Iran Politics Club      
Website For Thinking Iranians
Back to index  

Eternity Book Series
Part 4 – Mind and Matter


Eternity Book Series: 4 Books – 8 Parts
Part 4 – Mind and Matter

(Book 3: Origins and Destination)
Anwar Shaikh
1st Edition: September 20, 2014
2nd Edition: August 28, 2016


Book 3: Origins and Destination
Part 4 – Mind and Matter
Chapter 10: Epistemology
Chapter 11: The Creative Principle
Chapter 12: Mind and Matter
Part 5 – Life after Death
Chapter 13: Life after Death


Part 4 – Mind and Matter


It is not revelation but knowledge which is required to unveil Reality, the greatest mystery. However, knowledge is not an absolute concept because like everything else it is subject to the natural law of polarity such as right and wrong or light and dark. Ignorance constitutes the opposite pole of knowledge and inevitably precedes it; curiosity, mystery and uncertainty are extensions of ignorance and play a major role in raising the magnitude of knowledge. As man is the microcosm i.e. the miniature cosmos, the knowledge of one's self ranks as the true knowledge. Of course, cosmos is a symposium of interrelationships, but they remain obscure without the torch of consciousness; existence or non-existence of the universe makes no sense without it. Since man is the only (known) being endowed with the power of knowledge, it naturally exalts him over everything else. Again, the emergence of consciousness implies that the cosmos wants its presence to be felt. It certainly alludes to a cosmic teleology or purpose which is obviously inscribed in the atoms and exhibits their capability of realising it.

Nothingness denotes a passive state without any purpose, but existence refers to a state which is active and meaningful. Therefore, existence is its own purpose and the cosmic purpose is NOT imposed from outside but is self-determined because the cosmos represents existence.

Since there is no evidence of a Creator God one can only assume that the universe stems out of nothingness. Logically, as nothing can come out of nothing, the said nothingness qualifies as the womb of existence. Again, as things happen on the principle of "simple to complex", the preliminary conditions of the universe must be so simple or chaotic that they can't be very different from the concept of nothingness.

Process of simple to complex can be constructive only if it is gradual and based on some principle. As we know, the universe develops gradually and is subject to a principle. We refer to the gradual development as evolution which is nothing but a process of systematic change. Thus change is the governing or evolutionary principle. Like everything else the Change itself as an evolutionary or the Creative Principle must be infantile in its initial stage, and evolves gradually to maturity through interrelationships.

Where do we come from?

I have already answered this question. To be more explicit, as nothingness is the fountain of existence in its embryonic shape, the universe has always been here in its potential form, and as its integral part, so have we. Obviously, we have always existed; each of us started from the lowest possible state and gradually envolved to the present stage by a disciplined process of Change or the Creative Principle. One fact we ought to know: development from particles or the primordial stuff to subhuman level is strictly governed by the Creative Principle but at human stage, man exerts his independence and to a great extent, takes his destiny in his own hand. Since there is no proof that evolution stops at man, any further evolution largely becomes the responsibility of man himself. This next, the highest stage of existence happens to be man's destination.

What is man's destination?

It is Godhead. And what is Godhead? This is the highest state of existence brought about by the combination of souls the same way as existence of inanimate things is constituted by atoms and the entity of living beings is composed of cells. Godhead in this sense is entirely different from the old mystic concept of souls' union with God. According to this belief, the soul is something entirely different in essence from God, who exists independently, and relationship between the two is that of a servant and master; union simply means closer relationship between the two. My view, on the contrary, holds that Godhead is the merger of souls.

Of course, the entity of Godhead is over and above the merged souls, say, like the identity of a radio which is over and above its components. But as there is no radio without its components, there is no Godhead without its constituents, i.e. the souls.

Change is eternal; it is the principle, the process and the product. As a principle, it has a purpose. For example, the purpose of principle (formula) H20 is water, the product, which comes about through the process of combining two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen.

It is the basic characteristic of Change or the Creative Principle to manifest itself: where there is H20, there will be water. In other words, water is the manifestation of the principle H20. Matter can't be shapeless because it is constantly under the operation of Change.

Change or the Creative Principle operates through polarity. As electricity has positive and negative poles, Change itself must have an antithesis, that is stability. In fact, existence is another description of stability, or put it another way, existence means stability-through-change. As the Creative Principle has a purpose, stability or existence is its ultimate goal. Is it not a self-contradiction? Not at all. Because though operation of Change cannot be eliminated, it can be controlled in such a way that Change as the Creative Principle, operates as the agent of stability and maturity only, and ceases to be the source of Revolution. There is certainly no exaggeration in this statement: we have harnessed the lethal power of electricity to act as a housemaid, and it is we who decide whether it will roast or refrigerate.

The point at which the Creative Principle becomes solely the agent of stability, it forms part of Godhead to constitute the Reality. This is the highest state of consciousness and immortality, and also happens to be the final aim of the cosmos which strives through a process of self-elevation to reach the apex of existence.

The cosmos attains this goal through man, the cosmic baby, whose piety, purity and probity act as the medium of achieving this noblest purpose. Thus, it is unwise to think of the cosmos as a machine; it is a live and kicking organism.

This miracle of immortality is brought about by the birth of soul. However, one should remember that nobody is born with a soul. It is the seed of future life and comes into being at the point of death, depending upon one's piety, purity and probity. Those who lack these elements of survival, perish; they just become Part of the dust but there is no hell to roast them. Contrary to the usually-held belief, it is not God who creates man but it is man who is the fountain of Godhead - no souls, no God.

Life-after-death is a distinct possibility. Since all things evolve from the same source, they vouch for their unity of origin. It is reasonable to assume that the things having a common origin should also have the unity of end. This unity of end can't be anything but the common destination. Of course every sprinter does not complete the race successfully, every arrow does not hit the target and every climber cannot reach Mount Everest. Similarly, everything cannot gain the point of final unity, that is, the destination. Out of millions of species, it is only man who has the ability to attain this goal. Yet every member of the human race is not capable of doing so because all of us do not possess the virtues of piety, purity and probity. Most of us ride the horse of faith to enjoy self-deception because it does not have the flying power and thus takes off nowhere. The lucky ones who make righteousness of deeds as their guiding star generate sufficient force to carry them to the final destination which is Godhead.

It is not difficult to realise that the destination is something different from the origin or starting point. Those who reach their final destination, leave the pangs of mortality behind. Immortality, in fact, is the state of dynamic equilibrium where things are constantly subject to change but change takes place to conserve the basic identity and not to disturb it. This is the wonder of Godhead, which comes into being as a result of immunity from Revolution. At this stage, there is nothing more to evolve. Everything is subject to evolution and Revolution except Godhead. Since Godhead represents the apex of evolution, it follows that God is not in the beginning but at the end.

Godhead is the dream of the cosmic evolution because reversion to total Revolution denotes chaos and flouts the concept of the evolutionary success. It is only the hope of reward that creates a destination. If distinction between destination and origin cannot be maintained, the entire cosmic process begins to loom as a nonsense.

Of course, Godhead is the state of dynamic equilibrium but its continuity is subject to the constant supply of souls. When evil increases to such an extent that it stops the formation of souls, the rule of Final Rejection comes into operation and intelligent life perishes. It happens only when despite numerous chances man becomes incorrigible. Since Godhead constitutes supreme intelligence and wisdom, God interferes with the law of nature on other planets to make up deficiency of souls caused by the condemned planet.

I must confess that the thoughts expressed in this book, have occupied my mind for a long time but I did not know how to state them. Eventually, I decided to use physics and biology as the medium of expression.

However, I must warn the reader that modern sciences are far from being perfect, and secondly, I am not a scientist but a lay student of these subjects. It must be clearly understood that science on its own cannot explain the mystery of Godhead. I have used it only as a medium of expression in keeping with the spirit of time. The views expressed in this book are independent of the existing scientific opinions, and have illustrative values only.

Lastly, I should add that criticism for the sake of criticism represents destructive mentality. To be beneficial, criticism must be reformative. Therefore, the critic has the duty to suggest an alternative to what he has criticised. It is for this reason that I have attempted the outline of a metaphysical system in Book III but without pretending to be a God, Messiah or Prophet.

I am sorry if this book proves to be a bit abstruse and complex. This is the nature of the subject though I have tried to make it easy to understand.

Chapter 10: Epistemology

Epistemology or knowledge is the only medium that can lead to Reality. The evidence shows that we have to look for things we want to find; they do not put themselves in our way. Thus accidental discoveries are rare. Again, the existence and operation of the universe is based on mystery. The cosmos does not display itself. It is wrong to claim that God reveals Himself. Without mystery there i' nothing to search for. It is this search which makes life exciting, challenging ant hopeful. Reality is a mystery; it does not reveal itself; we must look for it; if il unveils itself, it ceases to be the Mystery or Reality. This is the function oi knowledge, otherwise, it has no purpose.


What is knowledge and how it arises, are complex questions and cannot be answered through the medium of definitions. I may, therefore, draw the attention of the reader to the scientifically established fact that existence of everything depends upon polarity. For example, electricity is brought about by the interaction of positive and negative charges. Similarly, there are quarks and antiquarks, particles and antiparticles, matter and antimatter, electron and antielectron (positron). Even where distinct polarity cannot be discerned, as in force-carrying particles, the antiparticles are the same as the particles themselves. The same remarks apply to the forces of nature because a force has been described as a mechanism of push and pull.

This situation also prevails in ordinary life: sweet has no meaning without bitter, light cannot be imagined without dark; coward does not exist without bold and hot loses its identity without cold. These opposities are equal in magnitude, and their opposition is so constructive that not only the identity of one depends upon the identity of the other but whatever there is in the universe owes its existence to the harmonious working of the opposite poles. Despite their contrariness, they are working partners.

Ignorance as part of knowledge

Knowledge is no exception to this fundamental rule of nature. It comes into being, and sustains itself, only through ignorance which is its opposite pole. They alternate the same way as day and night follow each other. In fact, regression of ignorance counts as progression of knowledge, and vice versa.


Ignorance has precedence over cognition. Knowledge is the offspring of ignorance as existence is the child of nothingness. Take "mistake" for instance. It is prompted by ignorance which requires correction.

Such a correction, which is the Opposite of mistake, ranks as knowledge. Again, knowledge usually comes into being through curiosity which is represented by such inquisitive words as "how, why, what, where, when" etc. and many other interrogative forms. Such interrogatives are ambassadors of ignorance, yet they are the tools of enquiry leading to knowledge. If we know the answers we shall not use these words and other interrogative forms. This fact is culturally true as well because civilisation emanates from a very primitive level which is the antithesis of its modern form.

Exploratory urge of birds

Exploratory urge of birds illustrates this fact still further. Exploration simply means jumping from the unknown to the known. This urge of birds is inherent, and is passed on from generation to generation. Biologists believe that without the exploratory drive, a bird will perish.


Besides curiosity, mystery is also an integral part of ignorance. A mystery though eventually surmountable, is not immediately within the bounds of knowledge. It resists knowledge yet it excites curiosity to enter the realm of knowledge. Without such excitement life shall be a prolonged process of death due to sheer boredom.


Rainbow is a good example of mystery. Its stunning colours and the superstitions associated with it explain its nature. It was considered an animal which drinks up rain to hold it back from people. The rainbow as a serpent was looked upon as a justification for bisexuality. In many countries, people thought of it as a divine bridge which connects the worlds of gods and humans. The Greek declared it the path of the goddess Iris and some American tribes visualised it as the gorgeous robes of gods. It was not until 1704 when Newton's publication: "Optics" solved the mystery of the rainbow by declaring that "white" light is really a blend of all possible colours: what we call the rainbow is, in fact, the dispersion of light in the spectrum.

Mystery, a continuous affair

Mystery is a continuous affair because the solution of one mystery leads to another mystery. Rainbow is "white" light, but what is light itself? Is it a wave or a stream of particles? Since scientists can't establish the truth, they claim that it has dual nature; sometimes it is convenient to treat it as a wave and at other occasions it is better understood as corpuscular i.e. consisting of particles.

Principle of uncertainty

Uncertainty is yet another description of mystery. Until we are certain about Something it contains an element of mystery, which is more like twilight, and not darkness. It is because the purpose of mystery is to arouse interest in knowledge by limiting its speed whose unrestrained conduct can be devastating.

Werner Heisenberg stated the principle of uncertainty scientifically. He propounded that to predict the future position and velocity of a particle, one must be able to measure its present position and velocity with complete accuracy but it is not possible because accurate measurement of the one, leads to the inaccurate determination of the other. Thus scientists believe that uncertainty is the fundamental property of the world.

Role of mystery

In fact, uncertainty or mystery is the pillar of practical life. If we acquire the capacity of absolute knowledge, then we shall know exactly everything as it is. It will lead to inactivity and chaos. Why? Because I shall know on what day I am going to be ill or embrace death and I shall be aware of what is in the mind of my fairweather friends. As the ozone layer acts as a curtain to save us from the harshness of the Sun, a bit of mystery provides a good deal of protection against the nasty shocks of real life. If everyone knew what was going to happen, nobody would strive to do anything and mankind would cease to exist for lack of trust, self-confidence and enterprising spirit. Worse still, the excitement and hope that Chance provides, shall vanish, and life will become a long series of boredom, longing for death.

Purpose of knowledge

Is knowledge inborn or acquired? It is both. Without innate knowledge, the first living creatures would have perished instantly for not knowing how to react to the environmental stimuli such as hot and cold and dark and light. Some innate knowledge is absolutely essential for survival. This fact also determines the basic purpose of knowledge, that is, survival, though as knowledge progresses, it comes to be based on conscience and the concept of survival gains moral force.

Instinctive knowledge

The innate knowledge is referred to as instinctive knowledge. Ii is inherited by organisms genetically. This type of knowledge provides not only the fair chance of survival but also guides each species in determining its own behaviour to differentiate itself from the rest: the food-hoarding activities of squirrels, web-spinning habits of spiders and the prey-catching techniques of wolves, explain this point.

Though instinctive knowledge is minimal, the activity it fosters may lead to complex behaviour as displayed by many nest-building birds. These nests come in many shapes and sizes and thus exhibit a patterned arrangement of acts.

