! Many had a hard time and still are having a hard time accepting it. Many never accepted it, many always fought it, many did not sell Iran for a dime.......many, many, many........

But I am here to testify …. I hereby state that two elements are for sure factual:

A. Every one Persian at one time or another has noticed this contradiction.
B. Every one Persian at one time or another has to solve this conflict for himself.

That is why "You best recognize" that I am here for one thing and one thing only.

I am here to Question this contradiction, to study this contradiction, to analyze this conflict and finally to find a solution for this abomination!


Faravahar Persian Classic Emblem

For more information on Faravahar read:

Faravahar History and Art Galleries: Chapter 1: History of Faravahar

If we shall not find the truth, if we will not find a solution, then we will fail to see reality, find the truth, find the historical facts, we will fail, and then we will die failed; therefore, masters of ignorance, lords of oppression, the ones who need to keep our masses in chain of ignorance, will "Dance on our Graves." So, we shall research, study and learn about the historical facts. Thus as we spoken, many are schooled; yet a few are truly educated! Many own degrees, but have they truly learned anything?

Self-education, mass education, research, experiment, analysis of our true history is the key to our salvation. We must know our true history, so we can find the salvation to our ill faith, our ill society which is called the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI).

More power to us, finding our way through this dark alley.

So I started scattering my historical books, historical atlases, historical maps, historical magazines, articles, dictionaries, encyclopedias, geographical atlases, essays, papers and all my past research around myself. I sat behind my computer desk while spreading my documents on my study desk, my guest office chair, all over my computer desk and on the floor. I got down and dirty, because I was about to start writing a historical research article, no actually let's write a Historical Mini Series. Forget about it, why not writing a history book? I started at dawn and I finished at dusk! But how many dawns and dusks? That's another story! Let's just say that I am very satisfied with the way this book turned out, yet now that I am done, I am also in need of a vacation!

..........and this is how it went.......

Preface

These questions are frequently asked:

Which is the oldest civilization in the world?
How old is Iranian Civilization?
How old is Iranian History?
When were the first civilization lived on Iranian Plateau and Continental Shelf?
Who were these people who lived there first?
What race were they?

We have been hearing about this endless argument and debate going on and on for years, and specifically among the Iranian people. For once and for all, we need to clear this issue. I can see that many argue over this issue restlessly.

Persia, Pars and Iran

Please note that the term "Persia" is the Latin term for Iran. The term "Pars" is the Persian term for "Persia". Before 1935 (Reza Shah The Great), throughout the millenniums, the name of the country was "Pars" (in Persian) and "Persia" (in Latin). Reza Shah changed the name of the country from "Pars" to "Iran" (1935). Iran means "Land of Aryans". Therefore, throughout my writings, when you read about Persia, Pars and Iran, all three are the same.


Ancient Persian Lion Roundel Artifact

The 8000 Years History

Iran has about 8000 years of history. Iran is the oldest civilization in the world. This is the latest research on history of civilizations, archeology and anthropology. When we say 8000 years, it does not mean 8000 years of Aryan Civilization. It means 8000 years history of Iran, meaning every civilization, which lived in Iran. By this, we mean the very first civilization, which lived Geologically on Iranian Continental Shelf, Geographically on Iranian Plateau, and Physically inside the Greater Iran.

Susa (Shush), The First Civilization

The very first civilization which had ever lived in Iran was The Shush Civilization. 8000 years ago, there was a civilization which lived in today's Khuzestan, their name was "Shush Civilization," or in English "Susa Civilization." So far this has been reported as the oldest civilization which had ever existed on Earth. By civilization, we mean civilized city government or city-state or Empire or Kingdom or any type of local civilized system. Archeologists divide time periods and discoveries of Shush, into two periods: Period One and Period Two. These periods are based on Geological Layers which the fossils and other material has been found in them, layer one and two which are on top of one another. Archeologists were digging in Shush since 1897 by "Jan Morgan" the French Archeologist, all the way until the present day.


Aryan Salute Roots: Ancient Persian Susian Salute
Artifact Statues of Susa Noblemen doing the Ancient Persian Susian Salute. The right hand bent straight, with the elbow to the waistline and the hand held up sideways. The left hand held in front of the body as the show of respect. This Salute is the origin of the Ancient Persian Aryan Salute of the later years during Achaemenids and after eras. This salute was even in use during Achaemenid Era. The Ancient Persian Susian Salute is the oldest Persian Salute. During Achaemenids Era, the salute was given with the hand a bit tilted. The hand was neither sideways (Susian Style) nor frontways (Parthian Style), yet tilted 45 degrees in between. If you review the videos of the parades at Persepolis (2500 Years Celebration of Monarchy during Alahazrat's Era), you will notice that the soldiers' hands were tilted 45 degrees while parading. Ancient Persian Susian Salute was in use during Susian, Median and Achaemenid Eras.


