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Eternity Book Series
Part 6 – Free Will and Ethics

 

Eternity Book Series 4 Books – 8 Parts
Part 6 – Free Will and Ethics

(Book 4: The Way)
Anwar Shaikh
1st Edition: September 20, 2014
2nd Edition: August 28, 2016


Islamic Indoctrination Since the Early Age is the True Goal of Quran.
Jihadi Muslim Child: Infidels, Quran or Sword, which will it be?!

Book 4: The Way
_______________
Part 6 – Free Will and Ethics
Introduction
Chapter 14: Harmony
Chapter 15: Free Will
Chapter 16: Ethics
Chapter 17: Psychology
Chapter 18: Sociology
Chapter 19: Law
Part 7 – Politics
Chapter 20: Politics
Chapter 21: Taxation
Chapter 22: Economics
Part 8 – Mysticism
Chapter 23: Mysticism
Postscript
Glossary
Bibliography

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Part 6 – Free Will and Ethics

Introduction

The Universe is perpetually engaged in a dance, and everything dances to its own music. This accord in the movements of dance and music is harmony, and ranks as the secret of life. Thus the cosmic dance provides man with a model to follow. In human terms, harmony means social accord which requires a society capable of reducing all those tensions which create disharmony. It is only the harmonious society that can sufficiently develop one's individuality leading to the birth of a soul, the guarantee of eternity.
The fact that such a society does not exist automatically, reveals the truth about effort and exposes the triviality of faith. If such a society existed naturally, man would be just a mechanical toy. The creation of such a society is not the task of nature but that of man who has been endowed with free will. In fact, free will is the fountain of life, and should also be the means of making it everlasting; after all, it is free will that makes a man, a man. Since eternity is within the grasp of man, he has a brilliant future but it depends upon the creation of a harmonious society.

What are the factors which make a society harmonious? It is a matter of opinion. However, in addition to devoting chapters on "harmony" and "free will" for expressing their significance, I have chosen the following subjects, which I believe, play a major role in building the society congenial to man's social and spiritual development, eventually leading to eternity:

1. Ethics (vice and virtue)
2. Psychology (individuality)
3. Sociology (society)
4. Law (and morality)
5. Politics (state)
6. Taxation
7. Economics
8. Mysticism

These subjects have received the attention of scholars and philosophers since time immemorial; opinions differ on each subject; some seem to be even contradictory. To my mind, they are the links which forge the chain of life, and its strength and magnitude depend upon their linkage. However, though each of the succeeding chapters discusses a fundamental principle, I have left its application to the suggested harmonious society, open-ended. It is only gods and gurus who lay down the law. Not being one of them, I believe that the reader is quite capable of coming to his/her own conclusions.

Chapter 14: Harmony

The way to eternity is much easier than the merchants of holiness will have us believe. There are no dragons to be slain to achieve this goal nor are there any rivers of fire to be crossed over for this purpose. These tales have been invented by the gods and gurus to give themselves supernatural prestige for forcing ordinary folks to cry and crawl before them for salvation.

Salvation does not mean securing a palace in paradise which abounds in beautiful women and boys and thus resembles the seraglios which were private brothels of the mundane rulers. Salvation means becoming a part of Godhead which is the mode of existence based on bliss, immune from fear of death and want of favour; it is the state of the glory of individual souls which receive their divine immortality through mutual harmony which is the virtue of being singular in diversity. In fact, this principle of unity in multeity is the rule of existence at all stages: myriads of drops join to create a pool, countless scintillas combine to make a flame and billions of cells unite to bring about a human. Perfection of the aggregate, in each case, depends upon the harmony of its constituents.

Though this harmony is the basis of physical entity of every human, it does not exist between person and person as is the case between atom and atom or cell and cell. This lack of harmony is mainly attributable to the voracious attitudes of messengers and messiahs who deprive ordinary man and woman from the dignity of participating in Godhead with the sole purpose of establishing themselves as God through various ruses. They attain this goal by dividing mankind in deadly sects who hate fellow-beings in the guise of love and duty, and by destroying their power of understanding for subjecting them to the kind of fundamentalism which forces its followers to live at the level of animals through ignorance, bigotry and superstition. This disunity based on mutual contempt is the exact antithesis of harmony, and the major cause of human sorrows. Man is endowed with consciousness and thus possesses the ability to live in harmony which is so essential for developing his latent virtues to make him God-like even in this life.

Man's responsibility

Whereas other things are guided and developed by the laws of nature, man is responsible for steering his own ship because he is blessed not only with consciousness but also free will. Attaining Godhead is the purpose of human life. If he deliberately opposes the purpose, he is naturally leaping towards self-annihilation and not eternity. The person who walks on his head instead of feet, must know the consequences.

Harmony is the motivating force of the universe. It is the antithesis of inertia, inactivity and insensitivity because it refers to the rhythm of active actions performed by countless parts of the universe in unison: sound of marching soldiers or dancing of a bevy of girls to the tune, are some examples of this fact. The continuous recurrence of stresses emanates from the congruous spirit of individuals and not that of a forcefully welded whole.