Communal sense

Instinctive knowledge also ascends the boundaries of individual needs to create a communal sense amongst the members of a species. It has been noted that insects, fishes and birds possess certain instinctive movements which serve as signals to fellow-members and thus rank as a communicative mechanism. The beauty of these signals and movements is, that they are understood only by the members of the species and the prospective mates. Without such distinctive behaviour communal sense cannot develop. It also proves that even the lowest organisms are endowed with an instinctive system of perceptual abilities, and life cannot be sustained without them.

Knowing one's self

Since instinctive knowledge is inherent, and the basis of survival, it surely starts with knowing one's self. As I shall discuss later, knowing one's self is not only the beginning of knowledge but also its end. However, as everything is related to something else, knowledge of one's self cannot be complete without knowing and evaluating these relationships. This consideration makes an individual a natural part of his community thus making his dole and delight dependent upon the realisation of these relationships.

Man, the cosmic baby

When thinking of relationships, one comes to realise that an individual's relationship is not confined to the society but extends far beyond, to the cosmos which was here long before man. In fact, man is the baby of the cosmos and our earth is a very tiny part of it. All our properties - physical, intellectual and spiritual, are surely derived from the elementary particles of the cosmos. We are born in a small part of it, called the earth; we eat and drink what the earth can provide; we play and rest on the earth; we grow old on the earth; we die on the earth and are eventually returned to the earth. In view of these facts, man's relationship with the cosmos is infinitely greater than with his parents. It is not the parents but the cosmos that gives us birth and accommodates us.

Cosmos as organism

The cosmos is not a machine but an organism; a machine, no matter how efficient, is lifeless but an organism, no matter how clumsy, is live and kicking. The fact that man is a child of the cosmic evolutionary process, clearly shows that his qualities of intelligence, wisdom, justice, courage, magnaminity etc., lie dormant in the atoms and become live when they reach the level of arrangement associated with the human stage.

Purpose of evolution

A study of the cosmic evolutionary process from the elementary particles to human level, indicates that man is the highest member of the cosmic family and his greatness is pivoted on consciousness, that is, the ability to know and create further knowledge. Without man the universe's knowledge of its self can't be any more than the consciousness of a dreaming person. The entire purpose of evolution s to create man so that the cosmos can gain self-cognizance through him because it is only man who possesses active consciousness and the faculty to understand himself analytically, and whatever exists in the universe.

Although everything is connected with everything else, this relationship is dormant. It is only through the human consciousness that it becomes awake. Thus, man serves as the interconnecting link to the universe and acts as its pulse.

Man, the microcosm

This is what turns man into a miniature cosmos or microcosm. Thus knowing one's self counts as the universal knowledge in terms of being.

Urge of self-improvement

Another point that arises from this discussion is the fundamental cosmic urge for self-improvement. The evolution (say) from atoms to man denotes a gradual process of self-upgrading which is, in fact, the realisation of the self-improvement urge. It means that the potential qualities of atoms such as intellect, consciousness, feeling, dreaming, determining, designing etc. have been aligned by the long and gradual process of self-improvement to emerge as man. This is no fairy tale. Look at the computers: cybernetics can't be anything but engineering of atoms for arranging them into patterns able to express their underlying intellectual capacity as computers.

The ultimate goal

Yet man can't be the ultimate aim of the cosmic urge of self-improvement because he is imperfect and needs a lot of further improvement. The goal of this cosmic urge extends beyond man but I find it prudent to terminate this discussion here. I shall pick up this strand in due course. However, I may add that the final goal of the universe is an integral part of interrelationships, and its understanding requires a good deal of learning besides instinctive knowledge.

Knowledge is always incomplete

Compared to the instinctive knowledge which is minimal, the acquired or learnt knowledge is limitless. Man's rise from horse-riding to flying to the moon, proves this point, and also confirms that knowledge is never complete. It is not only because ignorance is an integral part of knowledge but also because knowledge unfolds itself in stages. We know more than our ancestors did, and our children will know more than we do. Again, if this were not true, evolution could not take place because the jump from a lower species to a higher species is usually accompanied by an increase in the power of understanding. It shows that purpose of knowledge, whether inherent or learnt, is not only survival but also self-improvement. In fact, the entire process of evolution, from microbe to man, is an annotation of this point.

Besides, without knowledge being a gradual process, the rate of dissemination is likely to be so fast that man will not keep up with his own innovations and thus it (knowledge) will prove his Frankenstine. This measured progress of knowledge is rooted in ignorance. Take fundamentalism-versus-science, for instance. It is amazing how ecclesiastical ignorance arrested the brilliance of Galileo and how interests of the religious leaders have curbed the march of Moslem nations towards progress.

Finally, if knowledge were not limitless, society would eventually become tagnant for lack of new ideas, and abundance of dogma. Such a state will disturb the balance between ignorance and knowledge, and the former will swallow the latter, leading to chaos The fact that the human brain is so brilliant yet possesses a limited memory, expresses the need for a balance between ignorance and knowledge.

Some implications of knowledge

At this juncture, one must realise some implications of knowledge:
a. Dividing line between knowledge and ignorance becomes very thin, indeed, when knowledge is subjected to wilful interpretations to suit the purpose of the interpreter People, not only in the religious field but also in scientific theories, resort to deliberate falsehood to prove something which they ought to condemn. Einstein, for example, to appease his religious convictions, concocted what is called "cosmological constant" for introducing a new antigravity force into his equations of the general theory of relativity. By this exercise he wanted to prove against all evidence, that the universe was static.
It shows that an increase in knowledge proportionately expands the frontier of ignorance either through the reactions of the fundamentalists or through the exaggerated attitudes of the zealots.

Quest for Eternity

b. Quest for life beyond death is the natural instinct of man because survival is his most ardent passion. This desire is as naturally embedded in him as greenery lies dormant in a field. Therefore, the branch of knowledge that restricts life-span to three scores and ten years and does not anticipate what lies beyond, is like the brilliant eye which cannot penetrate through a solid barrier. There is nothing more legitimate than the search for eternity because without eternity, knowledge itself becomes perishable for the simple reason that it is peculiar to man: no man, no knowledge, and thus loses its purpose which is survival.

Free Will

c. Knowledge means knowing more and more. Therefore, it implies an everincreasing choice which advocates free will i.e. the freedom to choose and act. On the contrary, ignorance indicates constant shrinkage of knowledge and minimization of choice leading to external controls. In communist lands, stateworship is deliberately fostered to keep people ignorant of their civil liberties for practicing deterministic philosophy. This equally applies to the religious fundamentalists who resort to false propaganda against other faiths and tenets to indoctrinate their followers for subjecting them to their own will.
However, one should not forget the complementary role of ignorance which Contributes to the meritorious aspect of knowledge because without it the elements of curiosity, mystery and balanced growth of knowledge cannot come into being. Evolution is nothing but gradual emergence of knowledge through the interactions of cosmic forces.

Knowledge can't be defined

d. Knowledge cannot be defined precisely. One can only describe it approximately e.g. it is an answer to a question, and the answer may be the result of an accident or a deliberate effort, which recognises a case or a proposition for an investigation.

Trust and knowledge

e. Knowledge cannot be complete or absolute. Therefore, one is quite legitimately entitled to hold presuppositions. Again, knowledge is more indirect and less direct because we cannot observe everything ourselves, and are obliged to depend upon the testimony of others. Even direct evidence of witnesses becomes hearsay evidence to the presiding judge who has not himself seen the events. Thus knowledge comes to be based on trust, and "I believe this to be true" ranks as "I know it to be true", at least until such time that one's trust can be proved misplaced. However the belief emanating from bribe or fright (heaven or hell) as in the case of "revealed" religions does not qualify as trust because it is forced upon the believers.

Effect of time on knowledge

f. Meaning of knowledge and its purpose is not usually accepted as it is but governed by the spirit of time. In a materialistic age as ours, economic theories such as Marxism, colour the vision of life. About two hundred years ago, abandonment of material necessities and indulgence in asceticism marked the apex of knowledge. Even scientists wore the yoke of bigotry; Newton, like the people of his age, believed in an absolute God and thus considered space as absolute against the implications of his own laws. Before him, Galileo, despite knowing the falsehood of the Biblical doctrine, remained a faithful Catholic.

Practical aspect of knowledge

g. Finally, knowledge is not power but the potential power. H2O, as an underlying principle of water though meaningful in itself, does not become a reality until atoms of hydrogen and oxygen combine in the ratio of 2:1. It follows that knowledge is not just a theoretical affair but also has a practical aspect.

Source of knowledge

How is knowledge attained? Many theories have been evolved on this subject and each has some truth in it but they all can be integrated into a single whole if I state that knowledge is mainly the function of the brain which has several faculties such as sensory organs, perceptical ability, memory, dreaming, thinking, reasoning and intuition. The truth of this statement lies in the fact that when the brain is influenced by anaesthetics or stunned by a blow, we become unconscious and know nothing about ourselves or the environment. Without a minimum degree of consciousness, life is not possible: in hibernation, an animal is said to retain some 10�70 of its consciousness to react to the external stimuli for staying alive.

The brain

According to the-present state of knowledge, the human brain comprises some lo1' neurons Thus the total number of synaptic contacts is likely to be 10'4. It makes the brain a very vast system based on an autonomous will.

The embryonic human brain, during the first three weeks, looks like the embryonic brain of any other animal. It shows the similarity of origin of all beings. However, as the time progresses, the human brain exhibits the parts which are not seen in those of the lower species. Obviously, it is a proof of its further development It has been suggested that the appearance of the extra brain tissues resulted in the development of higher and additional faculties. During the evolutionary process, the brain has retained all its original associations - ranging from the oldest, innermost region known as the reptilian complex, to cerebral cortex. Since the reptilian complex governs the basic functions to ensure survival, it has been held as a remnant of the times when ancestors of the human race still dwelt in marshes. The cerebral cortex is associated with intellect which gives man behavioural dignity, leading to cultural and spiritual values.


Sensing, perceiving and the intellectual disciplines are essentially the functions of the brain (and central nervous system). Animals deprived of cerebral lobes lose their ability to perceive, judge and remember.

Identity of an individual is inseparable from the brain and the sense of actual existence is also a part of it, and lies in the parietal lobe. Thus physical structure of the human brain along with the central nervous system, carries evidence of the beginning of intellect in organisms to its existing magnitude. This unique development has been in response to environmental vicissitudes and pressures. Since it marks the triumph of the intellectual process leading to consciousness, which makes the existence of the cosmos felt, it alludes to a purpose inscribed into the molecules and exhibits capability of realising it.

Sensory reception

Apart from the inherent epistemological powers of the brain, learnt knowledge starts with sensory reception which enables an organism to react to changes in external and internal environments. This is facilitated by the neural elements which translate changes into nerve impulses. Without this process, organisms, especially at the higher level, could not survive for lack of adjustment.

The mechanism of sense reception speaks for its role in epistemology. Each type of sense cell or receptor produces a specific output reaction and a measured sensation known as the ``modality perceived". The significance of a sense cell becomes obvious by the fact that if the optic nerve could be functionally joined with the ear and the acoustic nerve connected with the eye, lightning would not be seen but heard and thunder would be seen instead of being heard.

Even the instinctive knowledge is likely to lose its value without the most befitting biological arrangement of sense cells, which ensure selectivity by inhibiting the effect of the unwanted simuli and making extremely sensitive the effect of the desired ones. Without such selectivity, sensation will be very confusing, indeed This process is further aided by the fact that there is a close relationship between the highly developed sense organs and regions of the central nervous system for coordinating the incoming information which enables the organism to understand its environment.

Sense organs

To the traditional senses of man such as sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch the modern knowledge has added several more; skin alone is said to possess a number of different modalities or senses such as hot, cold, pressure and pain. Yet another addition is the kinesthetic sense i.e. the sense organs in muscles, tendons and joints. Again, scientists have discovered a sense of balance or equilibrium. The circulatory system is also endowed with receptors (sense cells) which respond to the changes in blood pressure, and even the digestive tract has its receptors which mediate the experiences of hunger and thirst.


Surely, without sensory reception, knowledge is impossible. Without the mediation of the sensory faculties, even the inherent knowledge of the brain will be hazy and insensible. However, sensory reception in itself is not knowledge but sense data requiring coordination and interpretation. It is done by perception, a faculty of the brain which translates the sensory stimulation into an organised experience or percept, a joint product of the stimulation and process of perceiving. There is always a specific relationship between a stimulation and its associated percept. For example, light from a distant star bears testimony to its properties but assessment of the truth depends upon the accuracy of the inference that we draw from it.

Relativity of knowledge of observer

A percept is obviously a private experience because I see and feel with my own sense organs which are peculiar to myself, and their sensitivity and level of operation may also vary from other people. This is the reason that no one may know how I feel or think about a certain experience. This is an extension of mystery which is a part of ignorance, and explains its role in life.

It also follows that knowledge is relative to the observer. Understanding depends upon the acuity of one's sense organs, one's age and maturity, one's personal conflict and expectancy, one's culture and faith, one's habits, training and experiences. Above all, one's concentration of mind, intensity of purpose, the magnitude of stimulus, sex, time and distance - all play roles in acquiring knowledge and these roles are relative to the observer.

However, though knowledge is relative to the observer, the reality it seeks is universal e.g. distance of the moon from the earth or its size are the same for everyone. Thus perception cannot impose its own dimensions on the exterior world which exists independently, and the observer recognises them according to his own perceptual abilities.

Problems of Epistemology

Instead of making understanding easier, the epistemologist has made it more difficult. He argues that as perception is a private experience, testimony based on it cannot be valid, and therefore, we cannot know if a real physical world exists independently of human experience!

Proof of existence

This is a strange stance but one cannot dismiss it as fun. Every point of view deserves consideration. I am not an illusion; I exist because I worry about my survival. That what does not exist, cannot worry about its existence. Again, the entire civilisation and its physical trappings result from man's struggle for existence.

The one who asks this type of question must also exist; otherwise he could not ask questions. If I exist, my parents, brothers and sisters must also exist, and so must all members of the society. Again, they must exist somewhere. Since they exist on earth which is a part of the universe, the universe itself must also exist.