Aryan Salute Roots: Ancient Persian Aryan Salute
Artifact Statues of Parthian Arsacid King and Princess doing the Ancient Persian Aryan Salute.
The right hand bent straight, with the elbow to the waistline and the hand held up frontways. The left hand held straight down. This Salute is the evolution of the Ancient Persian Susian Salute. So the evolution of the Persian Salute were from Susian (hand sideways) to Achaemenid (hand tilted 45 degrees) and finally to Parthian (hand frontways). This Salute was the official salute of the Arsacid and Sassanid Eras. As we see, there is a direct relation between Ancient Persian Susian Salute and Ancient Persian Aryan Salute. This is another solid evidence that Susa was a Persian Civilization.


Aryan Salute: Ancient Persian Salute
L. Reza Shah The Great is doing the Ancient Persian Salute. This is the perfect example of the "Persian Salute". The right hand bent straight, with the elbow to the waistline and the hand held up sideways. The left hand held in front of the body as the show of respect.
R. Reza Shah's official Flag. This is Iran's official state flag during 1933 - 1964

Dr. Scheil was also another valuable archeologist who dedicated a lot on uncovering the secrets of Shush. But only during the last decade a vast amount of discovery has been found at Shush. These discoveries resulted in a huge amount of knowledge about the Shushians. About 4000 dishes of potsherd has been found at Shush, which 2500 of these potteries are painted and designed from the first period of Shush Civilization. A sample of these potteries are at The Ancient Iran (Iran-e Bastan) Museum. These potteries are so thin that one can compare them with the eggshells! Among other artifacts were axes, battle mace, clubs, pins, fabrics, and traditional grinding handle and bowl (Kase va Dasteh Havan), also many more.

Susians (Shushians) were not Elamites or Hemitic

Many falsely assume two things:

1. Susa was Elam and Susians were Elamites
2. Susians were Hemitic (Arab Races).

Both above assumptions are false. They are false either due to historical ignorance or to discredit Iranian Ingenuity of 8000 years.

In certain periods of history, Elam or Babylon dominated Susa and vice versa. Both Elam and Babylon influenced the Susa civilization and vice versa; however, we shall never assume that Susa was Elam! This is a grave historical error.

Susa, Elam and Babylon were three different civilizations and three different regional powers, which from time to time, each controlled the complete region of Western Iran and Mesopotamia.

To state Susians were Elamites is the same as to state Iranians are Arabs! This is the ultimate ignorance! Unfortunately many Iranian and foreign Historians assume so! We need to educate these people to the modern discoveries and history. We need to drag these people to 21st Century!

Susians were also of the local Iranian races, before the coming of Aryans. Many civilizations and people were living in Iranian Plateau before the coming of Aryans. Susa, Casia, Kassites, Mannaians and Kirmanians were some of these people and civilizations. By no means these people were Hemitic or Arab! They were of local Iranian races. They were of Iranian Plateau races, way before the coming of Aryans. Their roots and their origins are from various places such as Caucasia, Troxiana, and Northern Territories of Caspian Sea, but not from Arabia or Mesopotamia! Eventually throughout the centuries, they have landed in Iranian Plateau and became the "Iranian Local Races."

There is no evidence whatsoever which proves that these people came from Mesopotamia or Arabia; therefore, they were Hemitic! This is yet another fabrication for Arabs, Arab Worshipers and Iranian Traitors to discredit 8000 years of Iranian history and give credit to Arabs and Hemites! No matter what, they cannot falsify the history. History is a science and it gets updated by the minute. One cannot shove selected lies into Ancient History of Iran!

It is time for these so called historians to "Evolve".
It is also time for people who believe in these lies to "Evolve".
Evolve to new Horizons, Evolve towards Modern Scientific History.

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* * *

Chapter Two
Ancient History of Iran

Historical Introduction

If you surf around the Internet, you will notice a various number of sites are documenting the history of Iran. After conducting a vast research, I have found out that practically all of these sites are full of errors in regards to:

. Age of Iranian History
. Names and Ages of Dynasties
. Names and Ages of Monarchs
. Historical Dates
. Origin of various Iranian Races
. Or all five of the above.

You cannot trust these websites, simply because they are either "Open Source" and anyone can post anything in them, or they are written by web masters whom are not historians, scientists or valid researchers.