The marvels of the universe do not necessarily give us a clear vision of its working; they usually make it more mysterious and we tend to draw convenient conclusions from it.

Cosmic dance

Despite all this confusion, science has unlocked many secrets of nature to make life lively, lovely and lucid. Take a crystal, for instance. It is a solid of indefinitely extended framework of atoms and ions which are arranged in rows, columns and planes to give them regular geometric patterns. These solid pieces look stationary but in fact, they are in a perpetual state of dancing: for forces between neighbouring atoms cause them to vibrate in unison and as a result set up a series of waves which criss-cross throughout the crystal. This harmonious vibration gives the universe the appearance of a doll eternally enjoying the delight of an atomic or cosmic dance. Man is a natural partner in the cosmic dance; unless he participates in it with total volition, he cannot experience the divine ecstasy. And this participation is not confined to one's fellow-beings; its boundaries extend to include the natural environment; he must learn to appreciate the music of waves, chirping birds and rustling winds, and also the sweet, serene majesty of hills, forests and silvery streams.

This atomic or cosmic dance is performed in association with a heavenly tune creating the cries-crossing waves. Because of the perpetual motion, everything in the last analysis, is a wave. Matter, the building material of the universe, has been referred to as "frozen light" but because of its mysterious nature, light is considered as both quanta (particles) and wave. Light, as wave consists of transverse vibrations, very much like the vibrations of a violin string. An electromagnetic wave is also a transverse wave like the sound wave which can be set up by plucking a guitar string.

Like the plucking of a violin string, everything sings as it vibrates; both a tinkling bell and a squeaking door try to create music but what raises the rank of a noise to music is its vibrational frequency. From the lips of a trumpet player to an organist, sun and galaxy - everything is a musical instrument hilariously producing music. What a physicist calls a sound wave is, in fact, a music wave especially when it contains periodicity i.e. a regular pattern in the rise and fall of oscillations. A sound wave is a mathematical entity because its audibility is inversely proportional to the square of its distance.

A sound is likely to be a cacophany, a grating noise, if it is without the virtue of harmony or periodicity. An instrument ranks as a musical instrument only when it produces periodic vibrations which are termed as tones. A tone is the Opposite of noise because the former pleases but the latter displeases. Another peculiarity of tone is that it contains features such as controlled pitch, loudness, timbre and duration, which enable it to become autonomous.

Natural way of life

From the above narrative, it is clear that everything as it moves, is engaged in a dance, and as it dances it vibrates at a set frequency or periodicity, producing music.

Thus everything dances to its own music which is the natural way of life. Therefore, the universe is not miscreant and malevolent but merry and mirthful. It is marching towards its goal of loftiness through harmony of singing and dancing. In fact, this cosmic dance is the model for man to follow: man's survival lies in harmony, that is, complete social accord. Unless a religion tolerates dissidence and promotes love of mankind, it is the ambassador of discord, and has no place in the human society; it is simply the work of the devil.

Universe produces harmony through the force of natural law but man can't achieve this goal by laws alone because he is endowed with free will which is a mechanism of free choice. His conduct, therefore, must primarily be guided by his moral force. It does not mean that man can be completely free from the jurisdiction of law. Yet free will is the key to harmony.
What is free will? I shall discuss this in the next chapter.

Chapter 15: Free Will

Free will is the fountain of life. A scientist does not usually acknowledge a dividing line between life and death, and physically, he is right. But life is much greater than physics. In fact, its magnitude is much higher than the combined stature of all sciences put together because their very purpose is to bring about life, sustain it and improve it.

Free Will and Ego

Life begins with the emergence of free will. A stone is a stone because it does not have free will but a cell such as an amoeba is alive because it has the will to move about. Yet they both are made of atoms. Obviously, free will lies dormant in atoms and increases in intensity as the ladder of evolution extends higher. At subhuman stage, it is passive but at human level, it becomes active and pines to take over the conduct of one's ego or self. Its emergence is the greatest wonder because it nearly eliminates dominance of the physical law as applicable to human life and enables man to conduct his affairs as he pleases. This point is better understood if we realise that the human body is governed by exactly the same laws of physics and chemistry as all other bodies. For example, my walk is activated by what is called the law of reactions, that is, actions and reactions are equal and opposite. Unless my body observes this law my legs cannot move but this law does not tell my legs where to go. Obviously, something has emerged inside me, and this something is not only over and above the confines of physics and chemistry but also their goal. This something is free will, my own power of choosing which decides whether my legs should carry me to a temple or tavern, a rose-garden or a race-course.

Free will bestows upon me the freedom of choice. Thus I am at liberty to indulge in vice or virtue and become a deuce or dens. It means freedom is the goal of life and man has the right to demand the break-down of all those barriers which restrict his freedom of choice and freedom of action, bearing in mind that everyone is entitled to freedom and therefore, one's own free will must not become a source of denying freedom to the fellow-beings.

Free will and individuality

Extension of the evolutionary ladder from particles to man clearly shows that the cosmos is marching towards freedom. In fact, it is an attempt to arouse the dormancy of atoms to the state of consciousness for creating free will. Again, free will is imperceptibly interwoven with individuality, which comes into being
as a result of the evolution of particles which are all exactly the same, and thus initially lack individuality. Therefore, the purpose of evolution is to create individuality which implies the innate right to maintain one's identity. But this is possible only if one is independent enough to choose one's way of life. Thus free will and individuality becomes one and the same thing.