The scientists have solved this problem beautifully. They have demonstrated beyond doubt that the cosmos was here before the emergence of man, and without the cosmos, man could not have come into being. The Bible also confirms that the earth and heaven were created before man. The Koran also states that the earth, heaven, angels, Iblis (Satan) etc. existed before Adam was created.

Since existence was a reality before the birth of man, what can turn the universe including man, into an illusion? The human mind is a part of the human body which exists in this universe. If the human mind can't perceive this reality, fault lies with the mind and not the universe.

World as an illusion is an old myth cleverly woven into the texture of philosophy. It is simply a device of escapism based on despondence which thrives on denial of reality. The world is real: an elephant looks an elephant to me each time I gaze at it; neither its shape nor its dimensions change. If the elephant were not a reality, it must appear as different things at different times.

Brain and innate ideas

The epistemologists also doubt if the brain has any innate ideas. Brain is the highest and the most complex form of existence in the universe. Its power to criticise itself and appraise everything else testifies to its excellence. Since ordinary atoms have latent properties, their most accomplished form, that is, the brain must possess immeasurably higher qualities. As an idea represents potential power, innate ideas must be the cornerstone of the brain. The fact that different nations at different times thought of similar mathematical theories, vouches for this fact. Again, the consistency of the grammatical rules of various languages proves the originality of the human brain in terms of thinking and innovation.

Innovative power of brain

Innovative power of the brain is demonstrated by its virtue to increase its Perceptual abilities almost endlessly. Take, for example, a person of weak eye-sight. With glasses, he may be able to read the minute print and by using a powerful telescope, he may observe the wonders of the moon and beyond.


It is said that perception is an unconscious process of the brain. May be it is so, due to the tremendous computations involved. However, reasoning is surely a conscious faculty of the brain because it involves weighing up the pros and cons of things, their analysis and synthesis. It is critical but judicious. Rationalists claim that reason provides the perfect guidance. It is positive and contains no hypothetical element.

Limits of rationalism

Though I adore rationalism, I find these claims exaggerated because the best scientific conclusions are based on hypotheses. For example, the assertion that the universe is closed and finite, cannot be proved exclusively. Again, the statement that in a finite yet boundless universe, the maximum possible distance between two points is not much greater than 10'� light years, is nonsensical because the figures involved are too large to be encompassed by the flight of imagination for rational understanding.

Again, in logic there is always a counter-argument for every argument. Though in pure knowledge, it is essential to create mystery and curiosity, in practical life, it may not always be helpful and may lead to confusion. For example, the second postulate of the Special Theory of Relativity states that the velocity of light is always constant relative to an observer irrespective of how fast or slow an observer and a light source are approaching or separating: the speed and direction of movement of an observer should affect the velocity of light yet it travels at 186,000 miles a second relative to the observer. Why? Because this is the law of nature and reason cannot negate it.

It certainly does not lower the value of reason because everything that has a practical significance is within the reach of reason. In fact, reason is intellect and intellect is reason. This is what elevates a mammal to the dignity of man, and this is what saves him from the clutches of total ignorance to keep the candle of knowledge aflame.

Rationalists also claim that senses cannot gauge universals i.e. abstract concepts such as whiteness. The fact is that unless one can see white things, one cannot reasonably think of whiteness. An abstract noun (universal) is just an extension of a common or proper noun and cannot exist on its own.

Reason itself is a higher faculty of the brain and can have no meaning without sensory reception and perceptual abilities. Can there be a sensible or reasonable person without sense organs such as sight, smell, taste, touch, hearing and many other senses that science has discovered? Without senses a person will lack the ability to survive for not being able to respond to the internal and external stimuli.


Empiricism is not an antithesis of rationalism but its natural extension because it intends to test the validity of a reasonable hypothesis experimentally. Surely, no rationalist wants a fantasy to gain the status of a fact.


intuition is the highest faculty of the brain and serves as the final arbiter of the truth. Whereas reason decides on the basis of certainty or balance of probabilities through an intellectual process of sifting the truth from trivialities, intuition reaches its verdict by the sheer intensity of its insight. It is an intellectual virtue which is peculiar to humans only. It is a torch whose luminosity varies from person to person. Some of us possess it in greater degree than others. Mostly, it is to be found as a potential, but with devotion it becomes active. However, as a general rule, it illuminates the paths that one treads purposely. A person may be a genius in a certain respect, say, as a guitar player but if he does not play the guitar, intuition will not guide him; it will stay dormant for lack of devotion. Some examples of intuition through devotion are to be found in daily life; a physicist gets the feel without consciousness that his experiment will succeed if he adopts certain measures. An architect may decide without knowing the geological reasons that construction work should not commence on a certain plot of land. We know that Newton asserted the veracity of the views of Galileo which lacked experimental validity. Some aspects of Einstein's theory were tested to be true long after his death. Michael Faraday had no formal qualifications, yet he was the first to develop the concept of electromagnetic fields.

All these discoveries were intuitive. It shows that intuition is not a guesswork based on experience. A discovery or judgement is intuitive only when it is correct and carries no element of speculation related to the techniques of argument and counter-argument. Intuition is like a glow-worm (Lampyris Noctiluca) which is self-illuminating and whose luminosity increases correspondingly as conditions become murkier. It is the natural guide and needs no measurement, calcualtion or sense-data.

Nature of intuition

Intuition may also act as a flash when one is riding the fantasy-horse. A sudden thought to do or not to do something is an example of this flash which is always instructive and prompts righteousness. The flash persuasive of evil is not intuition but a force of the morbid mind.

Intuition may also be activated by the need for weighing up a situation when reason cannot decide it one way or another. Thus intuition is not under the command of the will. It operates independently.

Intuition and mystical vision

Contrary to the function of instinct which guides an organism at the lower level, intuition operates at the highest level, that is, it steers mankind towards eternity. Thus its goal is much loftier than that of instinct. In the intuitive field, the end does not justify the means but the instinctive behaviour is more interested in achieving the end than worrying about the legitimacy of means. Thus, intuition concerns moral conscience and the matters spiritual. Its ultimate aim is to create mystical vision leading to Godhead.

Idealism is yet another important issue of epistemology but I shall postpone its discussion to a later stage.


Finally, the purpose of sensory reception, perceptual abilities, thinking and reasoning is to provide evidence for reaching a conclusion, the goal of knowledge:
1. Evidence is direct when it is based on personal observation but it is indirect or hearsay when it is accepted on trust.
2. Direct evidence is closely related with the magnitude of the observer's sensory organs and perceptual abilities.
3. The quality of hearsay evidence involves more than the witness's sensory powers and perceptual abilities. His memory, motives, integrity and voluntariness are of the utmost-importance.
4. The method of tendering evidence exhibits its own significance, as displayed by the court-procedures and skills of the professional advisers.
5. Methods of collecting evidence and interpreting it are equally important to the outcome.


Inference is another word for interpreting. It means deriving conclusions from the available evidence or the information offered. An inference must be reasonable. Emotion, faith, prejudice and wild imagination have no place in it. Above all, the motive and purpose must not influence the nature of the evidence i.e. the material collected for this purpose.
Some of the accepted methods of inference are as follows:
a. Induction: it is arguing from many instances to a general statement.
b. Deduction: it implies analysing the accepted forms of argument for eliciting the conclusion implicit in their premises.
c. Statistical reasoning: its conclusions are based on averages, that is, a certain percentage of a set of figures is held satisfactory to justify the stated conditions.
d. Probability is based on the frequencies that take place within a certain sphere and lead to conclusions of stated likelihood.

From the above, it is not difficult to understand that pure reason i.e. the reason free from the pollutions of bias and bigotry, is the basis of inference i.e. drawing conclusions. However, as knowledge is relative to the observer, none of the stated methods can guarantee a universally acceptable judgement, and different people may draw different conclusions from the same evidence. Despite this diversity of opinion, the eventual judge still remains inference: even the scientific data are subject to the authority of inference for emerging as meaningful concepts. Thus inference passes the ultimate judgement based on pros and cons. On the contrary, intuition is the supreme judge when pros and cons are not available.

What I am about to say in the succeeding chapters shall be expressed in terms of the evidence provided by physics and biology. The reader is entitled to draw his own inference.

Chapter 11: The Creative Principle

Metaphysics, among other things, primarily concerns investigation of the first principles of nature and thought, and therefore, broadly speaking, ranks as ontology or the science of being. Search for discovering the Creative Principle which manifests itself as the universe and all its interrelationships is understood to be the Reality and thus constitutes as the goal of epistemology or knowledge.

What is reality?

It happens to be not only the toughest question to answer but also the most important because the entire purpose of life is closely related to it. Again, this enquiry is fundamental: it is embedded in the human nature as greenery is interwoven into the texture of a meadow. Therefore, one must seek the truth (reality) consciously and actively, and not through the rosy glasses of faith which create a biased and restricted vision, thus destroying the goal of genuine search.

May be an enquiry can be launched into the nature of reality by asking the following questions:
(a) Who am I?
(b) Is this universe real?

Who am I?

Answer to (a) is seldom given in a satisfactory form. For example, it has been said that "only I exist". If this be the truth, then there is nothing to be explored; Thus I simply live for myself and by myself. But it is against the experience because I live relative to the social and physical environments. As I exist relative to other things, everything else exists relative to me. I am because I am a part of existence which is a mutual process.

The world, an illusion

The answer to (b) has been even more misleading. Man's desire to escape the demands of Reality, has frequently used the fast flying-horse of faith to carry him into the fanciful domains of paradise filled with the greatest fecundity that imagination can offer. Philosophical thought has been equally evasive. Plato, using the Hindu concept of Maya, projected the world as an illusion which has prompted mankind to seek release by escaping the problems of existence instead of facing them through courage, discipline and equanimity.

If the universe is an illusion, then being a part of it, I am myself an illusion but my urges and the mighty struggles that I wage to realise them, clearly show that I exist. In fact, it proves that as a member of the human race, I am so superb and significant that the universe exists through me. How? Because I am the only intelligent being who is endowed with sufficient consciousness to recognise that there is a universe. Without me, the universe is just an aggregate of dust and gases because unless its existence is recognised, it is no better than the most beautiful rose that has grown in the wilderness but there is no pretty damsel to make it a part of her ornamentations.

Godhead, the cosmic purpose

The universe has a purpose. To achieve it, the cosmos strives sincerely, strenuously and slavishly, and with a unique blend of wisdom and wizardry, to bring about the wonderful evolution of man. Thus man is truly the baby of the cosmos; and the goal of his life is simply to realise the cosmic purpose which as I shall explain is Godhead, the highest and the noblest state of existence. In a nutshell, the answer to (a) and (b) is that I am the cosmic baby who is destined to be the fountain of Godhead, the ultimate goal of the cosmos, which is real.

In a previous chapter, I have discussed at length that there cannot be a Creator God. It means that existence of the universe cannot be explained in terms of cause-and-effect, yet one has to probe the mystery:

Where does the universe come from?

There can be only two answers to this question. Firstly, the cosmos has always existed, and secondly, it comes out of "nothingness". Assuming that the universe comes out of nothingness, then surely we are talking about the type of nothingness which can't be anything but the womb of existence. In this case, we are indulging in a play of words because the distinction between nothingness and existence ceases to be a real one, and it becomes more appropriate to say that the universe has always existed. However, we must realise that the cosmos could not have always existed in its present elaborate form because the entity of everything proceeds on the principle of simple to complex, minor to major, chaos to order and lower to higher. How did, then, this universe start?

Origin of universe

The best person to answer this question is the modern scientist who is always burning midnight oil to illumine the mysteries of nature. I shall, therefore, base the explanation on his discoveries; we are told:

Elementary building blocks

1. The world is made of matter which is composed of two elementary building blocks: quarks and the electrons. However, to simplify the discussion, I need not go into such details, and should add that matter is made of atoms.


2. An atom is the smallest unit of a chemical element which retains its elemental identity. It has a central core, known as the nucleus which consists of protons and neutrons, and is surrounded by a number of electrons. Not only the interactions of atoms are determined by the arrangement and conduct of the electrons but the chemical processes and the physical properties of matter are also governed by their arrangement and behaviour. Since nature provides about 9o different elements, there naturally exist 90 types of atom.

The nucleus is positively charged; neutrons and protons represent the subatomic order; it is raised to the atomic level by the negatively charged electrons which revolve in their orbits around the nuclei. The nucleus represents 99.95 per cent of the mass of the atom but occupies only 10-'s Of the volume; electrons encircle the remaining part. The mean distance of an electron from the nucleus is about 10-8 centimetres, and it is this distance which determines the size of the atoms.

Despite being a very tiny object, an atom is the epitome of the planetary system; its nucleus is surrounded by the electrons as the sun is encircled by the planets. It vouches for the basic unity of the underlying principle. Yet another point to remember is that despite containing opposite charges, atoms are electrically neutral owing to the exactly equal number of positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons.

Value of a property

It is the property of a thing which gives it an identity. Matter is matter because it has properties such as density, thermal conductivity, electrical, magnetizability, dielectric constant, specific heat, etc. These properties which matter possesses as a spatially stretched expanse, give birth to numerous other properties. Take man, for instance. His intellect, ingenuity, speech, taste, choice, temperament, arrogance, adjustability, kindness, cruelty, prowess, pusillanimity, etc. are all expressions of matter at the human level.

Since matter is made of atoms, all the known properties, qualities and attributes are embedded in atoms. These atomic characteristics obviously emanate from the latent tendencies of the particles which constitute atoms. This transformation from tendencies to particular traits is brought about by physical processes and chemical reactions, which are nothing but a mechanism of change. One should note that change is basically from a lower point to a higher status. The change in the opposite direction is the inability of something to retain the evolutionary advantage gained. Thus urge for self-improvement is the basic trait of evolutionary change because without it evolution becomes meaningless.

Change, as becoming

Becoming means changing from one form to another: Change of position is called movement and change of form is referred to as a chemical reaction. Change of substance is also a change of form because form concerns not only the outward appearance but also the interior. Since everything is constantly in the process of some kind of change, things come into being through change and exist through adaptation to the environment which is yet another description of change. Again, it is through change, things discard their old properties, attain new ones and sustain them.

