Iran Politics Club      
           
Aqa Mohammad Shah 4
   
Website For Thinking Iranians
 
Back to index  

Last Persian Emperor
Aqa Mohammad Shah QajarChapter 4

 

Last Persian Emperor: Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar
Historically Condemned or Historical Hero?
Psychological Thriller Deep in the Psyche of Aqa Mohammad Shah!
Pictorial History of Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar in 4 Chapters
Aqa Mohammad Shah, The Real Story: Chapter 4

Ahreeman X
February 22, 2019


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Charge - Persian Art Painting
Leading a Military Campaign at the Battleground Mountaintop
The Final Persian Emperor (1794 – 1797) of the Persian Colonial Empire

Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar and Sex

The same as other aspects of his life, much garbage has been stated about Aqa Khan’s sex life. One idiot, sorry I mean historian went as far as referring to Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar as a shemale! I bet with you that this idiot is not even aware of the meaning of the term shemale! Allow me to clarify it for the idiot and for all. A shemale is a born male which upon hormones, procedures and surgeries, transforms his male body to a female body except cutting off his penis and testicles. In other words, a shemale is a chick with dick! Aqa Mohammad Khan was a male who never transformed his body to become a female. He did not have breasts and he was not a shemale.


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Persian Lion and Sun Imperial Court Emblem Designer Tile

Other idiots claim that Aqa Mohammad Khan was a Transsexual Eunuch, meaning that Afsharid cut of his penis and testicles! Aqa Mohammad Khan’s penis was never cut off! His testicles were removed but not his penis. In fact, he had a good size penis!

When your testicles are removed via castration, you cannot reproduce and you lose your desire to have sex because you lack testicles. You lose your male hormones so you do not grow beard and mustache and your body becomes hairless.


Qajar Persian Lion and Sun Emeralds, Diamonds, Rubies, Gold Enamel Jewel Star Insignia

On the contrary, Aqa Mohammad Khan defied the laws of nature! Despite not having any “Balls”, yet he had become one of the few Persian Shahanshahs with “Gigantic Size “Balls”! This ball-less man was the owner of some astronomic size balls! The stories of his braveries, courage, pigheadedness, risks, battles, hand to hand combats, charging his troops, leading his men in battles, fabulous tactics and superb military strategies had made him world famous. He may have not had physical balls but his theoretic balls were massive and much larger than thousands of his biased critics who trash his name due to envy, spite and ignorance!


Qajar Persian Order of Lion and Sun Jewel Emblem Insignia – Persian Colonial Emblem


Qajar Persian Lion and Sun Insignia Up Close, Persian Colonial Empire

Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar and Women

There were 2 important women in Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar’s life whom he adored and cherished very much.


Jeyran Khanum Qajar, the Queen Mother
Lalezar Mustafayeva superb portrayal of Jeyran Khanum Qajar in “Shah Qajar” Theatre Production, Baku, Azerbaijan


Jeyran Khanum Qajar (top) with Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar (bottom)
Qajar Antique Persian Carpet Pattern, Iran

Jeyran Khanum Qajar, the Queen Mother

Jeyran Khanum was Aqa Mohammad Khan’s rock and support. Due to Afsharid Castration, he could not have a wife and children; furthermore, he could not be a sexual creature, so he focused his life on his military campaigns and his primary love Iran. Due to many sufferings which he went through in his life (castration, imprisonment, prejudice, etc.), he had psychological issues. The life did not cut a fair deck of cards for him. When lonesome, worried and had a heavy heart, he would escape to loving lap and arms of Jeyran Khanum which was his Rock of Stability! Aqa Khan loved his mother and highly respected her. Jeyran Khanum felt his pain and challenges; therefore, she was always there for him.