Determinism

Polarity is the operational law of the universe but polarity does not mean Opposition for the sake of opposition. It is a natural mode of keeping things in balance by tension which creates unity and not disunity. This point is well-explained by the fact that similar electric charges repel but the opposite charges attract. Thus polarity is based on complementerity which is the cause of unity in diversity, and by no means a symbol of basic duality. Like everything else, free will also has an opposite pole called determinism which is complementerity and not dualistic in nature though unfortunately, it has been depicted as such through a never-ending debate that has taken place over centuries. As a result, supporters of one view deny existence of the other: either it is all determinism or all free will.

Chance

Modern scholarship supports free will, and as a result the universe is considered a child of chance changing churlishly without any purpose. They deny any cosmic purpose because that what has a purpose has been ordained, and is thus created and not evolved. To make matter worse, some of them claim that the cosmos is a machine and not an organism.

urpose of universe

I have already argued that every principle has a purpose. Therefore, the universe which is the manifestation of the Creative Principle has inevitably a purpose which is attainment of Godhead, that is, existence at the highest possible point through a process of self-improvement.

Dominance of free will over determinism

This purpose is an integral part of atoms (particles), and exists as the potential to be. It is due to this fact that matter cannot be formless, and irrespective of what form it takes, becomes associated with a purpose. Yet that purpose cannot be always defined precisely. This fact is compatible with the law of mystery or uncertainty because every action and object comes to possess a side or subordinate purpose in addition to the principle one, thus diluting the force of determinism with a view to increasing the role of free will which decides the priority, and even the meaning of a purpose. Even when a purpose is quite clear, the method of achieving it is not determined but based on trial and error. In fact, this view reduces the stature of determinism considerably in real life because one does not have to accept the existence of a particular purpose or act upon it.

Anatomy of chance

The purpose is dormant in atoms as imagination is in brain, butter in milk or fragrance in rose. Chance is the only factor that has no purpose, and, therefore, it cannot be the sole agent of evolution. There are several reasons for it. Firstly, a chance may or may not happen but evolution is a fact: no river can ever flow without a definite source; secondly, a chance can be constructive or destructive and thus the work of a constructive chance can be wiped off by a destructive one. This universe requires trillions and trillions of consecutive constructive chances to evolve the universe. This type of happening is wishful thinking which is against the law of probabilities. When trillions of similar chances take place in an unbroken sequence, they cease to be a series of chances and become a definite mechanism based on deliberation, planning and engineering. A chance, by definition, lacks all these elements. It does not mean that chance plays no part in evolution at all; it does have a role but it is secondary. In the beginning, chance must have played a major role when the Creative Principle was not sufficiently evolved but as change created interrelationships, their mutual tendency to retain their identity, led to the evolution of laws which help preserve organisation through systematization thus reducing the role of chance which is likely to be haphazard. We should also realise that a chance can't take place in a void. A chance meeting takes place between two (or more) already existing people.

The Creative Principle itself is evolutionary because it develops through constant change which systematizes itself over a period of time through trial and error. Thus evolution is based on a gradually evolving principle of determinism. In fact, free will makes no sense without determinism because existence is another description of determinism. For example, my existence is predetermined. I could have been a mouse or a monkey but I have been determined as a man, and there is nothing that I can do about it. Again, I have no control over my parentage, country of birth, colour and so on.
All these factors play a considerable role in my life.

Relationship between determinism and free will

What is then the relationship of determinism with free will? A look at your genetic pool may explain the issue. You inherit your genes from your parents. They determine not only your potential to be but also endow upon you the capacity to break away from the constraints of the DNA through individual choice such as learning and also enable you to improve yourself by securing a better adjustment with the environment. Again, it is determined that every action must have a reaction but you can, not only choose the stimulus but also the method of reacting to it; you can forgive or retaliate. The incidence of determinism is subject to a very vast variance, indeed: it is only a bird which can fly, and man can't but he can make up this deficiency through an aircraft and also considerably improve upon the technique and quality of flying.

In fact, the existence of determinism and free will is reciprocal. Something has got to exist before it can exercise options. Existence refers to determinism and exercise of options alludes to free will. For example, entity of man is determined, and it is this determined molecular structure (man) that exercises free will. One can say: "No predestination (determinism) no free will" but the more relevant conclusion is that determinism leads to free will.

Since the identity of everything is determined by the underlying principle, it becomes the fountain of determinism, on the one hand, and of free will, on the other, because when something is determined i.e. comes into being, it acquires a purpose. Thus joy of existence depends not only upon the realisation of that purpose but also the manner of achieving it. It requires free will to give the actor a fair choice between the alternatives and the manners of performance. Therefore, the purpose of life is better served by maximising the scope of choice to enable man to exercise his options in a more dignified manner.