As I have written before, I look at history as a science. The science is updating by the time. Unfortunately many historians look at history as a Dogmatic and Unchangeable Document, a Dogma!

Therefore, It was necessary to research and write an up-to-dated, upgraded, historically accurate, and scientific document according to the latest archeological, anthropological and historical discoveries and facts on the complete historical periods of Iran.

This scientific and accurate document is now in front of you. What you are about to read is the latest research on the 8000 years of the Iranian Historical Periods, Dynasties and Monarchs.

8000 years of Iranian history
Periods of Iranian History:

1. Ancient Civilizations Era: 6000 BC - 2000 BC
2. Vedai Era: 2000 BC - 850 BC
3. Pre-Avesta Era: 850 BC - 728 BC
4. The Kingdom Era: 728 BC - 559 BC
5. The First Imperial Era: 559 BC - 651 AD
6. The First Arabo-Islamic Invasion-Occupation Era: 651 AD - 873 AD
7. The Second Imperial Era: 873 AD - 1979 AD
8. The Second Arabo-Islamic Invasion-Occupation Era: 1979 AD - present

Many Archeological Sites of Iran, goes back 8000 years to Shush (Susa) Civilization in Khuzestan at South-West of Iran. Shush Civilization of 8000 years, is the oldest civilization which has been discovered so far in the world. Iran has many archeological sites: South near Shiraz, East near Kermanshah, South-West near Shush, Tape Hissar at North-East, and others. Iran's Archeological Sites goes back all the way from Shush Civilization, Vedai Era, Median Kingdom, Achaemenid Empire, Arsacid (Ashkanid) Parthian Empire, Sassanid Persian Empire, on going to the modern era.

Iran's sites are from local civilizations such as:

Iranian Local Civilizations

* Shush (Susa) Civilization (South West)
* Casia Civilization of Gilan
(Caspian Civilization established in South-West of Caspian Sea) before The Aryan Immigration
* Kirmania Civilization of Jiroft, Kerman (South East)
* Kassite Civilization of Lorestan (West)
* Mannaian Civilization of West Azerbaijan (North West)
Note: Iranian local civilizations were of the local races of Iran, which had settled in Iran before the coming of Aryans. They were by no means of Hemitic (Arabic) races.

Also from the three tribes of the Aryan Immigrants, which were eventually established:

Iranian Aryan Civilizations

* The Median Civilization of North-West, West and North-Central Iran.
* The Parthian Civilization of North Caspian Sea Shores, Semnan/Khorasan at North-East Iran.
* The Persian Civilization of South and South-Central and Central Iran.

For historical dates of the Dynasties and Monarchs or Iranian Periods, read:

Iran Dynasties and Monarchs of 8000 Years

Susa Artifacts

Susa Artifacts - Historical Evidence of:

1. Susa is a Persian Civilization.
2. At one time, Susa ruled the complete region of present Khuzestan, ILam, Bakhtiari and Kohkiluyeh (provinces of Iran), and all Mesopotamia in Iraq.


o 6000 BC - 5000 BC: Painted pottery, statues and figurines of Haji Firuz and Amu Nowruz are similar to those found at sites in Mesopotamia (While under the rule of Susa), indicating contact between distant settlements in various areas of the region of Mesopotamia, Susa and Persia.

o 4200 BC: The site of Susa was found on a broad fertile plain. Surrounded by numerous agricultural villages, Susa is centered on a large mud-brick platform and became the regional locus of what is now central Khuzestan. Finely handmade, painted vessels are buried in graves beside the platform. The variety and individuality of these specialized wares indicate the presence of many artisans and craftsmen.


L. Susa Lion
Ancient Susian Artifact from Northern Khuzestan aria.
R. Susa Holy Bull
Susa Kneeling Holy Bull 3000 BC - 2800 BC

o 3400 BC - 3100 BC: Ceramics, cylinder seals, and sculpture at both Susa and Choqa Mish are virtually identical to those from southern Mesopotamia during Kingdom of Susa's reign.


Susa Artifact
Shush Persian State Beaker 4000 BC

o 3100 BC - 2700 BC: During the Proto Elamite period, Susa, same as the neighboring Mesopotamia, used hollow clay balls (bullae) to enclose counting tokens, and cylinder seals that were applied to a variety of jar sealings as well as bullae and clay tablets. The seals and small-scale sculptures were of the highest quality, often depicting wild animals or demonic figures in humanlike postures. Clay tablets inscribed with the Proto Elamite writing system were found at numerous sites across Iran. Although derived from Mesopotamian cuneiform, the script remains largely un-deciphered.