Though atoms can be frozen, they are restless by nature, and thus in a process Of perpetual change. If we delve deeper into the concept of change, it transpires that change is another name for motion or movement; movement, especially the creative movement, is always directed towards a destination. Therefore, the cosmos which is a phenomenon of change, has a purpose.
Are atoms, which constitute the natural phenomena, really the product of change?

Big Bang

Modern physics reveals that the elementary particles were born of the Big Bang, the initial explosion, though the atomic nuclei were formed in the central cores of stars. As these stars exploded over a long period of time, they emptied their sizzling materials into the immensity of interstellar spaces where the nuclei adorned themselves with electrons to evolve as atoms.

The luminosity of this theory is clouded by our near-ignorance of such concepts as time, space, energy, matter, force, direction, chance, law and so on. Since existence of the cosmos cannot be imagined without these concepts, they must rank as its integral parts. The minimal information that we have of the natural phenomena arouses our curiosity to indulge further in the hypothesis for conquering the realm of ignorance.

Initial stages of evolution

What has been said above in a few words, now I may enlarge to elucidate the purpose of this discussion:
1. It is just a conjecture what happened during the first second of the Big Bang. Quarks are said to have played a major role in the first millionth of a second. In the ratio of three to three they combined to form nucleons.

Deutrons, as individuality

a. The ocean of heat, during the first second, contained populations of five elementary particles: protons, neutrons, electrons, photons, and neutrinos. These particles which at temperatures above 102a degrees lose their individuality, wandered at will without recognising each other. However, in some cases, protons and neutrons did combine to form the simplest nuclear system known as the deutron i.e. heavy hydrogen nucleus.

Primordial nucleosynthesis

b. At the completion of the first second, the temperature drops to a billion degrees when deutrons begin to capture neutrons and protons. This period of fierce nuclear activity known as "primordial nucleosynthesis" gives birth to nuclear systems Comprising three and four nucleons (proton and neutron) but these are helium nuclei. This process lasts only a few minutes because the temperature drops to such an extent that the nucleosynthesis i.e. nuclear evolution, cannot continue. At this stage the universe has a copious population of helium - 4 nuclei.
c. This first stage is governed by the emergence of nuclear force.

The cosmic fiasco

d. Scientists claim that the primordial nuclear evolution came to a halt with the production of helium-4. They say that it marks the failure of the cosmic experiment in its effort to evolve. Why? Because helium is too strongly bound to associate with other types of nuclei and thus flouts the law of nature which requires association through bonding to create complexity for extending the ladder of evolution. But association cannot take place if the bonds are too strong; the extraordinary strength leads to sterility and the system closes in upon itself. Thus helium stops the evolutionary process, and this so-called "state of interregnum, continues to exist for a million years.

Birth of atoms

2. As temperature drops still lower, the state of the universe brings about the awakening of electromagnetism. It is at this stage that a proton arrests an electron to form an atom of hydrogen.
Protons have positive electric charge and electrons are negatively charged. They waited for the appropriate change in the physical conditions to assert their role. This happened at a temperature of about 3000 degrees when each proton united with an electron. This union marked the birth of atoms, the building blocks of the universe. Thus existence owes itself to two facts:
a. Association between particles which can take place only if the bonds between them are not too rigid, and secondly,
b. The union is a directed one; it is neutrons and protons that combine to form nuclei, and not neutrons and electrons; it is the opposites which react towards each other to create atoms, and not the reaction between positive charges. The particles are obviously endowed with a potential which is realised according to the predetermined laws which are probably the part of this potential. It must be true because one can become only according to one's potential; no potential -no being. Of course, potential of everything is brought about by change but this change as potential determines or directs the identity of what follows from it.

Force of Gravity

3. As the realm of radiation is conquered by matter, the force of gravity begins to play a major role in the creation of galaxies, clusters and superclusters. These combinations are brought about by the gravitational force the same way as nuclear force welds the helium nuclei, and electromagnetic force shapes the hydrogen molecules. Gas condensations take place and a part of their energy is transformed into internal heat. The heated gases begin to shine as stars thus giving birth to the evolutionary growth of complexity.

These "stars" in their embryonic form contain the primitive products of nucleosynthesis such as hydrogen, helium and a bit of lithium but no trace of heavier atoms. The stars in their interior manufacture the chemical elements of life thus providing a second chance for nuclear evolution. It is caused by the thermal ascent which reaches about 10 million degrees. Various chemical reactions lead to the formation of a new nuclear system, i.e ``carbon" which plays a major role in chemical and biological evolution. Again, carbon nuclei unite with helium nuclei to bring about oxygen, which enhances the probability of evolution through the magic of complexity; the nuclei of intermediate mass appear and through a long chain of gradual additions the most massive nuclei such as uranium - 238 emerge: this system contains 92 protons and 146 neutrons, and is thus capable of changing into thousands of forms each having an internal arrangement of orbits of protons and neutrons peculiar to itself. During its long life, a star goes through various vicissitudes and eventually suffers an explosion' releasing the stellar matter which travels through space at the speed of many thousands of miles per second. The death of a star draws attention to the following points:

Evolution as Principle

a. It goes through the same pattern of events which took place at the time of the Big Bang. Obviously, the evolutionary principle precedes the evolution itself and thus plays the directive role.

Death, the ambassador of life

b. The exploding star or a supernova is the germ for an advanced phase of evolution (i.e. death opens a new door to life) because the ejected debris of the star consists of heavy nuclei. This change, i.e. variation from nuclei of intermediate mass to heavy nuclei, carries the promise of cosmic evolution. The interstellar debris becomes richer to produce heavy atoms. It is these enriched gases which act as a womb for the birth of the later generations of stars.

These stars, through a process of change, father ninety elements such as hydrogen, helium, lithium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sodium, iron, nickel etc. which suffer many changes to produce the garden of existence with innumerable forms, each carrying its own history of change.

Universal interrelationships

We should remember that different structural (chemical) elements have a potential, that is, their innate properties, but through chemical reaction, they also come to possess family traits i.e. they develop the ability to form relationship with one another. Their combinations carry an aura of natural choice because they associate with certain other elements only and not with any element. Thus expansion of relationships leads to new and larger families or diversity, but contraction in realtionships marks the beginning of extinction. Therefore, the universe is an exhibition of interrelationships and not of cause-and-effect.

However, at the root of relationships lies change because all that appears or disappears, hides or seeks, lives or dies, is subject to the Law of Change. Coming into being of the primordial fire ball was itself an act of change. Since its explosion, change has been rampant ceaselessly. Since all natural phenomena are manifestations of change, only change seems to be the reality. Is it so? Yes it is. To understand this trUth, we must look at the following facts:

Peculiarities of Change

1. One can state straightaway that Change as the Fundamental Principle cannot be subject to any extraneous influence because it is its essence to keep changing all the time. Therefore, what is immune from the extraneous influences must be original; it has always existed, and it always will.
However, initially, as I shall explain later, change was infantile or embryonic. It evolved through interrelationships which were its own manifestations, and the resulting stability emerges from the latent desire of maintaining them. It is this desire or tendency of change to maintain interrelationships which causes systematization based on rigid rules of composition. Initial change was, indeed, a wild force.
a. As all natural phenomena are displays of change, and change is eternal, existence is not subject to extinction; it is an eternal circle of appearance and disappearance or more properly, a play of evolution, Revolution and re-evolution because change as the fundamental principle cannot operate in a void. Therefore "extinction" is just a change of form: annihilation of a positron and an electron produces two photons, and when two photons collide, a positron and an electron come into being provided they possess sufficient energy. Thus extinction is not only a form of change but also a reversible process.
Change is the essence of things. All attractive and repulsive powers known as forces are various aspects of change. In fact, without perpetual change, existence is impossible. This is why Einstein asserted everything attracts everything, and scientists include in "everything", movement as well as bodies which have no mass such as photons of light. Matter attracts light and light attracts light!

Reality is circular

b. Again, what is perpetually changing cannot have a distinct starting point or an end. It is like a circle; after a circle has been drawn, it is impossible to say at what point it started and at what point it ended because one end runs into another quite imperceptibly. Thus reality is spherical and question of start and end does not apply. Therefore, cause-and-effect does not initiate the universe; it only explains, whenever possible, how change operates as the principle.

Unity of origin

2. Modern scientific studies, as explained above, reveal that everything is composed of elementary particles which themselves lose their individuality at temperatures about 1028 degrees. Therefore, they all must have the same origin. This unity of origin clearly shows that everything is a variation of the same truth. In other words, everything is a different manifestation of change.

Weinberg-Salam theory

a. This point is further explained by what is called the Weinberg-Salam theory which propounds the spontaneous symmetry breaking property, and claims that particles look different at low energies only and thus their difference is related to the difference of states because in fact all particles are of the same type.


Since things have a common origin, diversity cannot be attributed to an external cause. It must lie within things which are helped by the environmental factors to assume different forms.
b. The above fact is illustrated by the composition of things. For example, HaO equals water, that is, when two atoms of hydrogen combine with one atom of oxygen, they change into water which can assume gaseous and solid states as well as change into myriads of other forms of vegetation and animals.

Exactitude of change

c. It reveals yet another characteristic of change, i.e. entity or composition of things is a measured or regulated one. In other words, nothing can come into being without an underlying principle or law. In this case, H20 is the law. There is no other way of bringing water into being.

Urge of recognition

This observation unmasks another mystery: water is the manifestation of its underlying principle (H2O). Thus without manifestation the underlying principle cannot be recognized. The urge for recognition seems to be an integral part of the underlying principle, and therefore, manifestation and the underlying principle become one and the same thing: when we decompose water, the underlying principle also disappears (in relation to the decomposed water).


d. Put it another way, manifestation refers to stability. As cold is meaningless without hot and dark cannot be understood without light, change is not comprehensible without stability. They are the two opposite poles of the same reality as photons and electrons are (said to be) their own opposites. An even better example is provided by a light wave which is never stationary (i.e. perpetually changing) but always moves in crests and troughs. Obviously, both the crest and the trough are equally essential for the concept of change because change cannot take place without transformation from one state to another. Obviously, where there is change, there is also stability.

The creative principle

3. What I have so far called "The Fundamental Principle" and "change", can also be described as the "Creative Principle" owing to their precision and flexibility: it is these two characteristics of change which impart order to chaos through evolution.


Here are some examples of precision:
a. It takes three quarks to build a proton. Why? Because of their respective electric forces, two quarks repel each other exactly the same way as two electrons do Similarly, it requires three quarks to form a neturon. Without such a precision, existence will not be possible.
b. The universe is said to have been expanding for the last ten thousand million years. The precision in the rate of expansion is absolutely stunning. Scientists claim that one second after the Big Bang, if the rate of expansion had varied by one part in a hundred thousand million million, the universe could not have evolved! Obviously existence means being in the precisely right ratio.
c. Electric charges which are opposite to each other, have got to be exactly equal in numbers. To realise the vastness of the opposite charges in the universe, just take one gram of hydrogen which contains about 600 billion trillion (600,000,000,000,000,000,000,000) protons and exactly the same number of electrons. A proton has a positive charge and an electron has a negative charge If an ounce of ordinary matter suffered as little as one per cent difference in the numbers of its positive and negative charges, the said ounce of matter Would explode with a force equal to the entire weight of the earth!
What a precision it is!


The following examples illustrate flexibility of the Creative Principle:
d. All known particles are divided into two groups according to their type of spin. It is claimed that the particles of spin 1/2 constitute the matter whereas the particles which possess spin 0,1 and 2 give rise to interactions (forces) between the matter particles.

Pauli's Exclusion Principle

Flexibility of the Creative Principle lies in the fact that the matter particles obey the Pauli's Exclusion Principle but the force-carrying particles do not. The Pauli's Exclusion Principle declares that two similar particles cannot exist in the same state: if they both have the same position they must have different velocities within the limits allowed by the Uncertainty Principle. This is the reason that matter particles can resist the influence of the forces generated by the particles carrying spin 0,1 and 2. Without it, they would collapse to a state of extreme density.

To elucidate this point, I may add that forces between matter particles are thought to be carried by particles of integer spin - 0, 1 or 2 which operate in the following manner:

As an electron or a quark emits a force-carrying particle, its bouncing effect changes the velocity of the matter particle, thus causing a collision between itself and another matter particle. Though the force-carrying particle is absorbed, its head-on clash serves to change the velocity of the second particle and thus behaves as if there existed a force between the two matter particles. Immunity of the force-carrying particles from the Pauli's Exclusion Principle, imparts this exchange mechanism an unlimited boost, giving rise to a strong force.

This immunity amounts to flexibility, and forms an integral part of the Creative Principle. Without it, operation of forces will be faulty, and the necessary prey that the universe requires for its evolution, shall not be forthcoming.

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

e. Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is yet another example of flexibility. It states that the prediction of future depends upon the exact measurements of the position and velocity of a particle but this is not possible because only one aspect can be measured correctly - position or velocity. Therefore, there is no such thing as certainty' and the scientists believe that the Uncertainty Principle is the fundamental
property of the universe.
This does not seem quite true. Uncertainty means near-certainty because if it were not so, the scientists could not land a man on the moon, nor could Voyager 2 probe the mysteries of Neptune. This truth is equally borne out by life which cannot be based on sheer guesswork and a series of chances.
However, for the purpose of this discussion, uncertainty simply means flexibility as opposed to certainty which is a form of precision or rigidity.
f. Operational wisdom of the Creative Principle is unlimited. It knows exactly when to be precise or flexible. Take for instance, the forces between molecules. Without mutual attraction molecules will not form but if they go on attracting one another, matter will condense to such an extent that the universe will implode. The interatomic forces must become repulsive at shorter range with such a precision that molecules can retain their natural identity. This is a demonstration of discreet precision and flexibility.

4. All these principles that I have stated are ramifications of change or the Creative Principle the same way as branches are offshoots of a tree, and are controlled by its root complex.


These principles, which I should designate as subprinciples, provide the basis of interrelationships between all things. Yet the Creative Principle stands apart from the subprinciples as does a tree from its shadow. Perhaps, a more befitting example is that of a father and children. Though they all inherit him genetically, he exists independently, yet they all are related to him and to one another. Father is not the real cause of their birth but a precedence in time because he and his children are members of the same species, bound by relationships. As relationship stitches people mutually, it also binds one atom to another; it is quite evident from the family traits of the chemical elements. Thus the universe is a symposium of interrelationships and their order is regulated by the Creative Principle.