Wrong attitude towards determinism

Determinism is usually blamed for one's misery and helplessness.
This is a wrong attitude towards life because it is a matter of common observation that we use determinism as the object of free will or personal choice. How? We decide what we want to become i.e. doctors, engineers, lawyers, farmers or factory workers. Thus we choose to determine the course of our lives. Those who fail to exercise such options, have only themselves to blame because the choice is there if they want it.

I have used the word "uncertainty" as a near-certainty denoting a statistical value of accuracy. Perfect certainty neither exists nor is it desirable because it will contradict the law of mystery which makes life a great phenomenon. Thus determinism can't be an absolutely rigid concept which is imposed from without. It is more like dynamic equilibrium which is maintained through wisdom and constant effort; formation of atoms is yet another example of determinism. Without constant effort of the electrical forces, an atom could not determine itself.

There are people who believe that God has determined everything and chalked out its conduct beforehand. If this be true, then God's own conduct in relation to everything is also preset and thus He lacks freedom of movement and cannot govern such a vast universe which needs a lot of flexibility in handling it. Above all, God ceases to be All-powerful and His wisdom and discretion becomes a myth for lack of use.

Beneficence of determinism

Determinism has a great beneficial value to mankind because greater determinism brings about a higher purpose which imparts a superior force to free will, raising its quality and effectiveness correspondingly to achieve purpose of the determinism. Therefore, one can express it as a rule that greater determinism is followed by a higher free will. For example, if a Marxist state determines that people should have a higher standard of living, it will have to widen the economic choice by filling shops with all sorts of consumer goods at affordable prices. If it rations even the bare necessities of life, then it has resorted to falsehood. Unless determinism has a moral purpose i.e. a purpose beneficial to mankind and enhances free will, that is, it creates abundant opportunities for widening choice, it is not a natural form of determinism but a device to deceive and deride people to appease and please its deviser. An example of this fact is provided by the recent collapse of Marxism in the eastern European countries.

A Marxist state practices deterministic philosophy to determine the goal of life and ways of achieving it. Free will is abolished by disallowing individual choices on the pretext of common good. Moral conduct is superceded by the rule of law which represents the will of rulers who enjoy despotism in the guise of public care. Everything is done in the name of people. For example, land is called public property and courts are named people's courts whereas, in fact, nobody owns anything at all. Everything - land, houses, factories and even people themselves become property of the state. Even the people's courts are there to nail the ordinary folks to the will of the state. And what is state? It is just a euphemism for the men in power who love to perpetuate their authority but under the most endearing varnish of hypocrisy.

This is abuse of determinism because it does not lead to enlarging free will i.e. widening of choices. The greater the choice the higher the chances to achieve the legitimate goals of life in a desirable manner. Plentitude of choices leads to moral ascendancy but their paucity weaves a web of crockery around most individuals causing their fountain of righteousness to dry up and thus destroying their chances of eternity.

Free will and eternity

Eternity is the everlasting state of freedom from fear, and want of favour. The element of freedom is all-important in determining the value of a deed which serves as a criterion for eternity or extinction. It is only the action based on free will that has a spiritual value; a forced deed has none. Therefore, the distinction between vice and virtue is what promotes or demotes free will. This is the most significant point because virtue leads to eternity but vice goads to extinction.

What is the way to eternity?

In fact, I have already answered this question. However, in view of its importance, I repeat that as free will and individuality are one and the same thing, eternity is attainable through the development of individuality but development has to be righteous, and the righteous development is the one which seeks to guard one's own legitimate interests as well as those of one's fellow-beings. One must do so consciously as a moral duty and not as an ostentation. Hence sincerity is the key which opens the gateway to eternity.
One should always bear in mind that the development of individuality does not mean selfish care but care of one's self in relation to others so that one's attitudes and deeds being beneficial to one's self also benefit other members of the society, and such attitudes and deeds must be based on one's free will and not forced upon one, nor should they result from convenience. This is the minimum requirement for eternity. When a person develops the capacity to live for his fellow-beings out of pure love, and he actually does so, he has already acquired the godly status; death simply means the divine confirmation of this fact.
Significance of individual development in relation to Community, is the key to eternity. It calls for the structuring of a righteous society which is free from the fear of injustice, hunger, disease and ignorance. However, just freedom from fear is not good enough: it must also abound in moral favours such as love, care and friendship.

The plan

It needs an enormous number of subjects for consideration to evolve such a society but because of the restricted space, I can include only the following topics for discussion:

1. Ethics (vice and virtue)
2. Psychology (individuality)
3. Sociology (society)
4. Law (and morality)
5. Politics (state)
6. Taxation
7. Economics, and
8. Mysticism

Chapter 16: Ethics

Ethics has always been man's great passion. It studies the nature of vice and virtue. To an ethical philosopher, "the good" or "the bad" means what is intrinsically good or bad and not good or bad as a medium to accomplish or avoid something.