Susa Cup
Susa artifact cup 3000 BC

o 2600 BC - 2250 BC: Chlorite vessels of the "Intercultural Style" were characterized by decoration of the entire surface with abstract and radical patterns, vegetal and architectural motifs, or naturalistic representations of animals or humans. Made in southern Iran and the greater Gulf region, these vessels were traded widely across the Near East from Syria to the Indus Valley.


Susa Man
Statue, Susa Civilization Period

o 2350 BC -2000 BC: Susa had fallen under the rule of the Mesopotamian kings of Akkad and, later on, the Third Dynasty of Ur.

Puzur-in-Shushinak (2112 BC - 2095 BC)

Influenced by the art of Mesopotamia, Puzur-in-Shushinak (2112 BC - 2095 BC) is the first king of Susa to leave very large-scale statuary. A number of his monuments are inscribed with bilingual inscriptions: Akkadian written in cuneiform, and Elamite written in a poorly understood linear script. At the end of this period, the Elamites invaded southern Mesopotamia, destroying the city of Ur.


Susa King Puzur-in-Shushinak
Artifact from ancient Susa Civilization


Elamite Periods

Proto Elamite: 3200 BC ­ 2700 BC (Proto-Elamite scripts in Susa)

Old Elamite period: 2700 BC ­ 1600 BC (Earliest documents until the Eparti Dynasty's reign)

Middle Elamite period: 1500 BC ­ 1100 BC (Anzanite Dynasty until the Babylonian invasion of Susa)

Neo Elamite period: 1100 BC ­ 539 BC (As we see the Images of Shahs, characterized by Iranian and Syrian influence. 539 BC marks the beginning of the Achaemenid period)

Common Historical Error

Note: Many historians and public, often mistake and confuse The Iranian Civilization of Susa with Elamite reign! Throughout the history of Susa, there were times in which Elamites effected or dominated Susa; however, Susa Civilization dates back 8000 years all the way back to 6000 BC. Susa Civilization is an Iranian Local Civilization.

Ancient Susa

Persian City State
6000 BC - 3750 BC
Susa City State (6000 BC - 3750 BC)
Iran has 8000 years of history, oldest civilization on Earth.
From 6000 BC to 3750 BC, The first civilization in Iran (Susa) was a city-state and ruled by Governors. Some Governors were subject rulers, some autonomous, and some independent.
Shimbi-ish-Khuk Governor of Susa [Under Babylon] (Before 3750 BC)

Persian Ancient Kingdom
3750 BC - 539 BC
First King of Iran (Persian Kingdom)
Kingdom of Susa
Karibu-Sha-Shushinak also known as Shushinak (3750 BC), son of Shimbi-ish-Khuk (patesi of Susa, governor of the land of Elam), at First was a subject ruler under Babylon, then he became an independent Sha (Shah), The Shah of Susa [First Shah of Iran]. Before this period, there were Governors ruling Susa, not Shahs. After this date, Susa became an independent kingdom. Shushinak built many temples and wrote many inscriptions. Shushinak started the Kingdom of Iran. Karibu Sha was the first Sha (Shah) of Iran. After him, many Susa Dynasties ruled Iran. Susa Kingdom reign ended by start of the Achaemenid Empire.


L. Karibu Sha Shushinak
On shoulder backs
R. Karibu Sha Shushinak (Susa Dynasty)
Carvings of the First Shah of Iran 3750 BC


Important Note on the term "Shushinak"

Shushinak was the main God of Susa; therefore, many Shahs of Susa carried his name as their own last names.


L. Shushinak
Main God of Susa Civilization
R. Horse Column Top
From Susa archeological sites


Archeological and Historical Evidence

A Block of Limestone, found at Susa bearing inscriptions of Karibu-Sha-Shushinak.
Photographs and documentations were taken from M. De Morgan's Delegation of Persia (en Perse). The main part of the inscription is written in Semitic Babylonian, and below there is an addition to the text written in Proto Elamite characters, probably enumerating the offerings which the Karibu-Sha-Shushinak decreed should be made for the future in honor of the Susa God.


Shushinak Inscription 1

Later on in time this Proto Elamite system of writing by means of ideographs seems to have died out, and a modified form of the Babylonian system was adopted by the Elamites for writing their own language phonetically. It is in this phonetic character that the "Anzanite" texts of the later Elamite princes' were composed in.

Today we are practically assured that both inscriptions were the work of Karibu-Sha-Shushinak. The second inscription, from its position on the stone is clear that it was written after and not before Karibu-Sha-Shushinak's inscription in Semitic Babylonian.