Urge of self-improvement

This leads us to a very important point, that is, the primary conduct of the Creative Principle. As denoted by evolution, that is, gradual progress from simple to Complex, it is instinctive and infantile and seeks self-development to become elaborate The elaborative conduct of the Creative Principle emerges from its relationships with the things that it creates haphazardly and its will to hold those relationships Take a savage for example. He seduces a damsel who bears him a child, thus arousing his paternal instinct which creates a relationship based on ve and care. This relationship is highly instructive. As the savage's children grow into a family, clans and tribes, their mutual relationships give birth to rules of defence and aggression, restraint and freedom, rights and obligations, ways of living and eventually a culture like ours based on laws, customs and traditions.

This evolutionary process must impart elaboration and refinement to the Creative Principle itself by means of successive relationships. It is no different from the human experience: we build our personality, attain maturity and create and retain our cultural values by persistent trials and efforts.

One major feature of this evolutionary process is Change for the better. This factor emerges per se from the basic precept of proceeding from simple to complex and rising from descent to ascent. Of course, change can be for the worse but I am talking about the overall change which is surely based on the urge of self-improvement. This urge is embedded in the chemical elements themselves. Without it, they cannot change into atoms, cells and man. It is this urge, as I shall discuss later, which leads man to the search of Godhead - the apex of self-improvement It all depends upon the successful maintenance of one's relationship with others In fact, it is a matter of securing one's rights and discharging one's obligations The notion of relativity springs from the interrelationship of things, and the concepts of precision and flexibility are modes of honouring them.

Spontaniety of principle

5. A principle cannot be created:
a. E = mc2 is E = mc2 (E is equivalent of energy, m is the mass of the object, and c is the velocity of light). There is nothing one can do about it because when certain factors arrange themselves as expressed by this equation, energy (E) is the result.
Again, it is a principle or law that protons must have a positive electric charge and electron must have a negative charge, and it must take three quarks to make a proton or neutron. A principle is subject to elaboration but cannot be created or destroyed.

Principle and purpose

6. Of course, change can be haphazard at its primary stage but as the Creative Principle it has, or comes to possess a purpose through the relationships it creates. The principle H20 certainly has a purpose, that is, water. If H20 does not lead to water, then it does not qualify as the principle.

It certainly does not imply the stereotyped sense of determinism because the creation of such elements as hydrogen and oxygen requires a great deal of effort The role of helium, as narrated earlier, clearly shows that the purpose does not dictate a specific effort to achieve it but opens the door to trial and error which eventually leads to success through choosing the best course of action. If it were not so, evolution of the universe would have stopped at the stage of helium. The fact that it did not, indicates that particles have their purpose written into them, that is, to evolve and become the universe. This purpose, in a way, can be equated with the potential of things to become but they have to realise it through their own effort.

It does not eliminate the role of chance in evolution but certainly reduces it by expectancy Of things to realise their own purpose.

Limits of change

7. Change is evolution and evolution is change but change is not limitless because the Principle of Change cannot transgress the boundary where it can no longer change Thus change can take place only between two extremes. Therefore, when change has reached one extreme, then it proceeds in the reverse order. If forward movement is labelled as positive, the backward movement becomes negative, thus it observes the law of opposites like protons and electrons, particles and antiparticles, and quarks and antiquarks.

Second law of thermodynamics

Here the law of thermodynamics may help explain the above statement. The second law of thermodynamics holds that in a closed system the change is always towards a situation with a higher entropy i.e. lower order.

Concept of entropy

8. The concept of entropy states that the natural tendency of a system is to move from a higher state of order to a lower state of order, that is from organization to disorganization. As disorganization accelerates, so does entropy. Scientists use a different language to describe this fact, i.e. the lowering of order refers to the decreasing information content. Thus entropy and information are said to be inversely related.

In view of what I have said, it follows that the universe is moving from the positive to the negative direction.
The first law of thermodynamics states that energy is conserved; it can neither be created nor destroyed. It means that the energy lost equals the energy gained or conserved. Surely, the energy conserved is energy only if it retains its original properties If the universe was born from energy what can stop its rebirth from the same energy specially when giving birth to the cosmos seems to be the essence of energy. When the extreme state of entropy is reached, the principle of change must become positive by reversing its direction of movement.

Change, the ultimate cause

9. Change is restless by nature. Initially, it operates at random but becomes purposeful and elaborate through interrelationships. Since everything comes into being through change, the Creative Principle, is ceaselessly working and therefore its existence and operation are independent of external factors. Thus, it is the cause of every thing without being caused by anything else. However, this cause, at least Initially, is in terms of precedence, and not as cause, the creator (as understood by the cause - effect relationship).

Change, the reality

10. As I shall explain later, eternity is not possible without change. Therefore, what is subject of change cannot become extinct. The universe being the manifestation of change cannot cease to vary and therefore, it must stay alive If there remained nothing to change, the Creative Principle would become inoperative. This is not imaginable.
a. In fact, things stay alive only because they have the capacity to change hydrogen and oxygen change into water which gives birth to myriads of forms through processes of further changes. Thus what does not change cannot exist There is no reality but change.

Change as principle, process and product

11. Whatever is in the universe represents change not only as the principle but also change as the process and change as the product, thus confirming the unity of being.
H'O is the principle; the act of covalent bonding (combination of the atoms of hydrogen and oxygen) is the process; and water is the product. Everything, natural or artificial is the manifestation of this truth - the change.

Manipulability of change

a. Change never ceases to be operative. It can be visible or invisible. Though its operation cannot be eliminated, it is subject to improvement, degradation, acceleration and deceleration. For example, life can be improved, prolonged or reduced. It follows that change as principle, process and product is subject to individual or collective will and the quality of existence depends upon the quality of control which raises the status of free will above that of determinism because in the long run it is the quality or degree of development that counts.
Constructive change is life-giving but destructive change is extinctive.

Change and law of opposites

b. Change expresses itself through the law of opposites e.g. at physical level as negative and positive forces, and at social level as morality and immorality, legality and illegality, justice and injustice, love or loathing, and so on. Why? Because all love is not change, it is loathing that provides variation though it may differ in degree. Similarly, at the physical level, neutrality of atoms, and tension are not possible without the law of opposites. Again, it is the friction of the Opposites which brings out the best and makes life pretty, precious and palatable.

Change for the best

c. The ultimate purpose of change is to be the best and stay the best. According to our present knowledge, particles struggle to be the best and thus reach the stage of man but he can be devious, devilish and despicable. Worse still, he is subject to depression, derangement and destruction. Yet the attempt to be the best is there, and even after a Revolutionary process, evolutionary process - an attempt to be the best - starts all over again.

Possibility of becoming the best

Is it really possible to be the best and stay the best? Yes it is. It is achievable through the agency of change only. Is it not a contradictory statement? And if it is not, then how do we reconcile these assertions?
Though I shall explain this point at a later stage, it suffices to say at this point that man does not represent the final development; it is Godhead that is the Ultimate mode of existence, and it is sustained by a continuous process of change. How? We shall examine it in due course.

The Creative Principle and manifestation

12. Matter, the building material of the cosmos including man, is the manifestation of the Creative Principle. Since matter cannot be shapeless, the Creative Principle must manifest itself in one form or another. The diversity of forms emanates from the variation of properties which the elements acquire from chemical changes.
Again, a natural force is an agent of change, and change creates as well as alters properties. For example, not only sweetness, stickiness, stench, hardness, brittleness, flexibility, colour, fragrance etc. are brought about by the electromagnetic force but it also gives birth to the phenomena of life such as thinking, feeling, sexual responses, digestion, muscular activity and so on.
It follows that as the Creative Principle must manifest itself, and manifestation is nothing but existence or stability, it is proper to say that the purpose of change is stability. In fact, stability is an integral part of change because change means variation in stability. This is no fairy tale; though I exist, I keep changing all the time, and if I do not exist, change would have no meaning in relation to me. Hence change and stability (existence) go together. This truth is further attested by the ever-changing heavenly bodies which have existed in space for millions of years. Since perpetual flux of the universe is responsible for the patterns of stability such as moon, mountain or monkey, it is a fair assumption that the goal of change is the maximum duration or the longest period of stability. Why? Because the longer the period of stability, the greater the chance for change to manifest itself (in that particular form)!

The infant principle

This statement does not sound irrational, if we realise that the Creative Principle is live and kicking, and manifestation is nothing but an act of self-exhibition. As stated earlier, the Creative Principle despite being the source of existence, is primarily an infant which attains maturity by experience. As a savage through rape or cohabitation becomes a father and thus establishes relationships with his Children, grandchildren and so on, the Creative Principle though initially manifests itself at random, each further manifestation begins to count as a relationship. As it is natural for a father to honour his relationship with his children, it is essenlia] for the Creative Principle to enter into a definite relationship with its manifestations, each manifestation establishing a similar relationship with its own offshoots. It is the tendency of the Creative Principle to maintain these relationships which display themselves as the exact formulas of chemical changes, and laws of precision and flexibility. The cosmos which is a symposium of interrelationships stabilises itself through honouring these relationships. This is the reason that everything exists relative to everything else. If this relativity is weakened or destroyed, the cosmos is sure to devolve and eventually plunge into chaos.

Significance of recognition

Before a relationship can be honoured, it must be recognised. Of course, a relationship has an intrinsic value but it is enhanced many times over through recognition. In most cases it is the magnitude of recognition which makes a relationship what it becomes. Nothing can be recognised without acknowledging its individuality. Since existence is relative, both the recogniser and the recognised have an equal obligation of recognising each other. Thus the Creative Principle recognises its relationships with its offshoots and they recognise theirs' in return the cosmic cohesion and physical exactitude produced by forces such as gravitation electromagnetism, nuclear etc., are examples of recognising and honouring the natural affinities. However, this pattern changes at human level where consciousness takes over the natural conduct.

Recognition means realising what is that exists besides us, e.g. what is parenthood? What is a friend? What is a foe? Honouring such relationships gives rise to ethical concepts such as vice and virtue and rights and duties, which lead to behaviour patterns, laws and cultural traditions. Thus each relationship acts as a link in the chain of life which prospers or perishes according to the fulfillment of these relationships.

Search for stability

In a nutshell, relationships create systems, and there is a natural tendency in every system to seek stability through a harmonious working of these relationships. Search for stability is the fundamental property of matter because it constantly probes for the highest state of stability. However, stability does not mean hardness but the longest possible duration as a system.

The ultimate reality

Since everything emerges through the process of change, change becomes the source of existence, and existence is nothing but stability thus change and stability become reciprocal. As the tendency of matter is to seek not only the higher but also the prolonged form of existence, reality is not just change but the stabilitYthrough-change. If change did not lead to stability, nothing could come into existence; there would be no moon, no stars, no rivers, no forests, no birds, no humans. And without intelligent life, the Change or the Creative Principle itself would have no value for lack of recognition.


Whether a thing lasts a moment or a millenium, it represents a form of life or stability. In human terms, the real issue is: can man live for ever, or is he destined to survive a few years and then turn into particles of dust? Can he achieve immortality? Of course he can. It means that although change itself cannot be
eliminated, its effect can be tamed to become the contributor of everlasting stability. This is not a fantasy but a well-known fact. Take electricity, for instance; it can be used as a means of execution but can also be harnessed to act as a saver of life; again snake venom is lethal but can also be used as an antidote. Change can equally be an ambassador of death or life. The basic characteristic of change is that it is not only deterministic but it is also docile. One must know how to manipulate its effect. After all, it is change which is the source of both evolution and devolution.

Because of the importance of this issue, I must repeat that stability is the Opposite pole of change exactly the same way as negative is of positive or light is of dark. Thus the Creative Principle is completed by its built-in polarity and stability-through-change emerges as the reality. It refers to the stage of existence where change or the Creative Principle operates at the highest possible level to become the agent of stability, that is, it retains its highest evolutionary level without showing any tendency of Revolution. This level of existence becomes superior to the rest of the universe for becoming immune to the Revolutionary process and thus represents the cosmic purpose which is the preservation of its best aspect.

Scientific proof of eternity

Once again, is the notion of everlasting stability a fact or fiction? It is a fact, and there is cogent evidence to establish the veracity of this statement:

Quarks combine in threes to create the strongly interacting family known as "hadrons" whose life-span is measured in trillionth of a second. I am not aware of any other thing as short-lived as a hadron. The moment a hadron disintegrates, it turns into a proton or neutron. An isolated neutron does not last for more than fifteen minutes but once it is incorporated into a nucleus, it becomes as stable as the proton. Of course, a proton is mortal but it has an expected age of 103' years, that is, 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years! Think of this figure and compare it to the age of a hadron or a neutron. Do not forget that man is made of exactly the same materials as the rest of the universe. If other things can attain sufficient stability to postpone a rendezvous with death, why can't man achieve that status? In fact, what I am about to discuss is more than a very, very, very, long life; I am going to discuss eternity, the natural goal of mankind.

Cosmos, man and consciousness

Eternity does not mean a stone-like existence but an eternal life based on consciousness. This concept of eternity applies to man only because he is the only being endowed with active consciousness which marks the highest state achieved by the cosmic evolutionary process. Achievement of eternity is a very real possibility because the cosmos can realise its dream through the immortality of man only. Why? Man is the greatest cosmic achievement and, therefore, his extinction implies failure and total loss of labour of billions of years that the cosmos did to evolve man. Therefore, man must be preserved not only because he is the baby of the cosmos but also because the conscious status of being is the highest state of existence and thus constitutes the greatest cosmic achievement. The real problem is how to make this achievement everlasting. It is evidently the concern of consciousness. If the journey from the human state to eternity could be accomplished through mechanistic means, subatomic level of existence would be more suitable for this adventure. Thus agency of faith leads man in the opposite direction because it ranks as a programmed probe based on total brain-washing which destroys his power of consciousness, though this is the very essence which makes him man.