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar escapes to the loving arms of the Queen Mother, Jeyran Khanum Qajar. Jeyran Khanum was Aqa Khan’s Support Rock and Shoulder to Cry On. There was an absolutely different side to the Aqa Khan, the “Sensitive Side”! Fuad Poladov as Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar and Lalezar Mustafayeva as Jeyran Khanum Qajar in Shah Qajar Play, Baku, Azerbaijan

Asiyeh Khanum Qajar, the Mistress

Yes, you heard it correctly! Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar had a mistress. Asiyeh Khanum, a Qajar Princess was his mistress. It was a complicated relationship. Aqa Khan could not marry her and have children, so she could not become the Queen or Empress. Aqa Khan could not be a passionate lover due to castration; furthermore, setting all of his passion to expand Iran and conduct military campaigns. On the contrary, this relationship was not solely a platonic Relationship. It was a mixture of erotic and platonic relationship. Qajars are so passionate and horny in nature that even a Qajar Eunuch had sexual relations with women!

Now you may wonder how did they have sex? Primarily have in mind that Aqa Khan had a penis, so technically he could have intercourse. Maybe he had less sexual desires and lack of testosterone but still he could have intercourse. Secondarily, there are such things as sensual and oral sex. There are various ways to have sex aside intercourse! You know what they say? When you get too old to cut the mustard, you can lick the jar!


Asiyeh Khanum Qajar, the Young Qajar Princess Mistress of Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar. Very Young Asiyeh Khanum during her early youth had become Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar, back then Aqa Mohammad Khan’s Mistress. Young Asiyeh Khanum is portrayed in “Qajar Princess” Persian Miniature Painting.

Princess Asiyeh Khanum Qajar was a very young girl when he fell in love with Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar. Actually, Asiyeh Khanum did not need Aqa Khan in any form or way because she was already a well-off princess of Qajar and of Qajar Aristocracy. Her sole interest in Aqa Khan was himself. Asiyeh Khanum was more like a fan of Aqa Khan. She found him amazing, interesting and lovely. Many in Qajar Court clearly stated to her that how can you find this monster, bipolar, melancholic and psychotic person interesting to love and adore? Asiyeh Khanum simply laughed and replied that:

“Love grows in strangest places with strangest conditions. You never know your destiny. What you see as a monster, I see as a loving and passionate gentle soul. You should see him with my perspective. You must wash your eyes to see him without prejudice because he had enough prejudice directed towards him for all his life! He is a beast but he is my beast!”
(Asiyeh Khanum Qajar)


Asiyeh Khanum Qajar Princess Mistress of Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar. Adult Asiyeh Khanum is portrayed in “Beautiful Qajar Princess” Persian Miniature Painting. Notice that Asiyeh Khanum is Wearing the Same Style Qajar Imperial Courthouse Garment with Shoulder Jewels as Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar. Asiyeh Khanum had an Obsession Towards Aqa Khan.

Khanum in Persian means Lady and in fact Asiyeh Khanum was an amazing lady. The story of Asiyeh Khanum and Aqa Mohammad Khan reminds us of the story of “The Beauty and the Beast”! One must see the Beast through the eyes of the Beauty! Aqa Khan loved and adored Asiyeh Khanum. This love story is one of the most bizarre love stories of all times. This love story was platonic, erotic, passionate, melancholic, paranoid, comic and tragic! It ended up in an assassination!


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar was tortured and castrated when he was a child and then imprisoned when he was a youth; therefore, in his older age, he had become a “Child Advocate” and the “Protector of Children”. He spent the very little free time which he had, with the Qajar Court Youth, specifically Fath Ali Khan (Baba Khan) his nephew’s children.

Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar and Children

Aqa Mohammad Khan could not have children of his own; therefore, he loved others’ children. The most ruthless crime and abuse was done to him when he was a small child (castration), so when he grew old, he occupied much of his little free time with Qajar Courthouse children. Various Qajar prince and princess children were always around him and center of his attention, specifically Fath Ali Khan, his nephew and earl’s children.


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar with Qajar Court Youth. Aqa Khan loved children.

Aqa Mohammad Khan a Simple Man

Unlike false narratives which was told during the Pahlavi Regime and the IRI Regime, he was not living a life of luxury but he was a simple man with a simple lifestyle. He did not have time to live a life of luxury because he was always on the move, campaigning and conducting wars. Aqa Mohammad Shah was a simple man in  heart and action.