Is there anything which is really good or bad in itself? Fire is good in winter to warm the sitting room but it turns bad in the same lounge during summer; the same thing can be the source of opposite effects: electricity both burns and chills. Of course, hot and cold are two realities but neither is intrinsically good or bad; it all depends upon their usage, the particular situation, the purpose and the belief of the user.
Unless a balance is struck between vice and virtue - harmony, the chief guide to eternity cannot come into being. Though ethical values such as justice, velour, happiness etc. cannot be defined, still we believe in their existence without knowing what they really are. For example, a sadist is happy to watch blood gush out of his victim's jugular vein and a bank robber feels delighted with his haul. But these acts are grievous to the sufferers of violence and theft. Thus one man's happiness becomes another man's grief. Am I being narrow minded in describing these ethical concepts? This is not the case. All conquerors who headed large groups of populations, and were thus morally and lawfully considered respectable and divine, indulged in murder, theft and depriving the vanquished of their liberties. This was the main purpose of their conquests. Islam openly legitimised pillage and murder of the infidels and called such wars (Jehad) holy and righteous. Christians who waged wars against the moslems for centuries as crusaders, were no less rapacious and murderous than their adversaries, yet their atrocities ranked as acts of piety!
Is it possible to strike a balance between vice and virtue?

Dualism

If we look at the history of human thought, we realise that the concept of vice and virtue has become a basic doctrine known as "dualism" which holds that the reality or world consists of two principles or substances such as good and evil or mind and matter; they are irreducible and nothing can exist without them.
Iranians believed in the eternity of the good (Ahuramazda) and evil (Ahriman) principles, which are equal and opposite. They always have been at war, and they always will. Plato speaks of two souls of the world, one causes good and the other evil. Thus the cosmos faces an eternal recurrence of two alternating cycles, each being guided either by gods or men. His theory of soul and body is an extension of his dualistic views. Gnosticism also firmly opposed body and preached the divinity of soul. The Indian dualism involves the opposition of the one and the many i.e. a struggle between reality and appearances. Thus rebirth of a soul is considered a punishment and its return to Brahman (God) is thought of as salvation because it ends the duality. Chinese also believe in the dualistic principle known as the Yin and the Yang. However, this duality is similar to as it exists between male and female, active and passive, solar and lunar, earthly and celestial sweet and bitter, light and dark, and so on. The Chinese idea of duality is rational for being complementary. The opposite principles, in this case, are protagonistic and not antagonistic. The Chinese principle is eternal and indivisible; it is singular in nature and both Yin and Yang are its double manifestations.

Christian and Islamic faiths also advocate the duality of good and evil. In this case, God is good, and Lucifer or Satan is evil but he is not eternal because he is a creation of God. On the Day of Judgement, he will be cast into hell and his existence will come to an end. Yet they hold that God is not responsible for the vice that pervades mankind but stress it arises from the improper use of freedom by man himself.

Polarity

Polarity is the operational law of nature but the tension between the opposite poles is complementary as assumed by the Chinese philosophers. Without a complementary polarity man will lose his excellence as the highest specimen of nature. It is because his nature is based on the working of the opposite attributes. In fact, instead of calling man a molecular assemblage, one ought to name him as an aggregate of the opposites such as intelligence and ignorance: courage and cowardice, magnanimity and meanness, kindness and cruelty, magnificence and malevolence, loving and loathing, remission and retribution, fairness and foulness, trust and treachery, fidelity and fickleness, affection and animosity, concealment and candour, honour and humbuggery, suzerainty and slavery, fact and fantasy, tolerance and tyranny, delight and disgust, and so on. These are the characteristics that constitute human nature. They are exactly equal and opposite: love has no meaning without hatred, justice cannot be imagined without unfairness, and freedom does not make sense without the idea of restriction. The fact that different people may view the same thing differently and come to different conclusions shows that the power of perception ascribed to sensory organs is directed by the quality of the opposite attributes. Though they are endowed with equal intensity, the operation of their contrariness is peculiar to each individual: in some people it is intelligence and not ignorance that is activated more readily; in some, loving has the tendency to operate more freely than loathing and in others it is cruelty instead of kindness. It is like two millionaires having equal amounts of money but one being mean and the other munificent. This is what colours depth and attitude of the sensory organs leading to different judgements and deeds. It is the operational preponderance of the one opposite over the other that makes a person intelligent or ignorant and kind or cruel. Though these opposites are determined, their determination is not absolute; it carries an amount of suppleness which enables people to modify and adjust. Again, this suppleness though limited, is like a seed which may multiply itself a hundred-fold or more, according to the limate.

From this discussion, it is quite obvious that poles of vice and virtue are real at least operationally and, therefore, neither can be eliminated.

If it were possible, the removal of one pole would lead to the extinction of the other, and eventually chaos would result. But we are talking of harmony. The only way to achieve this goal is by making one pole operationally ascendant over he other. Take electricity, for instance, it is the ascendance i.e. excess of positive and negative charges which create electric current; one pole pulls and the other pushes. Thus despite being opposite they attain uniformity of action, that is, they both act in the same direction, and an electric circuit is built up. This is an example of harmony; it shows how the opposites are capable of moving in the same direction to work together.

