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Last Persian Emperor
Aqa Mohammad Shah QajarChapter 2


Last Persian Emperor: Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar
Historically Condemned or Historical Hero?
Psychological Thriller Deep in the Psyche of Aqa Mohammad Shah!
Pictorial History of Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar in 4 Chapters
Aqa Mohammad Shah, The Real Story: Chapter 2

Ahreeman X
February 22, 2019

Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar the Final Persian Emperor (1794 – 1797)
The Last Shahanshah of the Persian Colonial Empire
Fuad Poladov powerful theatric play as Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar
Shah Qajar Theatre Play, Baku, Azerbaijan

Aqa Mohammad Shah Begins Official Reign 1794

Now Aqa Khan could start his official reign but before that, he had to set the records straight by pay backs.

Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Lion and Sun Dark Persian Imperial Coat of Arms
Dark Banners and Insignias were used during the national mourning events or during the dark and intense political relations or near war situations with a foreign adversary power. They were often sign of sorrow or anger.

Pay Backs

Pay Backs were high. As I stated, in total three of Aqa Khan’s brothers originally undermined him and did not allow him as the eldest son to become the tribal head; furthermore, in later years they colluded with Zands and tried to arrest him and turn him in to the Zands! Traitors were everywhere including his own brothers. Three brothers escaped his wrath, including Reza Qoli Khan to Khorasan and Morteza Qoli Khan to Russia, refuging in Catherine’s court. Also, in later years the other two brothers who were his generals, also betrayed him. Aqa Khan blinded Mustafa Qoli Khan and killed Jaffar Qoli Khan. So, every half-brother ended up betraying him. The only brother (full blood brother) who did not betray him was Hossein Qoli Khan Jahansouz who was defeated by Zands and got killed in early years.

Arg Karim Khan Zand at night, Shiraz, Iran
Where Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar was practically imprisoned through all his youth limited to the surrounding walls of the Palace Citadel.

In later years, he also did not only commit a massacre in Kerman (as I stated) and taken care of the Zand Dynasty and followers, yet he also committed a great massacre of Turkmens (his original people) in Astarabad and vicinity, because they also betrayed him (as stated earlier) and aligned with the enemies. As a routine, he ordered mass serial killings of men, handing the women to his army as concubines to wed as spouses or do whatever they please, take the children as slaves and servants, burn down the farms and behead as many heads to run rivers of blood for days and then piling up the beheaded heads on top of each other to build tall minarets (like mosque minarets)! At least he did not completely destroy Astarabad because he as a Turkmen rooted person, felt a close tie to Astarabad but he pretty much leveled Kerman because Zands were originally Kermani and Kerman was full of Zand followers who made an allegiance to Karim Khan and Lotf Ali Khan Zand.

Qajar Persian Imperial Order of Lion and Sun Medallion

All of these pay backs were not enough to satisfy his sense of revenge and thirst for blood, so for years of imprisonment in Karim Khan’s Castle at Shiraz, Aqa Khan ordered to take out Karim Khan Zand’s bones out of his grave in Shiraz, bring them to Tehran (now his capital), and burry them in front of the Golestan Palace (his palace), so on daily basis him and everyone else would walk over Karim Khan Zand and insult him! Aqa Khan was pretty extreme with his revenges and methods!

Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Wax Figure at the Wax Museum, Tehran, Iran
Pointing at the ground in front of the Golestan Palace where Karim Khan Zand’s bones were buried to walk on.

Learning from the Zand History

Aqa Mohammad Khan was a witness to the Zand History. He saw firsthand on how easily can siblings, cousins and family turn on each other. The vacuum after Karim Khan’s death caused so many Zand royalty to dispute one another, make coalitions, claim the throne, and finally kill each other. Aqa Khan witnessed on how the situation can be destabilized to the point that the complete dynasty would collapse. He learned from the history and he did not want to repeat the history. He wanted to establish a dynasty which would last a century or more.

Jeyran Khanum Qajar, the Powerful Persian Queen Mother
The Support Rock and Shoulder to Cry On for Aqa Khan
Lalezar Mustafayeva as Jeyran Khanum in Shah Qajar Play, Baku, Azerbaijan

Learning from history, he slaughtered his unfaithful siblings (half-brothers) unless they escaped Iran (Morteza Qoli Khan). Everyone in his court and in Qajar tribe who was suspicious and not trust worthy or shown signs of betrayal was immediately killed or if they were strong, a time would have been set for them to be killed in a future time. He only rewarded the trustworthy people. For instance, Reza Qoli Khan Qajar saw himself as the natural earl to the throne and Jaffar Qoli Khan despite his earlier services to Aqa Khan had become shaky and not trustworthy in later years, so they both had to go! When you got to go, then you got to go!

Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Sketch Portrait

On the other hand, Aqa Khan trusted the Jahansouz Family of his murdered brother Hossein Qoli Khan Jahansouz. He trusted Fath Ali Khan (Baba Khan) his nephew. In early years, Baba Khan was a fighter. Unlike his later years (when he become the Shah), which he became a lover with excessive passion for lust rather than running the country, in his early years he had shown guts and backbone to fight! He became Aqa Khan’s favorite nephew and earl. Fath Ali Khan become his general and sidekick. Once Fath Ali Khan had various children, it is known that Aqa Mohammad Khan stated:

“I hope that at least one of these children becomes as great of a warrior as Lotf Ali Khan Zand!”
(Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar)
Aqa Mohammad Khan was brutal but his brutality was a calculated plan to establish Qajar as a Dynasty which lasted 131 years (1794 -1925). He learned his lessons witnessing the history of Zand!

Qajar Persian Imperial Order of the Sun Medal – 18 Century
Mitra Sun Goddess Medallion

Mitra Persian Sun Goddess and Mitraism: Foundations of Christianity

Conquest of Georgia and Caucasus

Georgia has always been a state of Iran but in later years (16th Century) during the Safavid and Afsharid Dynasties, Iran allowed internal autonomy to Georgia while the Georgian foreign policy was dictated by the central Persian Imperial Government. So, Georgia was allowed a monarch, as a governor, yet still considered as an autonomous state of Iran.

Heraclius II (1762 - 1798) was the monarch of Georgia. He was allowed to govern and have autonomy under the Persian Colonial Empire. Suddenly Heraclius II become a Christian and started to convert all the Georgians to Christianity. On 1783, unilaterally, Heraclius II signed a treaty (the Treaty of Georgievsk) with Catherine II of Russia. The Russian Empire agreed to protect Georgia as a protectorate against any new invasion and further political aspirations of their Persian suzerains. Now picture that! A state of Iran and its governor unilaterally and without permission, signs a treaty with a foreign power (Russia) and declare itself as a “Protectorate” of Russian Empire! This is an act of treason.

Qajar Cannon Tower on Old City Wall top, Baku Defense, Baku, Azerbaijan

Originally, the traitor Heraclius II pleaded to the Sultan Abdulhamid I of the Ottoman Empire to become an Ottoman protectorate but Sultan refused because the last thing he needed was a new series of conflict and battles with the Persian Empire. Then Heraclius II turned to Catherine II and signed up the 1783 Treaty.

In 1795, when situation got hairy, Heraclius II turned to Sultan Selim III of the Ottoman Empire for help but he refused help. Then Heraclius II asked Russians to send at least 3,000 troops for aid, yet was ignored by Catherine II because primarily Georgia was not of main importance to Russia, also Catherine II did not believe that Aqa Mohammad Khan would actually conduct a campaign in Caucasus that early after his official reign date (1794).

Qajar Persian Imperial Artillery Brass Cannon, Tehran Museum, Iran

Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar repeatedly warned Heraclius II to repeal the treaty of Georgievsk, beg for forgiveness and announce his allegiance to Persia and in return Aqa Khan would recognize him as the “Vali” (Elder Governor) of Georgia. Heraclius II expired his chances to repent.

Qajar Antique Persian Azeri Qameh Dagger with Lion Handle
Inlaid enamel handmade and hand painted Persian Artifact

On 1795, Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar along with 60,000 troops crossed the Aras River. His forces were divided in to three parts:

The Left Branch
Moved towards Armenia (then Khanat of Yerevan) from Yerevan (Irvan).

The Right Branch
Moved parallel to the Caspian Sea to Azerbaijan (then Khanat of Ganjeh) from Muqan, Daqestan and Shirvan.

The Center Branch
Moved towards Georgia (then Kingdom of Kartli and Kakheti) from Shusha and Qarabaq

While Aqa Khan’s generals were leading the left and the right branches, he was leading the central branch. Along the way, Khanat Yerevan (Armenia) and Ganjeh (Azerbaijan) surrendered, paid tribute and formed alliance with Aqa Khan.