Eternity means preserving the best. What is not best is not worth preserving, and the best way of preserving one's self is through self-endeavour.
As a footnote to this discussion, I may recapitulate the Concept of Reality.
There is no Reality but Change. Since everything emerges through Change, Change becomes the source of existence, and existence is nothing but stability. Thus change and stability become reciprocal. As the tendency of matter is to seek not only the higher but also the prolonged form of existence, the Ultimate Reality refers to the highest state of existence which lasts for ever. Though it is not immune to the law of change, at this point, Change ceases to be an instrument of deterioration and acts as the agent- of continuous stability. It is this function of Change which gives it (Change) the dignity of the Creative Principle.
The highest and the eternal state of existence, I have described as "Godhead", which I shall discuss in the following Chapters of this book (III) along with how Change solely becomes the agent of stability.

Chapter 12: Mind and Matter

Man's concern for eternity has always aroused his curiosity about the nature of mind and matter. Are they mutually opposed principles or are they two aspects of the same reality? This debate has raged over centuries leading to divisions and subdivisions which have lowered the standards of humanity, yet man's search for eternity, which is connected with the solution of this problem, has remained unabated. Attitudes of the modern scientist are even more puzzling; he thinks of man as a mammal whose only purpose is to eat and drink for a few decades and then happily walk into his grave for ever. This is surely not the natural end of man because extinction is man's greatest fear, and existence is his sweetest dream. This is why he condescends to the most frivolous, freakish and futile attitudes. Thus in the hope of preserving himself, he prevaricates, perseveres and willingly suffers the brunt of such persuasions which would ordinarily insult his intellect and torment his conscience. Since man's entire psychological conduct is based on self-preservation, death as we know it, contradicts the whole purpose of life.

Human dream of eternity is most sincere and constitutes the cornerstone of existence. Fear of death can turn love of life into an ever-rising obsession. It is this psychological condition of the mind which is preyed upon by gods and gurus, messengers and messiahs and prophets and *pirs. These merchants of holiness portray themselves as saviours of people, not to deceive them intentionally, but to save themselves. Their obsession for self-preservation is much greater than that of the ordinary folks. By projecting themselves as the object of total fidelity, submission and adoration, they aspire to create a class of men and women who dedicate themselves to obey their commands and worship their memories. Thus they preserve their identity through the imagination and behaviour of their followers! In doing so, they achieve their ambition but at a very high cost to the believers whose conscience, which is the only hope of securing eternity, they distort through the destructive force of blind faith and bigotry.
* A Pir is a personal Spinuai mentor in the Islamic World He guides his Mureed or follower to paradise.

Is cosmos a machine?

The goal of life is eternity but this assertion is true only if the cosmos itself has a goal. If the cosmos is just a machine, then man being its product, albeit the highest, is also a machine and therefore, can't have any purpose. It is on the Strength of such an assumption a biologist declares that eyes are not for the purpose of seeing, we see because we have eyes! This is an attempt to replace the view of final cause or purpose with the concept of function which holds that function is the activity of a part in a whole and plays a necessary or beneficial role for that particular whole.

Cosmic purpose

This mechanistic view cannot be true because, for instance, the human race without eyes shall constantly wallow in a sea of darkness without ever appreciating the beauty or realising the wonders of nature. Again, eyes are an integral part of the perceptual system, and consciousness, which is the apex of evolution, cannot emerge without eyes. Since consciousness means cognition or knowing, there must be something worth knowing. Therefore, eyes have a multiple purpose; firstly to play a definite role in the evolution of consciousness, and secondly, to know the world around us. From this conclusion, it also follows that the world or cosmos has a purpose: it wants to be known; it aspires to be conscious of itself. This seems to be the entire purpose of consciousness. Since man is the cosmic baby, he happens to be the medium for the universal consciousness.

Principle and purpose

That man is not a machine but a living-being is quite obvious from the fact that the entity of everything is based on an underlying principle. For example, the underlying principle of water is H2O. It means that if there were no H2O, there would be no water because irrespective of any process that may produce water, its underlying principle is always the same, that is, it requires two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen to bring about water. The same truth can be described thus: every underlying principle has a purpose which is its integral part because where there is H2O, there will be water. In simpler terms, principle and purpose have mutual existence. This is the reason that when the principle H2O is decomposed, water disappears as well but when the atoms of hydrogen and oxygen combine according to their natural relationship (the underlying principle) water must come into existence. Surely, the cosmos cannot exist without an underlying principle. Therefore, it must have a purpose. However, the modern trend amongst scientists is to think of man as a machine because according to their interpretation, purpose implies predestination and the existence of a creator. This thought annoys them the same way as the presence of a policeman irritates a thief, the sight of a mongoose maddens a snake or the chase by a dog saddens a drake. They deny the cosmic purpose to inflate the evolutionary dignity of chance, and to deflate the value of purpose.

Role of chance

If we look into the operation of the universe, we cannot allot the sole evolutionary role to chance because chance is something which may or may not happen but the universe has a definite existence, and is thus, way above the evolutionary capacity of chance. The cosmos is the manifestation of a certain and clear principle whereas certainty and clarity are no parts of chance which is always based on ambiguity. It does not mean that chance plays no part m the process of becoming. It does, but its role is secondary.

The Planet Earth

A glance at our own planet can settle this issue. Without the planet earth, as far as it is known, the existence or non-existence of the universe would not have mattered, because it is the earth that has mothered man, the only (known) species with consciousness that can tell the difference between existence and nonexistence and appreciate the magnitude of being. Is the earth a product of chance?
The scientists declare that it is so. I find this statement a glorious part of science-fiction because to be able to produce life the earth has to be a marvel of planning, engineering and operation. As we know, these things are not part of a chance no matter how prodigious, but a consequence of cogitation and seasoned deliberations. Again, the earth cannot be the product of one chance but trillions and trillions of homogeneous chances - all aiming at the same thing, all heading in the same direction and all having the same purpose. It is well known that chances of happening the same thing twice exactly the same way are only fifty-fifty. Therefore, it is highly likely that if something has been done by one chance, it may be undone by another. But when it requires trillions of befitting chances to produce something such as the planet earth, then such chances cease to be chances and count as natural links of a planned chain.

Direction and earth

The earth cannot be a product of chance; it is the consequence of a direction and a direction has always a purpose. This assertion is borne out by the fact that the earth is at exactly the right distance from the sun to receive the correct amount of sunlight; otherwise it would be too hot or too cold to serve as the cradle of life. The magnetic field of the earth is also made to measure for deflecting back to space the lethal radiation of the sun whose severity would otherwise destroy life. Its miraculous engineering is vouched for by the spin at its axis at just the right speed which enables the day time side to warm in sunshine and the night time side to cool. The precise gravity of the earth ensured by its calculated mass is the product of a brilliant mind, and not of a dreamer dependent on chance, because without this gravity the molecules of such a vast variety, instead of holding together as they do, will drift off into space.
These facts which I have described above, constitute what is called biosphere, he a water-based environment which is a must for the evolution of life, as we know it. These events are not only improbable without an ingenious designing of the superlative quality, but forging them into a creative chain is beyond the capacity of chance. It is the result of direction, and the direction has always a purpose. The purpose of this direction is the evolution of life endowed with the highest possible consciousness, which itself has a purpose.

Source of direction

Possibly, the reader may be inclined to question my idea of purpose. It is a legitimate enquiry that if there is no Creator God, and if evolution as we know If, is beyond the capability of chance, then where does the direction come from?

In a previous chapter, I stated that if existence comes out of nothingness, then nothingness is just another name for existence because what flows out of a fountain is a part of that fountain. Since existence is a reality, the universe has always existed in one form or another. However, to elucidate what I am about to state, I must add that the initial state of existence must have been haphazard because at that stage chance did play its part which was neither premeditated nor skillfully executed; it was an instinctive play of the child that I have already named as Change whose restless nature triggered a wide variety of things related to itself and one another. It is this mutual relationship of things and the inherent sense of maintaining them which enables things to unite, disunite and reunite for creating the chain of "cause-and-effect" which is not original but the sequence of the said union, disunion and reunion generated by the necessity of maintaining mutual relationships.

Self direction

In a nutshell, the change initially is infantile, and therefore, haphazard. The expansion of relationships and the inherent sense of honouring them give birth to new properties and forces, capable of sustaining and supporting the chain of mutuality. To emphasise this point, I must add that it is the innate urge of things to maintain mutual relationships which constitute existence. Since existence is spontaneous, it is its own purpose, and therefore, self-directed.
This explanation may seem far-fetched but it is not when we enquire what is it that gives particles their positive and negative charges? It is surely the sense of mutual relationship which is governed by the properties of the constituents of a thing; without these properties particles will not stick together to form relationships. The fact that things do form, and are inclined to retain their forms as long as possible, gives them the direction of movement; it enables them to retain their form (i.e. the particular mode of existence) which also happens to be their goal.

Evolution is self-directed

Evolution is self-directed, and the sense of direction lies in the atoms themselves; they are activated by change, which ranks as the Creative Principle, for evolving the ability to systematise relationships and creating new relationships based on precise formulas.

Urge of self-improvement

The further proof of this fact lies in the human body which is self-directed. As differentiation starts, all cells of the same kind instinctively recognise one another to unite together. A reflex is a self-directed response of the body. The human brain, which is made of atoms (cells), is self-directed and depicts the apogee of intelligence which directs myriads of processes and phenomena. Again, this self-direction of atoms is also self-elevating and constitutes the urge of selfimprovement which is the fountain of evolution. Unless it were true, an atom could not evolve into a cell and an amoeba could never attain the dignity of man. This evolution does not stop at man but eventually reaches Godhead, the real subject of this book.

Tendency To Be

No matter where this universe came from, it cannot evolve or exist without the tendency To Be. Change is another name for the tendency To Be because it (change) is always operative and cannot reach the stage where change ceases to be change It is change which creates, and creation takes place through a process and chain of relationships. Change creates a potential which is realised by further change This is the reason that everything is linked with everything else one way or another Thus existence is not possible without relationships.
An example of the tendency To Be is provided by the nature of atoms, the building blocks of the universe. All electrons of an atom can be removed by sufficiently destructive forces of heat but its denuded nucleus with its concentrated positive charges, attracts electrons (which carry negative charges) to become an atom again. Thus the universal tendency is To Be and not Not To Be. As said before, the tendency To Be operates through change, thus making the two equivalent.
Change usually takes place in three ways: 1. change of position called movement; 2. change of form such as water to ice or vapours; and 3. change of substance, which is a chemical reaction.

Properties and interrelationships

The properties of a substance depend upon its atomic composition. There are 105 known elements which constitute the fundamental materials of which all matter is composed. An element is a substance that cannot be split into simpler substances, and all the atoms of a pure element have the same gross chemical properties.
As the properties of a chemical compound are determined by its atomic structure, the properties of an atom itself are determined by its electronic composition. If all the known elements are arranged in the sequence according to their atomic numbers, i.e. the number of protons in the nucleus, their chemical and physical properties will be periodic, that is, similarities in properties will occur at regular intervals in the sequence of elements.
These elements have their particular properties. For example, helium is an "unsocial" element because it is reluctant to combine with other elements whereas carbon has the property to form covalent bonds (combine) not only with other elements but also with its own atoms. The carbon compounds are considered organic compounds because this trait of carbon contributes to life.
Elements gain their properties through a process of change which is said to occur in the interiors of stars where light elements are transmuted into heavy elements. It is these properties which determine the mutual relationships of things, that is, how things should come to exist, and their further combinations (relationships) give rise to further properties which create still more relationships thus establishing a cyclical pattern whereby properties produce relationships and relationships create properties. Once a relationship is formed, as a general rule, it develops the urge to preserve itself. This is the reason that man dreads the decomposition of his cells which means disturbance of the cellular relationships, or in plain language, death.

Evolution of Change through interrelationships

To put this idea of relationships more simply, let us assume that in the beginning' the earth surface was covered with water. First there grew single cells Whose associations (relationships) led to the evolution of complex plants and animals, which in turn, produced communities of organisms as well as those of grasslands' jungles, etc. Here, we should also consider photosynthesis, the single most important photochemical reaction, which is the union of carbon dioxide and water in plants through the interaction of sunlight and chlorophyll molecules. What has this chemical reaction got to do with relationships? The end product of this reaction within green plants appears as carbohydrates and energy-rich compounds which become the food of the herbivorous (plant-eating) organisms which themselves constitute the diet of the carnivorous (flesh-eating) animals. Though this relationship is based on animosity, it leads to the emergence of the urge of survival, i.e. the preservation of one's own organismic relationships as well as one's relationships with fellow-members of the species. Thus, maintenance of relationships becomes the goal of organic and inorganic compounds consciously or unconsciously. It is the vigour of achieving this goal which begins to discipline the pace and mode of change which becomes precise, formulated and predictable. Though change in its initial stage was infantile, as the net of interrelationships grew bigger and more complex, it lost its frivolity to assume the dignity of law. Do you know what is carbon dioxide? It is the relationship of carbon to oxygen in the mass ratio of 3 to 8. Similarly, ammonia gas consists of a relationship between nitrogen and hydrogen in the ratio of 14 to 3.

This whole discussion can be summarised as follows:
Change creates relationships which develop the urge to preserve themselves, thus preservation of interrelationships becomes the purpose of existence. However, existence does not mean existing for the sake of existing but existing at a gradually rising level through self-improvement. These two urges, i.e. self-preservation through preservation of interrelationships and self-improvement, act as the catalyst to give Change the dignity of discipline, precision and predictability.

The cosmic purpose

Since the universe itself is a phenomenon of interrelationships, it must have the same purpose as everything else, i.e. self-preservation. As man represents the peak of natural phenomena, the cosmos aims to preserve man - its best manifestation, which ranks as the cosmic attempt to preserve itself. Thus the universe strives for eternity through the agency of man. It is this purpose which necessitates the discussion of "matter and mind" because the attainment of eternity depends upon soul which is an extension of the mind.

Is eternity really possible?

The short answer is "yes" because nothing dies: This universe is a phenomenon of positive and negative electric charges but an electric charge can neither be created nor destroyed. Though this answer alludes to immortality, it does not vouch for the concept of eternity which implies not only an everlasting conscious life hereafter but also a better life which is pure, untouched by the pollution of fear, and filled with the fecudity of freedom and felicity.