Such harmony is feasible amongst people of varying or even conflicting interests provided members of the society have developed a live ethical sense of vice and virtue. It happens when they not only appreciate the difference between right and wrong but also practice it. At this stage, one can say that the concept of ethical values ranks as morality, which is the conduct based on the distinction between good and bad. The concept of morality is initially a private affair because it concerns not only the activities but also the intentions of an individual. Once this individual attitude and practice receives approval of the majority and becomes the symbol of a good social custom, the society is likely to march together harmoniously.
Moral strength is the pillar of harmony. Moral discipline must come from within. It is entirely different from the military discipline which is imposed from without because morality is morality only when it is self-propelled; forced conduct, no matter how nice, is not morality. Of course, moral sense is innate but the practice of morality is not. The difference between the two is the same as between knowing and doing; and we all understand that an ounce of practice is better than a ton of theory. Like a species, morality also requires a suitable environment to survive and flourish. It is no good expecting of a hungry person not to steal a loaf of bread, or telling virile men to practice celebacy. Man has all sorts of needs and desires. Development of a healthy personality depends upon fulfilling these desires and not on denying them. Were this not true, the search for satisfying these needs and desires would not be a part of humanity. In fact, the way a need or desire is fulfilled distinguishes vice from virtue. When a need is met in a legitimate way, it is a virtue otherwise it is a vice. Sleeping with one's own wife is a virtue but going to bed with someone else's consort is a vice.

Polarity between the opposite human attributes is intense, and without considerable force, it is not possible to make one's desirable attribute ascendant over its opposite. One cannot be kind without suppressing one's leaning towards cruelty nor is it possible to be brave without overcoming the fear associated with cowardice.

It is this power of self-regulation that exalts man over the rest of beings which are driven by the compulsive desires but he has the ability to challenge them and steer his own destiny. He does so through a process of self-improvement which is his nature like that of the cosmos itself. If he succeeds, the ultimate reward is stupendous i.e. eternity but if he fails, punishment for the fiasco is extinction which is equally enormous. The key to failure or success is the ethical recognition between vice and virtue, and this recognition has got to be practical, that is, pursuit of purity in preference to pollution. This practice is known as morality which is another description of harmonious adjustment with one's social environment. However, harmony does not mean keeping up both with the hare and the hound but standing up for one's own legitimate rights as well as of one's fellow-beings, and an active participation in the removal of all those factors such as poverty, disease, ignorance, hatred, bigotry, etc., which lead to disharmony. The palace of harmony is best founded on a healthy individuality. What is individuality?
This is the kernel of psychology.

Chapter 17: Psychology

Psychology is the science of behaviour in relation to self-preservation. How?
It is because whatever we do, basically concerns ourselves; our sensory organs carry out observations in relation to ourselves; our interpretation, thinking and feeling are centred on ourselves. In fact, preservation of self or ego, is the fountain of behaviour which happens to be the field of psychological studies.

Components of self-preservation

Though self-preservation is the root of behaviour, quality of preservation remains its ultimate object which has two components, namely:
1. Paucity of fear and plentitude of favour.
2. Maintenance and magnification of individuality.

"Paucity of fear and plentitude of favour" refers to a state of minimum pain and maximum pleasure. Man, as a general rule, deplores pain and adores pleasure, though tolerance of pain for the sake of an ideal is not unknown. Categories of fear range from sheer uncertainty to death; gods and gurus exploit human fear of death and thus induce people to carry the yoke of their divinity, and members of the gubernatorial (ruling) class deliberately create social conditions to conjure up an environment of uncertainty and mutual malevolence for keeping people in a constant state of fear to make them toe the line.
Yes, man wants to preserve himself but aspires to do so with dignity, that is, he loves to avoid a painful life and does not like to cringe for favours. Fear and fawning, twist personality, and man ceases to be what he ought to be. This is against human nature because I want to be what I am. If I can be me, then I am a freeman but if I cannot, then I am not me but someone else. This is the greatest deprivation that a man can suffer. Me-being-me is an annotation of free will which is another description of individuality. This is the reason that maintenance and magnification of individuality becomes the goal of life because, in many ways, soul is the transplant of a fully realised individuality.

What is individuality?

All humans have similar limbs and a fairly uniform appearance. Not only bodily but also mentally they are very much alike because each of them thinks, feels, knows and wills, and each has determination, dreams, designs, desires and delusions, and each has the power to deliberate and indulge in deeds of his own choice Individuality is something which operates all these characteristics at will, usually to its own benefit. It is steam in a locomotive engine, fragrance in a flower, flame in a candle, beauty in a woman and lustre in a diamond. Individuality is the cause of diversity in unity. Without it, uniformity will be the rule of conduct leading to boredom, regression and death. It is the true cosmic dream which comes true at human level.

Individuality, as the law of nature

Individuality is the law of nature. One has only to refer to the biological process of meiosis which is a characteristic of organisms that reproduce sexually. It is a division of cell involving two fissions of the nucleus and thus produces four daughter cells, each having half the number of chromosomes of the original cell. The pair of chromosomes at this stage undergoes, what is called, "crossing over" which is, in fact, a process of exchanging genes. This exchange is the fountain of individuality because it ensures that no two humans are exactly the same in a pool of a trillion people!