Qajar Persian Imperial Cavalry Divsar Devil Head Mace – 18 Century

On 1795 Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar sent his final ultimatum to Heraclius II:

“Your Highness knows that for the past 100 generations you have been a subject to the Persian Empire ... while we were occupied with our internal affairs subduing the numerous rebellions around the empire and returning a number of our provinces back to the motherland, you have taken advantage of our attendance to our internal affairs and devoted Gorjestan (Georgia) in to a Russian Protectorate … now we deign to say with amazement that you have clung yourself to the Russians, who have no other business than to trade with the Persian Empire ... last year you forced us to destroy a number of the Georgians, although we had no desire at all for our subjects to perish by our own hands ... if you repent and appear before us, we shall allow you to remain the Vali of Gorjestan (Governor of Georgia), if you don’t, then you will leave us no other choice but to treat you like other rebels and bandits … it is now our great will that you, an intelligent man, abandon such treason ... and break relations with the Russians. If you do not carry out this order, then we shall soon carry out a campaign against Georgia, we will shed both Georgian and Russian blood. We will behead as many necessary, so with their blood we will run a river as great as the Kura River.”
(Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar)

Note 1: Kura River is a large size river which runs through Georgia and Azerbaijan.

Note 2: In the earlier time, Aqa Mohammad Khan had a minor battle with Georgians and he killed a number of them to make an example not to get tempted to betray Iran.

Heraclius II ignored Aqa Khan and sent a messenger to Saint Petersburgh, Russia for aid. Heraclius II made a coalition with King Solomon II of the Kingdom of Imereti (another part of Georgia) and marched to Tbilisi (Capital of Georgia)

Qajar Persian Imperial Cavalry (left) and Infantry (right) Standard Banners
Late 18 Century – Early 19 Century

Battle of Krtsanisi

On 1795, Aqa Mohammad Khan with 30,000 men marched directly to Tbilisi (Teflis). Persian troops entangled with heavy defense of the combine forces of Heraclius II and Solomon II. The Georgians lost the primary battle so Heraclius II managed to gather another 5,000 Kartli and Kakheti troops along with 2,000 auxiliary troops from Imereti.

Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Capture of Tbilisi (Teflis), Georgia
Persian Miniature Painting

Despite the heavy Georgian artillery defense, Aqa Mohammad Khan personally led the Persian Cavalry across the Kura River directly into the defenses of Tbilisi. Aqa Khan crashed the central defenses of Tbilisi, so Heraclius II and a number of his troops and commanders saw no choice but to fly the city in to mountains to conduct a guerilla warfare.

Georgian Defenders (left) fighting and escaping from the Persian Cavalry (right)
Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Capture of Tbilisi (Teflis), Georgia
Persian Miniature Painting

The guerilla warfare never accomplished and over 4,000 Georgian troops died in Tbilisi. Persians given heavy casualty but took control of the complete city. The complete Georgian cavalry and artillery were destroyed. The city was on fire. Certain parts of the city were burned to the ground to the point that the burned bodies were not recognizable. Stench of the burned bodies filled up the air.

Georgian Defenders Raising White Banner Ignored by the Persian Cavalry, Now Retreating Back to Inside the City Walls
Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Capture of Tbilisi (Teflis), Georgia
Persian Miniature Painting

Aqa Mohammad Khan leveled Tbilisi. As promised before, he cut so many heads that rivers of blood were running for days, of course not as large as Kura River but pretty good size! Aqa Khan build minarets from the beheaded heads in the form of the tall mosque minarets. He had done this to make a point about Heraclius II converting to the Orthodox Christianity and going under the protection of Russia!

Georgian Women taken as Concubines on horsebacks and Georgian Men as Slaves
Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Capture of Tbilisi (Teflis), Georgia
Persian Miniature Painting

Aqa Khan did not bother chasing after Heraclius II because he was already running and hiding in the mountains, living in the caves, fearful of him. To reward the Newly Christian Georgians for converting to the Orthodox Christianity, putting themselves under the Russian protection and abandoning their motherland, Aqa Khan burned down a number of churches, tied up the priests with ropes and dumped them in the river to drown alive! It is written that Aqa Khan was screaming these words to the Georgians while drowning the priests:

“You want Orthodox Christianity? You want Russian Protection? You want to follow Heraclius? You want to betray your motherland Empire (Persian Colonial Empire)? You want to confess your sins to your spiritual fathers, the priests? Confess now, they are listening, their hands and feet are tied but their ears are open!”
(Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar)

These words were screamed while one by one the priests were dumped and drowned in Kura River and the Churches were burning. He made people to watch the burning churches and drowning priests while screaming these words!

Persian Imperial Zanburakchis (Camel Back Mobile Light Artillery) blowing their frightful battle horns while marching towards Tbilisi
Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Capture of Tbilisi (Teflis), Georgia
Persian Miniature Painting

When one of his commanders inquired on why they must keep watching? Aqa Mohammad Khan gently replied:

“Someone must set an example for these people about having faith in their own Mother Empire (Persian Colonial Empire) rather than faith in the Russian Orthodox Church! Sometimes we need to remind people to love and respect their own land!”
(Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar)

After these words, many Persian Cavalrymen started chanting: “God Bless Aqa Khan”!