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar was disgusted by the Courthouse and Elite Sycophants’ Flatteries, Platitudes, and Fake Praise. He hated when they kissed his hands, feet, garment and kissed up to him. He openly called all of them fake. He always searched for honest and brave people who spoke to him of the truth.

Dysfunctionality of Monarchy

Qajar Dynasty is the perfect example of both the perfect form of the Absolutist Monarchy (Aqa Mohammad Shah the first Qajar Monarch) and the Constitutionalist Monarchy (Ahmad Shah the last Qajar Monarch) and in both cases, even though successful at the time, yet they did not last long; therefore, they were dysfunctional. The governing system could not get more absolutist than Aqa Khan’s reign. He kept the integrity of the Persian Empire intact by tooth and nail and he reigned with an iron fist. Ahmad shah, the last Shah of Qajar also executed the perfect constitutional monarchy, to the detail by the design of constitutionalists such as Sattar Khan and Baquer Khan.

Aqa Khan’s reign was only 3 years (1794 – 1797), yet his Empire had built the strong foundation of the Qajar Dynasty which despite the unworthiness of his descendants, it lasted 131 years. Ahmad Shah’s reign was 16 years (1909 – 1925). His government was executed as the perfect Constitutional Monarchy; however, it was corrupt to the bone and impractical by nature because in their fundamentals, Absolutist Monarchy and Constitutional Monarchy, neither one is functional nor practical. They simply do not work.


Qajar Persian Lion and Sun Jewel Emblem Insignia

Heredity of Monarchy makes it not to work because if a monarch is worthy, yet there is no guarantee that his descendants will also be worthy! Review these documents for the reasons on why Monarchy of any form is flawed and will never again work in Iran:

How Republicans and Monarchists view the world?

Why Monarchy has Ended and We Must Start a New?

Monarchy vs. Republic Discussion Thread


Qajar Persian Order of Lion and Sun Silver and gold Enamel Star Insignia

Reasons for the Fall of the Persian Empire

At the beginning of this document I have promised to answer these questions:

* Who was the last Persian Emperor?
* Why was Persian Empire fallen and turned to the Persian Kingdom?
* What historical lesson have we learned from the fall of the Persian Empire?

Here are the answers:

* Who was the last Persian Emperor?

Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar

First and Last Persian Emperors


Qajar Persian Lion and Sun Hand Painted Glazed Ceramic Tile, Iran

* Why was Persian Empire fallen and turned to the Persian Kingdom?

I. Progress and Freedom of the Press due to the Printing Revolution (15th Century) that itself was in fact due to the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg of Germany which covered Europe had never occurred in the Islamic empires such as the Ottoman Empire and the Persian Empire.

II. Reformation and Religious Reforms (16th Century) initiated by Martin Luther which continued by the Protestant Reformers and reformed Catholicism and Christianity had never occurred in the Islamic empires such as the Ottoman Empire and the Persian Empire.

III. Renaissance (14th to 17th Century) and Rebirth which caused the literary, artistic, cultural, political, industrial, economic and scientific Revolution that dragged the westerners out of the Medieval Ages and into the Modern Era in Europe had never occurred in the Islamic empires such as the Ottoman Empire and the Persian Empire.

IV. Enlightenment (18th Century) which caused the Intellectual and Philosophical Revolution in Europe, had never occurred in the Islamic empires such as the Ottoman Empire and the Persian Empire.

V. Industrial Revolution (18th to 19th Century) which transformed the west to the modern nations with modern manufacturing processes and industries in Europe and USA had never occurred in the Islamic empires such as the Ottoman Empire and the Persian Empire.

These 5 above factors in the west had caused the European nations to build:

- Powerful Industry
- Powerful Manufacturing
- Powerful Military
- Powerful Administrations
- Powerful Economy

Their population growth and limited land mass demanded them to capture new markets to sell their products. This is how colonialism started. Eventually the West colonized the east.