Shushinak Inscription 2

The reproduction of Karibu-Sha-Shushinak's inscription shows us that the inscription was most likely a bilingual inscription. He was one of the earlier of the subject princes of Susa whom later on became independent. He styles himself "patesi of Susa, governor of the land of Elam," but we do not know at present to what contemporary king in Babylonia he owed allegiance. The longest of his inscriptions that have been recovered is engraved upon a stele of limestone and records the building of the Gate of Shushinak at Susa and the cutting/building of a "Canal". It also recounts the offerings, which Karibu-Sha-Shushinak dedicated on the completion of the work. It may here be quoted as an example of the class of votive inscriptions from which the names of these early Elamite and Susa rulers have been recovered. The inscription runs as follows:

Karibu-Sha-Shushinak's Inscription


L. Shushinak Inscription 3
Valuable ancient artifact from Susa
R. Karibu Sha Shushinak (Susa Dynasty)
First Shah of Iran 3750 BC


Karibu-Sha-Shushinak's Inscription:

{"For the God "Shushinak", his lord, Karibu-Sha-Shushinak, the son of Shimbi-ish-Khuk, patesi of Susa, governor of the land of Elam, …when he set the (door) of his Gate in place, ... in the Gate of the God "Shushinak", his lord, and when he had opened the Canal of "Sidur", he set up in face thereof his canopy, and he set planks of cedar-wood for its gate. A sheep in the interior thereof, and sheep without, he appointed (for sacrifice) to him each day. On days of festival he caused the people to sing songs in the Gate of the God "Shushinak."

And twenty measures of fine oil he dedicated to make his gate beautiful.
Four Magi of silver he dedicated;
A censer of silver and gold he dedicated for a sweet odor;
A sword he dedicated;
An axe with four blades he dedicated,
And he dedicated silver in addition for the mounting thereof.... A righteous judgment he judged in the city!

As for the man who shall transgress his judgment or shall remove his gift, may the Gods "Shushinak" and "Shamash", "Bel" and "Ea", "Ninni" and "Sin", "Mnkharsag" and "Nati-may" all the Gods uproot his foundation, and his seed may they destroy!"}

How do you like the final threat and curse upon the violators who may interfere with Karibu-Sha-Shushinak's work?!

For more information on Susa Military Uniforms read:

Pictorial History of Iranian Military Uniforms: Chapter 1: Susian Uniforms

Analysis of Karibu-Sha-Shushinak's Inscription

Obviously "Shushinak" was the main God of Susa whom Karibu-Sha-Shushinak dedicated many offerings to this God. It will be seen that Karibu-Sha-Shushinak takes a delight in enumerating the details of the offerings he had ordained in honor of his city-god "Shushinak", and this religious temper is peculiarly characteristic of the princes of Susa throughout the whole course of their history.

Another interesting point to notice in the inscription is that, although the writer invokes Shushinak, his own god, and puts his name at the head of the list of deities whose vengeance he implores upon the impious, he also calls upon the gods of the Babylonians. As he wrote the inscription itself in Babylonian, in the belief that it might be recovered by some future inhabitant of his country, so he included in his imprecations those deities whose names he conceived would be most reverenced by such a reader. In addition to Karibu-Sha-Shushinak the names of a number of other patesis, or viceroys, have recently been recovered, such as

Khutran-Tepti,
And
Idadu I
and his son
Kal-Rukhu-Ratir
and his grandson
Idadu II.

All of these kings ruled after Karibu-Sha-Shushinak, and may be set in the early period of Babylonian supremacy in Elam. First they were patesis and next kings of Susa.

For more information on Susa Flags read:

Pictorial History of Iranian Flags: Chapter 1: Susian Flags

Judgement on Karibu Sha

Karibu Sha had many negative and positive points; however, as the first official Sha (Shah) of Iran, he took primarily Susa and then the local region out of the Babylonian domination.

Karibu Sha built many temples, wrote different inscriptions (we have documentations on two), built an important canal (Canal of Sidur), built up the City State of Susa and turned it to the Kingdom of Susa. Karibu Sha built many statues and totems of Gods and dedicated many sacrifices and offerings to Gods, specifically God Shushinak. But the most important task of all Karibu Sha's tasks was that he advanced and established the first independent Iranian Kingdom, the "Kingdom of Susa". This is how we will remember the legacy of Karibu Sha.

Karibu Sha, established the foundation for "City State of Susa" to become the "Kingdom of Susa" which eventually later in times dominated the complete region of South-Western Iran, Western Iran and Mesopotamia.