Personality

In discussion on psychology, maybe I should call individuality as "personality" which refers to the organization of traits or characteristics within an individual but I shouldn't, because personality has also been described as persona which points to the mask worn by the ancient Greek actors. Thus psychologists have used the word: "personality" as a cover to hide one's true self for projecting a socially acceptable image of one's self. Alfred Alder who invented the theory of "Individual Psychology" stressed that it expresses a human "drive to power" to gain superiority as a compensation for the feelings of inferiority. This is why a short person becomes aggressive to make up for his small stature.

Difference between uniformity and harmony

From this discussion, it is quite clear that personality refers to behaviour and the way one projects one's self socially. On the contrary, I am using the word: "individuality" to assert its intrinsic worth as the end product of the natural process that starts with particles and ends with men. Personality is a mode of behaviour as depicted by one's organization of traits but individuality refers to the state when "me wants to be me" according to my own free will. Thus individuality means a search for release from social coercion and the state law with a view to conducting one's self in a socially acceptable manner leading to communal harmony. Here one should note the difference between uniformity and harmony. The former denotes force but the latter implies volition; the former is based on law but the latter emanates from moral conscience.

Human nature

Individuality represents the law of nature which is self-improvement: evolution of particles into stars and man proves this point. Self-improvement must also be the nature of man who happens to be the microcosm i.e. the miniature replica of the universe.

However, self-improvement though eventually an achievable goal, exists as a tendency. It is like an overcast sky which may be taken as a promise of rain but without any guarantee. There is a "psychological" reason for it. If there were an assurance that everyone could improve oneself the way one desired, value of action or behaviour would deteriorate. Tendency is something which is more likely to happen than not. The extent to which it may not happen represents an amount of uncertainty. The purpose of this uncertainty is to weaken the grip of determinism so that man can use his own free will, planning and action to make it happen the way he wants it. Self-improvement is the nature of man like that of the cosmos. The fact that every human strives to improve himself, proves the veracity of this assertion. However, the idea of self-improvement may differ from person to person, and this indicates that man is a free agent. Thus the concept of predestination cannot be applied to him as a straight-jacket. The Stoics thought that man is governed by fate and is analogous to the dog tied to the back of a wagon, and must follow it willy-nilly.
It is man's nature to have a goal, yet he is free to accept or reject that goal; he is also at liberty to choose the means and types of action he wants. Again, when "the fixed goal" represents the apex, it ceases to be predestination because apex is the highest point and there is nothing higher than this. As far as it is known, light has the fastest possible speed. One may call it the destiny of light but it will be wrong because there is no speed that can be faster than this. Again a particle (or quark) is the smallest entity. This is not a proof of destiny. It simply proves that nothing can be smaller than a particle. The fact that things vary between two limits - minimum and maximum, lowest and highest, slowest and fastest proves they have a goal, that is, moving from the lowest to the highest. This is not predestination but the greatest possible choice which is nothing but self-improvement. What constantly tries to improve itself, is prone to be good. This sums up the human nature.

However, modern scientific trend is to deny the existence of a universal purpose and assume chance as the sole evolutionary force. This attitude is a part of science-fiction for its total isolation from the world of reality which is based on deliberation, ingenuity, engineering and self-motivation. To assert the supremacy of chance, they claim that the universe came to a halt at the stage of helium which is a poor bonder, and the fiasco was averted by the evolution of carbon which is a great mixer and thus more productive.
It is all a guess work. The fact that something saved the universe from becoming a total failure, and put it on the road to self-improvement, clearly shows that the universe has the ability to find its own way forward which is self-improvement; it does not rely on chance for direction. It finds its way through a process of trial and error and thus becomes immune from the clutches of predestination. Therefore, man's nature is self-improvement but the magnitude of betterment depends upon the quality of his effort or behaviour.
In the previous chapter, I mentioned the contrary human traits. It does not mean that man as an aggregate of the opposites, or possesses a neutral nature. The purpose of this mechanism is to provide psychic energy for enabling man to set up a pattern of behaviour. Whether he will be virtuous or vicious, depends upon which of his opposite traits is ascendant: kind or cruel, malevolent or munificent. Man is potentially prone to be good, though considerations of self-preservation or interests of ego usually override everything else. What is ego?

Ego

Ego is a Latin word. It means "I" which expresses the existence of self. Ego is the window through which one looks out at the world: all pain and pleasure exists in relation to one's self; a person who cannot feel his own pain and pleasure is incapable of measuring someone else's dole and delight. The presence of good and bad is also relative to one's own moral sense.

Whatever man does, he does it for his ego or self: when he is kind to his friends or family, he does so to enhance his own pleasure and when he is cruel to others he indulges in appeasing his own morbid instincts. Even when he loses his life in a crusade, he performs this duty to find a place for himself in the paradise.

Ego or "I" has various forms; some or singular or individualistic e.g. me, my, mine and some are plural or social e.g. we, us, our. It means that man operates both in isolation and in conjunction with others to cultivate his self. Therefore, both individuality and society are extensions of the ego. However, I shall confine this discussion to individuality in this chapter.