Human nature

When searching for eternity, one cannot find a better starting point than human nature itself. Though we may differ about the definition of human nature, it is difficult to disagree with the fact that all human actions are directed at self-preservation one way or another. This proves that love of life and dread of death are the basic constituents of human nature. Secondly, the search for self-improvement is the basic trait of human nature. Therefore, what constantly seeks to improve itself, as a general rule, is good though concept of good may vary in individual cases.


The truth is that man has always yearned for eternity and to console himself, believes in Soul which he has held to be immortal without ever trying to find out what it really is.

The traditional view of soul is mirthful, magnetic and mystifying, though lacking proof and precision, yet powerful and pressurising. Of course, the mere fact that people have always believed in soul does not raise it to the status of reality but being compatible with human nature, it cannot be dismissed as a frivolity.
The history surrounding belief in soul is imbued with an unusual charm:
All Semitic religions advocate that God himself has a soul. Every human has a soul and it is immortal. According to the Koran: "God takes the souls at the time oft heir death, and that which is alive during sleep" (The Companies. 40) Hindus think of body as a prison for soul whose ultimate goal is to free itself from the body; they believe that soul survives death and suffers birth in another body as a man, mouse or monkey according to its actions in the previous life. Though Buddhists do not acknowledge soul, they believe in reincarnation which is the rebirth of a soul! The old Greeks (especially the orphics) also professed to have a similar faith; both Plato and Plotinus thought that soul lived a purer life after its release from the body at death. It is also believed that soul haunts the living after death; it may visit graveyards in search of suitable bodies or may take over the body of a living person by dispossessing its occupant.

Soul has not just been a vehicle of faith. It has also received philosophical consideration. Plato and Plotinus I have already mentioned. Aristotle thought of soul as a tripartite concept, i.e. vegetative, sensitive and rational. Rene Descartes identified soul with the mind because of its thinking aspect. Berkeley believed in the immortality of soul; Kant denied any human knowledge of soul whereas modern thinking treats of soul as an unnecessary and unverifiable concept.

My view of soul is different from what is currently thought about it or what might have been believed in the past.

To start with, there is no substance in denying the entity of soul on the ground that it cannot be seen or experimentally established in a laboratory. Take the example of atom. Mach, as well as Wilhelm Ostwald, the originator of chemistry were bitter opponents of the atomic theory in physics and chemistry. Just because it could not be seen, the positivists considered it at best a "convenient fiction,' and at worst an "illegitimate ad hoc hypothesis". Again nobody had ever heard of microbes until the 17th century. These tiny creatures now subdivided into various disciplines such as bacteriology, protozoology and virology, cannot be seen with naked eyes. Yet the microorganisms had existed for millions of years!

Nature of scientific evidence

Such views about the reality of atom sprang from ignorance. Once our knowledge advances, we may be able to see the truth about soul more closely but not completely because what we call scientific evidence is no more than a hypothesis of the person who advances it; his own subjectivity colours the face of reality, complexity of the instruments he employs adds further distortions; interpretation of the data gathered through scientific observation depends upon the purpose and prejudice of the observer. For example, Einstein forged the "cosmological constant" to prove that the universe was static. Similarly, Newton refused to accept the concept concerning lack of absolute position (absolute space) on the ground of his faith though his own laws implied this truth. The choice of facts that a scientist makes may not be truly representative of the whole field of enquiry. Perfect objectivity though is the aim of science, yet it is seldom feasible because progress towards the goal is always made through approximations, and the insurmountable gaps which are usually encountered in scientific investigations, are always plugged with guesses. The Quantum Theory which bases physical enquiry on probabilities, decides the nature of the scientific evidence: it ranks as a near-truth and not the whole truth. This view is confirmed by the fact that scientists have developed such concepts as "imaginary numbers" and "imaginary time" to overcome their difficulties. Though one should salute scientists as I do for their intellect, dedication and hard work, one cannot overlook the arrogance which power, pomp and prestige engender. Max Born, a Nobel prize winner declared in 1928, "Physics as we know it, will be over in six months".

Despite all the machinery and exploratory knowledge at our disposal, we have not yet discovered the whole truth about our own planet where we live; the rate of success, say in prospecting gas is only one in eight. How scientists know everything precisely about the stars and planets billions and trillions of miles away, escapes the grip of my understanding.

Warning to the reader

Having discussed the nature of scientific evidence, I must warn the reader that I can state facts only as I see them. As mentioned earlier, mystery is a part of knowledge, therefore, certain facts cannot be explained with total clarity. It does not mean that one should accept a vulture for an eagle, a pebble for a diamond or an ass for an Arab stallion. An argument should be factual or at least rational. It is for the reader or the listener to decide its merits but his judgement ought to be honest and fair I intend to proceed on this basis.

Of course, mere belief in soul does not create the soul itself. But the dignity of man that has been debased, decried and derided by the materialistic and mechanistic views of modern scientists, requires reappraisal instead of outright rejection for such childish reasons that the existence of soul cannot be verified experimentally If there is a soul, then it is certainly a higher and more complex species than the human species. Despite all our ingenuity and effort we have so far only touched the surface of the human sea and the deeper we dive the more mysterious it becomes; study of cells provides a good example of this point. It is openly admitted that it will need some four hundred million pages of this size for the understanding of human cells. Assuming that this assertion is true, what is the guarantee that perfect understanding of this subject can be achieved? The sheer vastness of the issue suggests that there will spring up myriads of controversies which are likely to darken rather than illumine it. Even if such a comprehension were possible, mastering information of such a mammoth size and complexity is beyond the capacity of any single human brain.

Method of studying soul

Obviously, it is far more difficult to understand soul than ordinary forms of matter, e.g. plants, animals etc. One must be prepared to make an allowance for reasonable assumptions as it is done in the field of science. For example, they have invented the concept of "virtual particles" which unlike the real particles cannot be detected but their presence is recognised because of their "indirect effects". Similarly, we are told that particles and antiparticles, as they come into contact, annihilate each other, yet it is claimed that the antiparticles of light and gravity are no different from their particles, i.e. they are one and the same thing!

Is there really a soul?

The answer to this question is really complex, and may be found in the age-old debate of ``mind and matter", usually referred to as dualism. Plato thought of mind as a completely nonmaterial entity; it is distinct from body and can exist independently. `'Psyche" is the word that Plato used to describe mind which has been translated as ``soul". In line with the Indian traditions that held body as a prison cell and thus treated matter as impure and the source of all trifles, troubles and torments, Plato deplored matter and adored mind (soul). The ascetic traditions and the cynical attitudes that retarded the progress of mankind for over 2000 years thus making this planet the abode of misery, malevolence and molestation, spring from such philosophical interpretations. The euphoria of self-debasement attained the magnitude of a charming opiate whose addictive effect, as it penetrated the human guts, happily reconciled everybody with the most alluring wonders of belittlement; eagle thought of itself as a sparrow, lion believed itself to be a lamb and man delightfully ranked himself with a mouse.

Mind: a property of matter

As far as knowledge is concerned, we are luckier than our ancestors. We know that everything is made of matter which is composed of positive and negative charges. I think that what is without some kind of body does not exist. The mere fact that the said charges exist, and cannot be created or destroyed, clearly points to the possibility of an everlasting bodily existence and also establishes that mind and matter cannot be two separate things because mind, in its usual sense, is a property of matter in the same way as fragrance is that of a rose, heat is that of fire and cold is that of snow. In fact, mind is a natural extension of matter because physical make-up leads to spiritual attributes. For example, the body of a savage develops moral sense and attains cultural refinement.

Matter, brain and mind

In this context matter means brain, and mind cannot be anything but another description of the cognitive powers of the brain because without brain, mind has no existence. Brain, like other parts of the body, is just a piece of flesh, thus a manifestation of matter, and all its properties must be considered as properties of matter, associated with its particular form. It looks like a huge walnut and may weight up to three-and-a-half pounds. The old physicians described its various parts in layman's language: wrinkled exterior of the cerebrum (brain) was called Cortex (bark) and was divided into Gyri (ridges) and Sulci (valleys). This description of the old masters is not laughable but expressive of amazement as how something which is shaped by bark, ridges and valleys can become the fountain of consciousness which ranks as the apex of the evolutionary process.
A strange working feature of the brain is its up-side-down performance: the left half of the brain controls the right half of the body and vice versa, and top of the brain regulates the lower parts of the body and vice versa. What specially concerns this discussion is the fact that growth of the brain is rapid during the first three years of life and attains its full weight by the age of seven though gradual growth continues until the 20th year; females may approach this stage somewhat earlier. Thereafter, the brain experiences diminution in its weight at the rate of one gram per year. Again, the cerebrum in humans, which is the core of thinking and conscious activities, is about 85�70 of the brain's weight thus distinguishing man from other animals.

What is mind?

Mind is, basically, the extension of matter, but how do we describe it? It is "that which thinks, knows, feels and wills". This covers the entire cognitive process including dreams, desires, designs, ditherings, determinations, delusions, detachments, deliberations, deeds and all the mental processes such as images, sense perceptions, memory, expectations, reasoning, believing, motives, emotions, choices, traits of personality and the unconscious.
Each of these characteristics of the mind is individualistic: neither will is thinking nor thinking is knowing. These traits may or may not work in harmony; they may even have rebellious or competitive inclinations. It is a common experience that thoughts and emotions disobey the commands of will based on sagacious choices, and feelings may stage a mutiny against knowing: it is not unknown that a lover under the force of his feelings may disregard the knowledge that his ladylove is fickle and unfaithful.


The gradual, repetitive and competitive working of the mind-traits over a period of time give birth to patterns of thinking, feeling, believing and acting which in turn, create a somewhat mechanised behaviour called habits, leading to a conduct. This mechanization of the mind-traits emerges as personality which is over and above the sum total of the brain cells, yet totally ingrained in them. There is always a centre for everything as nucleus is the centre for an atom (electrons) and nothing can gain stability without sticking to its centre. Personality is no exception to this rule. It must have a centre, which is provided by Self: it means "I, me, mine" because all these pronouns refer to one's self or whatever belongs to one's self. Another name for self is ego. The ego in its basic form is self-adoring and to achieve its ends becomes flexible despite the built-in mechanization of the personality.


And what is ego? It is recognition of one's identity which implies the natural desire and the right to exist as an individual and to enjoy one's individuality without fear of usurpation, frustration and molestation; it requires a guarantee of freedom and a charter of liberties. But the most important factor which I have not mentioned as yet is consiousness because nothing can be known or recognised without it: consciousness has the same relationship with brain as flame has with candle, sight with eye or rainbow with colours. It follows that consciousness has a purpose. Therefore, we see, not because we have eyes, we see because the purpose of eyes is to see. A scientist ought to know that he enjoys sex with his wife, not because he is married to her but because the purpose of his marriage was to have sex with her.

Role of consciousness

If we delve deeper into consciousness, it transpires that it is the apex of evolution. Without it, existence or non-existence of the universe will not matter. A thing may exist but it is the knowledge of its existence which gives it a proper valuation. The universe obviously wants to be recognised, otherwise consciousness will have no meaning because whatever man sees, feels, senses or perceives relates to the universe; man himself is a part of it. Therefore, human consciousness belongs to the universe. More properly, the cosmos evolves man for the sole purpose of seeing, feeling, sensing and perceiving through him. Thus man ranks as the cosmic baby with a special purpose. What is this purpose of man?


As stated before, the cosmos is a symposium of interrelationships which are brought about and governed by change. However, interrelationships, once they have emerged, want to continue undisturbed. It is for this reason that the loss of a son, daughter or friend hurts badly. Therefore, there must be a state of existence where change continuously expresses itself through the opposite pole i.e. stability, and this state of existence may be termed as Godhead which is total illumination and nothing remains transcendent. It happens to be the ultimate goal of both man and the universe.
Is Godhead possible? Of course it is, otherwise it will not be the cosmic purpose.

Soul and Godhead

Let me add straightaway that Godhead is the symposium of souls as human body is the combination of cells. And what is a soul? It is the rebirth of a purified and elevated ego.

Evidence and mystery

I am aware of the fact that these are extraordinary statements, and thus I have undertaken an arduous task of explaining them. However, it will be helpful to remember what I said about the nature of scientific evidence and the fact that mystery is a part of knowledge.

Depolarisatio n and repolarisation

This explanation involves exploration of the mind which is more than cognitive aspect of the brain Mind represents the nature of the universe which though unitary in essence operates through a mechanism of duality such as the working of negative and positive charges. This fact is made vividly clear by the operations of the cells capable of electric activity. They have a resting potential in which their interiors are negative by about 0.1 volt compared to their exteriors. When the cell is activated, its resting potential may reverse suddenly in sign; as a result, the outside of the cell becomes negative and the inside positive. This condition of the cell is temporary and resumes its original state after a short time. This sequence is called depolarization and repolarisation, showing that opposite poles are not dualistic in nature, and their repolarisation, i.e. the resumption of polarity, confirms that they require duality for a successful operational mechanism only.

Mind, the spiritual environment

A better example of this duality is provided by light. Is it a wave or particles? This cannot be settled because here the rule of mystery, that is, the Uncertainty Principle is operative. Similarly mind is a mystery which is likely to be solved if we assume that it is the spiritual environment of the brain, leading to the emergence of a soul.

Significance of environment

It is not likely to retain one's identity (i.e. stay alive) without reacting to the environment, and reactions must be judicious and not refractory. Modern scientists have done a great deal of work to explain the relationship between environment and becoming. An appropriate example of this fact is provided by the birth of the solar system and the incredibly complex and delicate evolutionary mechanism of the planet earth (which I have already described).

Life on earth is the product of a suitable physical environment, and cannot be sustained without it, either. To understand this fact, we must realise that the earth was originally a hostile and barren planet, and in this inorganic state, it vas referred to as "geosphere". The process of change gradually converted it into "hydrosphere" (the water), then "atmosphere" (the air) then "biosphere", having the capability of producing life, eventually leading to what is called "anthroposhere", i.e. the environment suitable for the emergence and sustenance of mankind. It is obvious that when the anthroposhere is destroyed, man as a species will disappear. Further, until such time that an environment rises to a certain standard, it cannot give birth to the highest species it may aim for. Thus the environmental greatness guarantees the advancement of its organisms. This is the reason that an environment must have a built-in mechanism to improve itself for the purpose of bettering the lot of its creations. Take the earth, for instance. Life started here without air and the early creatures had to survive through a process of adaptation. Obviously, the early creatures were microbes, quite insignificant compared to man; he could not have been evolved without a system of air, i.e. oxygen, which started appearing in sufficient quantities some three billion years ago through an advanced photosynthetic mechanism known as photosystem II.