Periods of Susa, Babylon and Elam Supremacy

Obviously Susa had rivalry with Elam and Babylon. From time to time each of the three would take over and control the complete region of Mesopotamia. So Susa from Khuzestan, Babylon from South and Elam from West would all seek absolute control of Mesopotamia and from time to time, each of these civilizations dominated the other two and ruled the complete region.

Karibu-Sha-Shushinak (3750 BC)
Susa Dynasty

Karibu-Sha-Shushinak 3750 BC, First was Under Babylon, then became independent [First Shah of Iran] before this period, there were Governors, not Shahs. After Karibu Sha, many other Sha's ruled, but Karibu Sha started it all.

Kudur-Nakhunta (2280 BC)
Avan Dynasty

About 2280 BC the king of Susa, Kudur-Nakhunta, affected the conquest of Mesopotamia and decorated his capital with the spoils of the towns of Chaldæ; notable among these was the statue of the Goddess Nana, which he facilitated to be transported from Uruk [Erech] to Susa.

Shutruk-Nakhunta (1210 BC)
Shutrukids Dynasty [The 1st Dynasty]

A king of Susa, Shutruk-Nakhunta, boasts of having devastated Chaldæ, and of having seized the statue of Melishikhu; he records that he took some hundreds of towns, brought back several kings as captives, and built a large number of temples at Susa. His grandson, Shilkhak-in-Shushinak, restored these buildings, where the statue of Melishikhu, the statue of Kudurru, and the statues of Chaldeæn divinities were placed, with all the precious objects taken from the towns of the Tigris valley.

Babylonian and Elamite Occupation of Susa (1100 BC - 770 BC)

Finally Babylonians and Elamites understood that the only way they could dominate Susa and destroy Susa's rivalry was to unite as a united front against Susa! Obviously the plan worked and together they captured Susa and managed to dominate Susa between 1100 BC - 770 BC.

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* * *

Chapter Three
Susa

Susa, The Geography

Shush Civilization had a system of Local City government and also it was a city-state type of a government with the capital of Shush. Originally, City of Shush was located near today's Shush and Shushtar. Today, Ruins of historic Shush are located at the west of city of Shush and at the North West of city of Shushtar located on the North West of the State of Khuzestan. The civilization started from the Old City of Shush, yet eventually expanded and took over a good chunk of Khuzestan. So Shush Civilization basically covered a territory as large as a greater part of the Khuzestan.

For more information on Susa Geography read:

Atlas of Iran Maps: Chapter 1: Susa Maps

Susa, The Government

As mentioned, Shush Civilization was a City State, with almost the same government structure as "The Maya Civilization" of Central Americas, which specifically was located at The Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico) and Guatemala. The city of Shush was the center of the government, ruling the state from Shush; therefore the whole system of the state was circulated and dictated from the city of Shush.

Susa, The Economy and Society

Shush had domesticated cattle, had cattle ranches, and had Animal Husbandry Economy since 6000 BC. Shush had agriculture and a fine system of irrigation; therefore, moved to Agricultural Economy since 5000 BC. As the earliest arsenal, bronze was produced at Tape Yahya about 3800 BC, Shush became a weapon producer. By 3500 BC the full system of city-state was operating at Shush, and by 3400 BC Priests gained power and formed one of the elite groups among the government. By 2900 BC brick buildings were visible all over the place, they even started building defensive walls around the City of Shush and other cities of the city-state. They had secular rulers gaining importance from 2750 BC, even had a military build up and the use of four wheeled war wagons since 2400 BC. Among the weapons, they used spears, swords, daggers, bow and arrows, and knives. They made weapons with stone, metals and leather. They had aqueduct system, irrigation, fertile lands, reading and writing system, numeral system, scripts, governing system, and a local security enforcement. They became a highly evolved and sophisticated society of city-states revolved around the main city-state of Shush.

Susa Transportation

They had a system of transport through rivers and bodies of water in flat lands of Khuzestan which they used small boats, canoes, air filled boats and balams (local Khuzestanian small boats) to transport people, tools and merchandise. They also had small roads, which they were using horses, donkeys, wheeled wagons, war wagons, and etc. to move with.

Invention of Beer

The traces of beer has been found on ancient bowls and dishes in Shush. They were the oldest civilization in the world who were drinking alcohol, specifically "beer." As far as we know, according to ancient historians, archeologists, and anthropologist scientists, the oldest trace of alcohol beverages was found in Shush. So far historians believe that Shush people were the first who invented beer and were the first who were drinking alcohol. This shows you, why Persians are such big drinkers! I guess later on, we evolved to Vodka! LOL

Susa, The History

Shush, including Elam (ILam) and Anshan were all close city-states. Many times during the ancient history, Shush had ruled the other two; many times Shush had even ruled the whole Mesopotamia! That is why eventually Shush became the capital of Elam, in different eras of ancient history. Karibu-Sha-Shushinak also known as Shushinak (3750 BC) was one of Shush's great kings, he built many temples. Technically he was the first Shah of Iran.