At the same time in the east, the Persian Empire and the Ottoman Empire were fighting bloody battles with each other because the Ottomans did not recognize the Persian independence, set aside authority and Empire. Persians also valued their independence more than their lives; therefore, a series of bloody wars had occurred between the two powerful eastern empires (16th to 18th Century) which benefited the western European powers. By the end of the 18th Century, both Ottoman Empire and Persian Empire declined.

The only reason that Russia did not join the decline of the Ottomans and Persians is due to 2 factors:

- Peter the Great’s Reforms (17th to 18th Century)
- Russia is not an Islamic country

On the contrary Russia the same as European nations industrialized and had become a colonial power.


Qajar Persian Lion and Sun with Sword Persian Rug Symbol, Iran

* What historical lesson have we learned from the fall of the Persian Empire?

Islam did not only cause the fall of the Ottoman and the Persian Empire and turned them to backward countries but it also caused the fall of the Islamic world behind the west.

Islam in its nature is reactionary and not progress minded. Islam cannot be reformed because it believes that it is the most perfect form of government, society, politics and religion. Islam is a dangerous political ideology posing as a religion. Islam is a way of life which controls every aspect of your life.

The only solution is the destruction of Islam and its removal from the Persian culture. Unfortunately, Safavid had the power to remove Islam from Iran, but instead they created their own brand of Islam which is the Shiite Islam.  In addition, Nader Shah Afshar and Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar could also remove Islam from the Persian culture because they had the power and means to do this task but alas that they were both deeply religious and devoted to Islam. Nader Shah was Sunni and Aqa Mohammad Shah was Shiite Muslim. The simple solution is:

Islam needs to go.

For Iran to become great again is for Islam to die in Iran.


Mitra Lion and Sun with Sword Qajar Persian Mosaic, Takieh Moaven ol Molk, Kermanshah, Iran


Mitra Persian Sun Goddess Up Close
Mitra Lion and Sun with Sword Qajar Persian Mosaic, Takieh Moaven ol Molk, Kermanshah, Iran
Mitra Persian Sun Goddess (behind the lion) protects the Persian Lion.

Mitra Persian Sun Goddess and Mitraism: Foundations of Christianity

Epilogue

Now that we unveiled the true history of Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar and set the records straight, we need to release a fair historical judgement.


Gorgan Tower, Gorgan, Golestan, Iran
Last Persian Emperor – Final Shahanshah of Iran
Khan of Mazandaran, Khan of Qajar, Shahanshah of the Persian Colonial Empire
Born in Gorgan, Golestan, Iran - Back Then: Astarabad, Mazandaran, Persian Colonial Empire
Astarabad (Gorgan) was the Birthplace of Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar

Historical Judgement of Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar

We must judge each historical character in his own historical time period context. At that period of time, that was the way which emperors behaved and accomplished. The weak died and the strong survived, Darwinists call it the “Survival of the Fittest”. It is the law of nature.

Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar was a wise politician, great communicator, disciplined organizer and a convincing manipulator. He used politics to isolate his greatest foes and he used alliances to build needed coalitions with future friends. Aqa Mohammad Khan had great timing. He knew when and where to make a move and how to make this move for his advancement. Aqa Mohammad Khan always wanted to become the Shah and he knew that if he would have given a chance, he could accomplish greatness for Iran and Iranians. Aqa Mohammad Khan was an Ultra Nationalist.


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar kneels before Jeyran Khanum Qajar, the powerful Queen Mother
Persians have the highest respect for their mothers


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar at the Qajar Persian Imperial Court

Aqa Khan was not a builder but he was a conqueror. Still he managed to build, reconstruct and restore various buildings, monuments and constructions. The construction of Masjed-e Shah (Shah Mosque) in Tehran was ordered and started by Aqa Mohammad Khan. Restoration of Imam Reza Shrine in Mashhad was ordered by him. Restoration of Astarabad Wall (Gorgan Wall) was ordered by him. Aqa Mohammad Shah built the Gorgan Governor’s Palace and various buildings in Mazandaran such as in Sari, Babol and Ashraf.