Scientists have discovered in Iceland the existence of a micro-organism known as Isuasphaera dating back 3.8 billion years. It is anaerobic, that is, it has a mechanism of survival which supports life without air. They further claim the existence of a similar system in the cytosol of higher cells and the cell sap of most present day bacteria. A change of such a high magnitude, from an anaerobic energy-producing mechanism to the aerobic system of humans, is highly significant, indeed. It is not a dream but the product of the determined environmental design, delirious of improving itself with a view to creating the highest possible entity known as man.

Birth of Soul

Every species has a habitat, i.e. a well defined climatic space to live in. It could not come into being or survive without the specific environmental conditions because of its physiology and the general characteristics of its body. It shows the essential relationship between a particular type of environment and the species. It means that when certain climatic or biological conditions are met, a certain kind of life comes into being. Man himself is the product of a suitable environment. Therefore, I have no doubt that proper development of the mind, i.e. the spiritual environment leads to the formation of a still higher species known as soul.


There is no reason to believe that evolution stops at man. It will be logically wrong to make such an assumption because the evolution from a microbe to man proves that the cosmos is striving to achieve perfection, but man despite being the marvel of wisdom and wizardry, is still very imperfect indeed, and cannot be anything but a stepping-stone to something higher which is capable of realising the cosmic dream of still higher existence. After all, evolution is based on the overall principle that a lower species leads to the emergence of a higher one. One has only to think about the difference between man and microbe to reach this conclusion. There must be a higher species than man, and it is soul, but as the emergence of man depends upon anthroposphere, soul cannot come into existence until the spiritual environment of a person rises to a certain standard of purity which I may call "soulosphere".

Neither soul is a vital principle, nor human body, which is an autonomous system, requires a driving force. Thus the belief that soul comes into being at the time of fertilization of an egg or birth is a mistaken one, and the same remarks apply to religious and philosophical concepts which think of body as the prison-cell.
Relationship between man and soul is the same as exists between man and his environment. To express the significance of this statement I should add that man has no choice but to react to a stimulus such as heat or a chemical substance; a stimulus usually directly acts to modify the permeability of an area of membrane. This reaction is automatic; thus unless a stimulus is removed or some metabolistic adjustment is carried out, the membrane continues to fire and recover and fire again. As a man's reaction to his external environment determines the development of his life, his response to internal environment decides the quality of his spiritual environment which may lead to soulosphere, and finally to the birth of a soul. In this context, "internal environment" does not mean homeostatis but refers to one's purity of designs, sincerity of deeds and harmony of moral conduct. I shall shortly describe the "homeostatis" to make this concept more clear.

Internal world of man

The internal world of man is far more complex and wonderful than the external world. Interior of each human is dwelt in by some 100,000 billion beings thus making every adult person twenty thousand times as large as the entire earth in terms of today's population. These beings are cells and they are beings because each of them is capable of living an independent life in a suitable environment.


The significance of environment is demonstrated by the fact that even the nucleus of every cell is surrounded by a highly structured and dynamic environment called cytoplasm; it is the portion of a cell between the nucleus and the limiting membrane and this is where synthesis of molecules and transfer of energy takes place.


Stability-through-change, as stated earlier, is the reality, and this fact is fully supported by the biological process which goes on inside the human body. It is called homeostatis; it means tendency of the body to maintain stability by adjusting to the conditions which are just right for survival. The stability attained thus is actually a dynamic equilibrium which is a state of continuous change yet ensures existence through uniformity of conditions. Steady state is another description for the dynamic equilibrium. Thus the homeostatic discipline is nothing but a controlled internal environment. Without the homeostatic mechanism, existence w ill be impossible in the persistently changing world. For example, the human body consists of many types of cells which are subject to constant change; some Survive a few days, some a few weeks, some a few months. They all have to be replaced within six years. This ceaseless process of replacing what has been worn out, is an attempt to restore the steady state which the organism has come to enjoy. Even those cells (neurons) which may last for decades, have to be renovated. From this, it is quite obvious that life has to be manufactured through personal effort and to be lived bit by bit; it is a process of securing optimal adjustments with the ever-changing conditions for creating a controlled environment.

What is life?

ife is like the lustre of a glow-worm which appears and disappears in a regular rhythm Each alternating cycle witnesses its presence and absence. Thus, it is something which is not there all the time but keeps happening. Is it possible to make this happening continuous, constant and concinnous? Yes it is, but it all depends upon securing the right adjustment with one's environment - social and natural.


One type of environment leads to another type of environment unless the law of change can be made inoperative. Transformation of geosphere into anthroposphere vouches for this truth. In fact, it is proper to say that a physical environment eventually changes into a spiritual environment. Even scientists claim that the physical environment of the planet earth is superimposed by another dimensional sphere which represents reflective impulses produced by the human intellect, and thus qualifies as noosphere, i.e. the sphere of the mind or the collective memory and intelligence of the human race. It can be imagined to cast its weight on the entire globe; its influence is mystical; its presence can be felt but cannot be measured scientifically.

Social environment

Since human mind represents the evolutionary magnitude of the universe, it is only logical to acknowledge that the cosmos has not only a mind but the human mind is a reflection of the cosmic mind. Thus it is natural for a physical environment to change into a spiritual environment which is mystical and requires intuitive understanding rather than the logical faculty of the brain. Man's social environment is a good example of this fact. Men and women are made of matter, they live on matter and crave for material things. Yet they want to acquire things in certain ways and develop methods of pleasing and displeasing one another. Out of these particularized dealings arise manners, rules of behaviour, customs, traditions' laws and even superstitions which give birth to a social environment; it can neither be seen nor measured, yet it influences all walks of human life, and acts as the major guide of behaviour. The nations with better social environments become superior to those which are addicted to social degradation.

Mind, as spiritual environment of brain

Likewise, the cognitive powers of the brain create the spiritual environment usually referred to as the mind. In other words, mind is the spiritual environment of the brain. The effects of a person's thoughts, feelings, intentions, inclinations dreams, determinations, designs, decisions, and above all, deeds and deliberations constitute the spiritual environment the same way as drops of water form a river When we say that someone is in a low or high spirit, we refer to the ordinary function of the spiritual environment which is the agency to degrade or upgrade the level of performance. We all have ordinary spiritual environment at human level but nobody has a soul at this stage because soul represents the existence that starts after the expiration of present life. As purity of water determines the quality of river, sincerity of intentions and deeds decides the magnitude of the spiritual environment. Thus it has to ascend the ordinary level which helps the process of living but does not assist rebirth, that is, the emergence of soul. As sea water must have certain properties to be the producer of marine life, spiritual environment must rise to the status of soulosphere through a process of purification which is brought about by the virtue of sincerity and righteous deeds. Faith has nothing to do with it because attainment of soulosphere is way above the flight of faith which happens to be the frail faculty of the brain. However, faith does have a survival value in this life because it provides a shield against the harshness of reality. But in the long run it can be the destroyer of the soulosphere because people intoxicated with the wine of faith are usually prone to sin for being sure of absolute pardon irrespective of the enormity of their deeds. If we realise that it is the cells which manufacture human life through their own effort, it becomes evident that rebirth is also the sole responsibility of man who has been endowed with free will and the ability to achieve this aim. Again, creation of the spiritual environment is an individual's responsibility, and like cultural endowment, cannot be inherited. Hence, in the race of rebirth, every man stands for himself. There is nothing that these self-appointed gods and gurus and messiahs and messengers can do for him.

Nature of spiritual environment

It is not possible to give a concrete description of the nature of spiritual environment. Scientists talk of virtual particles which cannot be observed, but their existence is confirmed by the influence they exert. Again, as gravity is supposed to consist of gravitons and, light of photons, the spiritual environment must also be composed of something similar to these particles because presence of the spirit is felt by the degree of enthusiasm and level of attachment or detachment in ordinary life. As far as I am concerned, there is no soul in the living bodies because it is neither a prisoner nor a vital principle because human body is an autonomous system which needs no foreign assistance. Its excellence becomes evident from the working of the cells which keep creating their own life. To me, spirit is just another description of the spiritual environment, and not of soul.


What is the spirit or spiritual environment composed of? Mind is the spiritual environment of the brain (nervous system) which consists of nerve cells or neurons.

A typical neuron has a cell body containing a nucleus and two or more long fibres which serve as transmitters of impulses (the dendrites) though in higher nervous systems only one fibre, the axon, carries out this function. Surely, the spirit or Spiritual environment is made up of small bits as gravity is made of gravitons and, light of photons but it will be wrong of me to assign them a particular structure like that of a neuron. It suffices to say that the spirit or spiritual environment is made up of Spirituons which are small particles and rank as spiritual cells.

When soul comes into being

Soul is not spirit but something which may rise from the ashes of the spirit at the time of death. How does it come into existence? To understand this process we should refer to biology, the science of life. It has been established that all genes of an organism are present in every cell but they all do not act at the same time. Further, some genes act only at certain times during development, and certain genes never act in some cells.

The spirituous or spiritual cells may have a good deal in common with the behaviour of genes. Death acts as a catalyst which activates them through a swift churning action. However, this action is of avail only if the spiritual environment is capable of turning into a soulosphere, that is, it has been refined enough through consistent piety, to produce a soul. Spiritual environment of the persistent sinner is like the skimmed milk which loses the ability to produce butter.

Master spiritual cell

What turns a spiritual environment into a soulosphere is the ability of the spirituous to produce a soul. Behaviour of the spirituous resembles that of the millions of sperms which struggle to achieve life through the act of fertilization but only one succeeds, as a general rule, and the rest perish. The rule of singularity is final in respect of the spirituous. The spirituous that become active at the moment of death, wage a violent struggle for survival but only one succeeds and the rest perish through shock or frustration. The one that is victorious deserves to be called the Master Spiritual Cell; its victory is not based on any strategem but the simple fact that it is the best. It has got to be the best to rank as a constitutent of Godhead.

Soul may not be born

However, I must state emphatically that the emergence of soul solely depends upon one's piety, i.e. the good deeds, and not faith. Every intentional sin affects the Spiritual environment the same way as the turn of a churn acts as a catalyst to render the milk sterile gradually by reducing its content of butter. If you give birth to a soul, your death actually counts as the opening of a new door to eternity, but if no soul emerges at the last moment, you are really dead but there is no hell to roast you because you do not exist any more.

Neutrino and soul

The escape of the Master Spiritual Cell may seem more of a fairy tale than a convincing mystery. To my mind, it is a fact, and may also sound a reality to you if I describe it in terms of physics:
Scientists claim that each time an event takes place, energy is emitted. They have enunciated "the law of conservation of energy" which states that the amount of energy before an event is exactly equal to the amount of energy after the event During the 1930's they discovered the existence of neutron, which is an unstable particle and disintegrates into a proton and electron, but the energy balance is always less after disintegration than before. Obviously, something has disappeared. Wolf-gang Pauli, the famous scientist, proposed the existence of a new particle as a face-saving device. This imaginary particle was named "neutrino" (little neutron) by E. Fermi in 1934 and was experimentally observed in 1956. A neutrino has no mass, no electric charge; it has one half-unit of spin yet it always travels at the speed of light and is the most penetrating of subatomic particles. Now we are told that we receive from the sun 10 billion neutrinos per square centimetre, every day. It is the persistent endeavour that has raised neutrino to the status of a fact. May be one day we shall experimentally establish the truth about soul. Its possibility is far more likely than its impossibility.

How soul comes into being

Why has death got to be the point of emergence for soul? Firstly, though body is the matrix of soul, it is a different species altogether and therefore cannot take birth inside the body. Its coming into being is like lightning which occurs as a discharge when storm clouds rub against each other; it is the bang heard when a Christmas cracker is pulled, it is the fire that appears when a match is struck.

Secondly, death does not necessarily mean extinction; it may also imply improvement and a new phase of life. For example, some weeks before the birth of a child, it has far more cells in the brain than that of a newborn child. It is the large scale death of cells which plays the leading role in the perfection of the brain.
In a hostile environment, when organisms face death, they reproduce themselves in a frenzy (because they want to live through their offsprings). Their progeny is usually better suited to the environment thus increasing their chances of survival. Further, the exhausted organisms may be moved to another phase of nature which permits potentially more successful combinations of genes. Thus the death of inferior species leads to the succession of the superior species.

Before closing this chapter, I should restate that mind is the extension of matter. However, mind represents more than the cognitive power usually ascribed to it. In fact, mind is the spiritual environment of brain which gives birth to a soul when it attains the potential to become the soulosphere. Rebirth or raising a soul is an individual's own responsibility. The self-appointed gods and gurus, messiahs and messengers and prophets and pits have no role to play in the birth of a soul Once a soul is born, salvation becomes automatic because soul is the symbol of eternity. The death of a wicked person cannot lead to the emergence of a soul; it is the end of the road of life. It is cruel to raise false hopes yet this is the most effective weapon of these self-appointed holy-men to establish themselves as gods, messiahs and prophets by promising the impossible as the possible to people, who want to have the best without the least effort.

"Believe in me, and I will get you into the paradise". It appears that salvation depends upon the magic of words and not the merits of deeds. What a fraud it is! The most precious things cost most dearly. Why not paradise, the loftiest goal of life?

Next Part

Eternity Part 1
Eternity Part 2
Eternity Part 3
Eternity Part 4
Eternity Part 5
Eternity Part 6
Eternity Part 7
Eternity Part 8
Back to Eternity Book Index
Back to Anwar Shaikh Index
Back to Islam Index
Back to English Library Index
Back to Philosophy Index

Support IPC
IPC operating since March 30, 2000
  Duplication of contents are allowed, only by naming the source & link to IPC
All rights are protected & reserved by Iran Politics Club © 2000 IPC