Gorgeous Georgian Women were taken as Concubines for the Persian Troops
Notice the evil smirk on the mustached white Persian infantryman’s face at the bottom right corner of the miniature painting, pondering about the upcoming sexual escapades!
Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Capture of Tbilisi (Teflis), Georgia
Persian Miniature Painting

Aqa Mohammad Khan took about 15,000 Georgians captive and relocated them to the mainland Iran. Amongst this group were 2,000 male which consisted of 1,000 young men for slavery and servitude, also breed to create a race of “Born House Servants” (Nokar-e Khaneh Zad) plus 1,000 young boys to train and develop to become future Persian troops. There were also 13,000 females including 10,000 young women as sex slaves, concubines and spouses for his troops plus 3,000 young girls for servitude as house maids to develop as a race of house maids giving birth to “Born House Maids” (Kolfat-e Khaneh Zad).

Qajar Persian Cavalry Lancer

When asked by his general, why relocate so many young women? Aqa Khan replied:

“These Georgian girls are strong, beautiful, tall and white girls (Aryans). We have an empire to run consisting of various races. It is good to breed our finest imperial troops from all over the empire and from all races with these girls to bear strong, beautiful, tall and white babies (Aryanization). These babies will make powerful soldiers and beautiful wives.”
(Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar)

In other words, Aqa Khan was racially conscious enough to clean the race, make it strong and beautiful with Aryanization!

Qajar Persian Cavalry Zanburakchi (Camel Back Mobile Light Artillery)

Qajar Persian Imperial Infantry Officer (left) and Cavalry (right)
Iran Late 18 Century and Early 19 Century

Qajar Local Militia (left), Drummer (Center) and Auxiliary (right)
Iran Late 18 Century and Early 19 Century

Qajar Persian Imperial Zanburakchi Soldiers and Officer
Zanburakchi were Camel Back Mobile Light Artillery Units of the Persian Cavalry
Iran Late 18 Century and Early 19 Century

Qajar Persian Imperial Cavalry Tofangchi Sharpshooter Musketeers
Iran Late 18 Century and Early 19 Century

Qajar Persian Imperial Cavalry Divsar (Devil Head) Special Forces
Spiked Helmet with Chainmail and Shield
Notice Mitra Sun Goddess Emblem on the Helmet and Shield
Iran Late 18 Century and Early 19 Century

Qajar Persian Imperial Cavalry Divsar (Devil Head) Special Forces
Spiked Helmet with Chainmail Front

Qajar Persian Imperial Cavalry Divsar (Devil Head) Special Forces
Spiked Helmet with Chainmail Back

Qajar Persian Imperial Cavalry Divsar (Devil Head) Special Forces Helmet 18 Century

Qajar Persian Imperial Cavalry Divsar (Devil Head) Helmet without Chainmail

Qajar Persian Imperial Cavalry Helmet with Mitra Sun Emblem

Qajar Persian Imperial Army Khanjar Dagger and Scabbard 18 Century

Qajar Persian Straight Sword - Persian Colonial Empire

Qajar Persian Straight Sword and Scabbard - Persian Colonial Empire

Qajar Persian Straight Sword Handle - Persian Colonial Empire

Qajar Persian Imperial Army Officers’ Scimitar (Curved Sword) Iran 18 Century

Qajar Persian Imperial Infantry Khanjar Dagger with Scabbard - Iran 18 Century

Qajar Persian Ivory Handle Antique Sword

Qajar Persian Imperial Cavalry Double Headed Spiked Axe – 18 Century

Qajar Persian Imperial Cavalry Tabarzin Spiked Axe
Iran Late 18 Century – Early 19 Century

Qajar Persian Imperial Cavalry Officer Pistol – 18 Century

Qajar Persian Imperial Cavalry Pistols
Iran Late 18 Century – Early 19 Century

Qajar Persian Pistols
Iran Late 18 Century – Early 19 Century

Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Painting

Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Wax Figure Closeup at the Wax Museum, Tehran, Iran

Third Conflict with Catherine the Great

The third conflict of Aqa Khan with Empress Catherine the Great of Russia was indeed the Battle of Krtsanisi and the Conquest of Georgia which was a heavy blow to the prestige of the Tsarist Russian Empire. General Ivan Gudovich in charge of the Russian Caucasian Affairs had put the blame of this disastrous defeat in the whole region, on Heraclius II’s head! Catherine II did not like this disaster a single bit. There were a small number of Russian troops (just for show) in Georgia. Whatever of Russian Troops left alive, returned to Russia with much embarrassment!

On to the Next Chapter

Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
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