Persian City State

Susa City State (6000 BC - 3750 BC)
Iran has 8000 years of history, oldest civilization on Earth. From 6000 BC to 3750 BC, The first civilization in Iran (Susa) was a city-state and ruled by Governors. Some Governors were subject rulers of Babylon, some autonomous, and some independent. For instance, Shimbi-ish-Khuk Governor of Susa [Under Babylon] (Before 3750 BC) was one.

Persian Kingdom

Kingdom of Susa
First King of Iran (Persian Kingdom)
Karibu-Sha-Shushinak also known as Shushinak (3750 BC), son of Shimbi-ish-khuk (patesi of Susa, governor of the land of Elam), at First was a subject ruler Under Babylon, then he became an independent Sha (Shah), The Shah of Susa [First Shah of Iran]. Naturally before this period, there were Governors ruling Susa. Shushinak built many temples, monuments, a canal (Canal of Sidur) and wrote many inscriptions. Shushinak started the Kingdom of Iran.

Susa Empire!

Susa Kingdom expands to an Empire!
On 2280 BC Kudur Nakhunta, famous Shah of Susa, king of Shush done the conquest of the whole Mesopotamia, he took over Chaldea and decorated his capital with the statue of the Goddess Nana which had been transported from Uruk (Capital of Chaldea) to Shush. We can trace at least 20 different kings in Shush which at least belonged to three different dynasties. We can also see the conflict of races in Shush. There were times that Elamites (ILamies) hemitics were in power, and then there were times that Anzan (Anshan) Asianics were in power, the mixture of Hemitics, Asianics, and the Local races was what made Shush flourish! Shush took the best of all three in different periods of its history.


Susa Man at Persepolis
Susian Soldier with Persian Lion

There were times that Shush (Susa) practically took over the whole Mesopotamian Civilizations including Sumer, Akkad, Babylon, Assyria, Chaldea, and the Iranian Civilizations of Elam and Anzan. Those were the times which Shush ruled the whole region. There are stone sculptures, ruins of buildings, bronze metal works, jewelry and industrial art, and many other artifacts left from this civilization.


Susa Woman Spinning Yarn
One of the oldest Susa artifact carvings

So, history of Iran starts with Shush civilization 8000 years ago at Khuzestan. A bit later we had many other civilizations in Iran, way before Aryans entered the scene.

What made Susa Flourish?

Iranians have a history of diverse races since 8000 years ago! Iran is a land of many races, ethnicities and cultures. It all started with Susa! There were times that Elamites (ILamies) hemitics were in charge, and then there were times that Anzan (Anshan) Asianics were in charge. And then of course were local Susians whom were of Iranian Local Races. The combination of Hemitics, Asianics, and the Iranian Local races was what made Shush flourish! Shush took the best of all three in different periods of it's history and established Susa. Iranians took the best of what each civilization had to offer and then they built the heart of global civilization, The Susa Civilization!

The diversity of races, the best of each civilization from all Hemitics, Asianics and Local Iranian Races established Susa to evolve from a City State to a Kingdom and then an Empire! This is called Iranian Ingenuity.


Susa winged man-beast at Darius' Palace
Wall carvings of ancient era

Today we also have many races and ethnicities living in Iran (both Aryan and Non Aryan):

Persians, Azeris, Kurds, Turkmens, Baluchis, Lors, Arabs (Hemites), Jews (Semites), Indians, Blacks, and others. We are all Iranians and together we make up the fabric of what makes Iran great. The history of Iranian tolerance and respect towards "All" races and "Ethnic" Groups starts from Susa and then from Cyrus The Great who wrote the first declaration of human rights on Earth (Cyrus Cylinder). This is why the Racist Garbage will not fly in Iran, and this is how the Persian Empire's legend goes on ….