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Classic Sketch Portrait


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Palace, Gorgan, Golestan, Iran


Soleymaniyeh Palace, Karaj, Alborz, Iran


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Painting at the Wall top of the Soleymaniyeh Palace, Karaj, Alborz, Iran


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Persian Miniature Painting on the Wall top of the Soleymaniyeh Palace, Karaj, Alborz, Iran


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar and Generals
Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Persian Miniature Painting Close Up on the Wall top of the Soleymaniyeh Palace, Karaj, Alborz, Iran


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar and His Generals
Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Persian Miniature Painting Up Close


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Persian Miniature Painting, Iran


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar the Last Persian Emperor - Persian Colonial Empire Map


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar at the Qajar Persian Imperial Court
Aqa Khan: I have so much more to say, to do and to offer …
Jeyran Khanum: I know my son and I hope you will …
The man with the vision and grand plans of military modernizations, administrative organizations and social reforms, who never had the chance to change the future of Iran. He had something more to say!


Qajar Persian Lion and Sun with Sword, Mosaic Gate Top, Golestan Palace, Tehran, Iran


Golestan Palace, Tehran, Iran
Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar’s Tehran Palace and Main Palace
Notice that the Marble Throne right in front of the palace front gate was built by Fath Ali Shah and did not exist during the Aqa Khan.


Golestan Palace Hall, Tehran, Iran


Golestan Palace Hall Chandeliers, Tehran, Iran


Golestan Palace Hall of Mirrors, Tehran, Iran


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar
Shah Qajar Theatre Production Poster, Baku, Azerbaijan


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Memorial Garden


Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar in deep thoughts of future possibilities for the Persian Colonial Empire. If he would have lived and survive the assassination, with his grand plans, Persia would modernize and the Persian Empire would have not declined. Iran would have had a different future! Alas, he was too busy running from south to north and east to west fighting the enemies of Iran, fighting to keep the integrity of Iran intact!
Aqa Khan: I have something more to say, so much more to do ……


Shahyad Tower, Shahyad Circle, Tehran, Iran
Tehran Capital of Iran, the Greatest Legacy of Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar

Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar was not a lover and a builder but he was a conqueror and a fighter. He was not a builder but in a few short years of his reign, he had built the foundation of a dynasty which lasted 131 years. He established an empire and a united Iran which until this day, you enjoy it as a collage of many cultures collected under one empire, a united Iran.

Many due to biased, spite and ignorance love to bash and trash Qajars. They have done it during the Pahlavi Imperial Era and they are doing it now during the IRI Islamic Era. Allow me to educate you to the historical reality:

Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar’s Legacy

Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar had grand plans for the Persian Empire. He had a vision of modernization for Iran. If he would have survived the assassination and given a chance, he could have been the Persian version of Peter the Great of Russia to modernize Iran. Persian Colonial Empire would have survived and Aqa Khan could have made Iran Great Again!

Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar’s memory and legacy is his restless efforts of uniting Iran and fighting to secure its integrity. Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar’s legacy is the braveries of General Abbas Mirza (Fath Ali Shah Qajar period), Poetry of Iraj Mirza, Persian Miniature Paintings of the Qajar Period, Handmade Qajar Artifacts, Handmade Qajar Persian Carpets and Rugs, Rich Qajar Art, Literature, Poetry, calligraphy, music, compositions, fashion, and culture which until this day lives deep in your Persian bone marrows and heritage! Qajar Civilization is an essential part of the Persian Culture.   

Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar’s greatest legacy is Tehran. Aqa Khan made Tehran, a small village near Ray, the capital of Iran and ordered various renovations in Tehran. Today’s Tehran is one of the largest cities in the world. Until this day, Tehran remains the capital and Persians enjoy this wonderful city.

I am the story teller. I tell stories which informs you of the truth and makes an impact in your life.