Archeological Sites

Beside Shush or Susa Site, there are "Tape Yahya" were bronze were produced at 3800 BC, also Tape Sialak near Kashan were traces of early cottages has been found as old as 5000 BC. Ancient Cemeteries have been found at Tel Bagum near Persepolis, Tape Sialak near Kashan, and Tape Hissar near Damqan. One of the oldest artifacts found in Iran is a 4200 years old knife handle made of bone in the shape of human, wearing a traditional wrap (Long) and a hat (Shab-Kolah). There are also many other art-work found of the same era which shows how Iranians used to always wear fancy designer clothes and a variety of jewelry. Traces of different Gods were found in different sites like Kassia (Lorestan) of a Man-God with two horns on his head like Gilgamesh, all the way to symbols and totems of Mitra, Anahita, and Ahura Mazda.


L. Susa Persian Guardsmen (Achaemenid Era)
Artaxerxes II palace
R. Susa Soldier (Susa Era)
Ancient Susian Soldier from Kingdom of Susa

Tape Hissar of Damqan is of a specific value, cause the artifacts, which have been found, were from the Arsacid (Ashkanid) Dynasty of Iran. As we know the capital of Ashkanid Parthian Empire of Iran was Hecatompylos or Hekatompolis (Sad Darvazeh) near Damqan and many valuable artifacts of Ashkanid has been found at Tape Shir Zhian and Tape Hissar of Damqan, this has opened up a brand new horizon for archaeologists and ancient historians. Among other sites are Tape Gian, Tape Jamshidi and Tape BadHura, all near Nahavand of Hamedan State. Rey located 6 kilometer south of Tehran is also a valuable archeological site. Tape Cheshmeh Ali is the main site at Rey (Shahre Rey) where "Dr. Schmidt" the famous archeologist dug many pottery and dishes. Tel Bagum of Persepolis at Pars State are also, where many ancient Aryan Emblems of the "broken cross" or Schwastika (Swastika) has been found. The life of this Aryan Symbol unlike many believe, is not limited to Nazi Germany, yet it goes all the way back to Ancient Persia and even India (during Indo-European and Aryan establishments). Among other sites are Turang Tape and Shah Tape of Gorgan where more Parthian artifacts were found. Kaleh Dasht of Saveh, Azerbaijan Sites, Hassan Lu near Orurmiyeh, Lorestan Sites, Baluchistan Sites where artifacts from two ancient Khashtarah of Godruzia and Zarank has been found (Khashtarah = State, in ancient Persian language) are amongst many other sites. Tape = Hill in Persian.

Other Civilizations of Iran

Take a brief look at other civilizations before the coming of Aryans to Iran:

* Casia Civilization of Gilan
(Caspian Civilization established in South-West of Caspian Sea) before The Aryan Immigration
* Kirmania Civilization of Jiroft, Kerman (South East of Iranian Plateau)
* Kassite Civilization of Lorestan (West Iran)
* Mannaian Civilization of West Azerbaijan (North West Iran)
* Tapurian Civilization (Mazandaran)
* ELam Civilization (ILam State and beyond)
* Anshan Civilization (North Khuzestan and vicinity)
* Others

Please Note:
Iranian local civilizations (except ILam and partially Anshan) were of the local races of Iran, which had settled in Iran before the coming of Aryans. They were by no means of Hemitic (Arabic) races.

ILam and Anshan Civilizations were a mix of Hemitic and Local Iranian Races.

As we see, there were also other civilizations than Shush, existed before the migration of Aryans to Iran. Among such civilizations were Casia (or Caspians located at today's Gilan State), Tapuria (located at today's Mazandaran State). The word Tapur is the original term and it evolved in history of linguistics, specifically in Indo-European language like this:

Tapuria = Tabaria = Tabarestan = (Became Mazandaran)

Also Caspians were a great powerful race located on the shores of Caspian Sea (Largest Lake in the world). Caspians had a progressive civilization but more of a warrior type, yet Tapurs of Tapuria were more of an on the move culture, spreading at jungles, mountains and prairies.

Another famous civilization of Iran before the entrance of Aryans was Kassia (Kassites). Kassian people (Kas-ha) were located at today's Lorestan State. they were brave warriors, doing many battles and committing many invasions to flat lands of Mesopotamia. Even later on, Kassian people were always among the bravest soldiers of Persian Empire. Elam (ILam) and Anzan (Anshan) were also among Iranian civilizations. Elam was basically located at today's ILam State of Iran and parts of Iraq, and Anshan was basically located at northern parts of Khuzestan and the neighboring vicinity.

So as we see, great civilizations of Shush, Kassite (Kassia), Casia (Caspian), Tapuria, Elam and Anzan (Anshan) amongst others were very well existed and flourished way before Aryans entered the Iranian Plateau. These civilizations were of Local Iranian Races, Native, Asianic, Hemitic and other races. The Local Natives of Iran as of mixed or pure races can still be found living in these areas.

Continued on next page

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