I, the Story Teller

Dr. X

Comments

Do you have a comment on this article?
Then go to the IPC Club and post it here:

Last Persian Emperor: Aqa Mohammad Shah Qajar Thread

Do you have a comment on any IPC article?
Then go to the IPC Club's "Comments on IPC Website Room",
create a respond topic (Re: ------) and state your mind:

Comments on IPC Website Room

Bibliography

This Historical Series was created using various sources below. The historical documents below, compiled, written, photographed and illustrated by various Persian, Armenian, Arabic, Russian, Georgian, English, and American historians, geographers, philosophers, photographers and illustrators, also different documents, historical articles and illustrations researched, written, illustrated and graphic designed by myself have been used to create this historical series.

Sources

I. Memories of a Bygone Age: Qajar Persia and Imperial Russia 1853 - 1902 by Prince Mirza Reza Khan Arfa’ ed-Dowleh
II. On the Edge of Empire: Governing the Caucasus in Early Qajar Iran by Assef Ashraf
III. Russia and Iran, 1780 - 1828 by Muriel Atkin
IV. Tsar’s General: The Memoirs of a Russian General 1787 - 1827 by Alexey Petrovich Yermolov, translated and edited by Alexander Mikaberidze
V. Complete History of Iran by Dr. Abdollah Razi
VI. The Administrative and Social History of the Qajar Period: From Aqa Mohammad Khan to Naser ed-Din Shah (1794 - 1896) by Abdollah Mostoufi
VII. Farsnameh-ye Naseri in 2 Volumes by Haj Mirza Hassan Fesayi Hosseiniye
VIII. History of Qajar and Pahlavi by Mohammad Hassan Khalili Gorgani and Abolqasem Mohammadian
IX. Political History of Qajar by Ahmad Shahvary
X. British Imperialism in Qajar Iran by H. Lyman Stebbins
XI. Tarikh-i Qajar: Haqayiq al Akhbar-i Nasiri by Muhammad Ja’far Khurmuji
XII. Russian State Military History Archive
XIII. Kerman and Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar by Abdolrafie Haghighat
XIV. Religion and Society in Qajar Iran by Robert Gleave
XV. The Ottoman and Qajar Empires in the Age of Reform by Gerald Robbins and Hal Marcovitz
XVI. The Khanate of Erevan Under Qajar Rule: 1795 - 1828 by George A Bournoutian
XVII. A Brief History of the Lion and Sun by Dr. Ahmad Kasravi
XVIII. Battledress – The Uniforms of the World’s Great Armies edited by I. T. Schick, Introduction by Alun Chalfont and Illustrated by Wilhelm von Halem
XIX. Parade at Persepolis (1971 Parade Guide Book) for Founding of the Persian Empire by Cyrus the Great written and illustrated by Imperial Iranian Military Commandment Supreme and published by the Imperial Iranian Armed Forces Committee for the Celebration of the 2500th Anniversary of the Founding of the Persian Empire.
XX. History of the Iranian Flag by Nosratollah Bokhtur-tash
XXI. The World Encyclopedia of Flags by Alfred Znamierowski
XXII. Flags of the world - A Comprehensive Guide by J G Press Inc.
XXIII. Flags of the world by William Crampton
XXIV. Atlas of World History by Dr. John Haywood
XXV. Historical Atlas of the Early Modern World 1492 – 1783 by Dr. John Haywood
XXVI. Historical Atlas of the 19th Century World 1783 – 1914 by Dr. John Haywood
XXVII. Collection of Iranian Historical Maps # 1 by Geographical and Cartographic Institute of Sahab
XXVIII. Various online and offline illustrations and Arts by various artists.
XXIX. A great number of historical documents, essays, articles and illustrations - researched, written, illustrated and graphic designed by Ahreeman X.

Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Back to History Index
Back to Photos Index
Back to English Library Index
Back to Library Index

       
Support IPC
 
IPC operating since March 30, 2000
   
          Duplication of contents are allowed, only by naming the source & link to IPC
All rights are protected & reserved by Iran Politics Club © 2000 IPC