Operation of ego

At its basic level, ego abuses free will i.e. the power to choose between alternatives. It adopts the attitude that solely guarantees its personal pleasures without considering their effects on fellow-beings but once lessons of such behaviour are learnt through painful retribution, man's moral sense is activated by his natural tendency of self-improvement. However, as free will implies the power to choose between alternatives, moral sense means the ability to differentiate between good and bad, and not the ability to act virtuously. This fact can be verified with reference to any "advanced" society where everyone knows the difference between good and bad but in practice good is what is good for the actor who is usually ready to quote from the Scriptures or the Statutes to prove the righteousness of his acts which he knows full well to be based on falsehood.

Purity of motive

Whether an action is morally right or not, primarily depends upon the purity of motive Of course, good consequences can follow from bad motives and bad results can spring from good motives, but as motive is the fountain of action, its purity is of paramount importance: a stream which is an extension of a sewer lacks the purity of origin but a brook emanating from snow is originally clean though it may carry pollution as it winds through valleys infested with impurities. If an act is carefully planned and performed with good intention but eventually backfires, it is still indicative of virtue, but an act stemming from a foul motive, however beneficial, lacks the purity of origin. In ethics purity of origin is the master word and is known as sincerity. As no amount of external control and scrutiny can ever fathom the depth of one's heart, it is only the actor who knows whether he is being sincere or not: his integrity and sincerity cannot be judged with complete certainty from without. Therefore, reformation starts within one's self; it is voluntary, and coercion plays hardly any part in it. A system seeking to make people righteous by force is evil even if all of them observe the prescribed standard of behaviour because they do so out of fear against their nature and not through sincerity.

Role of sincerity

When sincerity becomes an integral part of motivation, man develops moral will which demands that ego does not operate to its exclusive benefit at the expense of others but performs an act because it is right. A person who has developed a moral will no longer treats morality as a matter of personal convenience. He begins to believe in the ascendancy of moral values, and executes them as his duty. To him virtue means virtue in practice; courage and justice are not a cult of the mind but realities which must be displayed actively when situations demanding courage and justice arise.

Ethical mechanism

So elaborate and excellent is man's ethical mechanism that there is yet another superior called "conscience" which supervises the working of the moral will. Why does moral will need supervision? It is because infallibility is not built into man's nature. A person with moral will may not do wrong purposely but he is likely to behave erroneously through misunderstanding or adverse circumstances. What eventually regulates any good person's behaviour is his conscience which operates invisibly.

Conscience

What is conscience? It is not possible to define it exactly. However, its existence cannot be denied. Suppose, under egoistic pressure, you deprived someone of his rights to advance your own cause. One day you are sitting happily but the concinnity of your mind is suddenly changed into a torment by the flashback of the event that filled you with delight a long time ago. Conversely, you have undergone pangs of poverty all your life to observe the principle that usurpation is evil though the chances to get rich unfairly were abundantly available to you. The sudden thought of suffering for the sake of piety changes your sorrow into hilarity. What is it that has turned your pleasure into pain and pain into pleasure without an apparent cause? It is conscience which works through the apparatus of remorse and relaxation. Your remorse is the result of the critical judgment of conscience for usurpation and your relaxation springs from its approval of the correct deeds of your moral will. Thus conscience is the self-judgment of one's ego based on complete sincerity and serves as the true criterion of ones pain and pleasure; it is totally subjective and immune from ostentation. When conscience passes judgment on your past behaviour, it is called "syneidesis" but when it acts as a guide to your future behaviour, it is known as "synteresis".

Synteresis

Preservation of self or ego is the fountain of psychology because our basic behaviour is centered around it. Since selfishness is not godliness, man must raise his individuality to the level where synteresis guides his motives and actions. This is an act of self-purification and solely connected with one's sincerity and personal integrity which are beyond the examination of outsiders. The man or woman who has developed this virtue is on his or her way to become a part of Godhead, or achieve salvation.
I stated earlier that both individuality and society are extensions of the ego. Though I am an individualist, I think that society is as indispensible to the growth of individuality, as the Himalayan peak is inducive to snowfall, equator is to scorching heat and moonlight is to serenity. This fact, necessitates the study of sociology.

Chapter 18: Sociology

Sociology is the study of the structure and functioning of society. Though a vast subject, it basically concerns the origin of mankind, that is, association of man and woman which brings a human baby into existence and eventually develops into families and clans. Therefore, it is natural for man to associate with fellow-beings and seek companionship. This enlarged fellowship is called society which is as much an extension of the ego as is individuality. This chapter seeks to concentrate on the societal aspect without discussing details of customs, structures and institutions or the various processes which preserve social continuity and produce changes.

Nature of society

Society is not the result of what is called the herding instinct. Man seeks companionship because it is his nature. The one who does not want to live amongst fellow-beings becomes a recluse or hermit. He is, in fact, a social reject but conceals his shame under the cover of such grand titles as "saint" or "sage". Asceticism may not be a vice, but it is certainly not a virtue because individuality despite being an end in itself, is neither conceivable without association (of the opposite sexes) nor can it develop without enlarging itself into a society. Again, individuality is an integrated entity: it consists of many parts as a rose consists of numerous petals and a glass of water comprises countless drops. According to the Theory of Collaboration, it is the law of nature that all small things merge into large wholes and become fewer in numbers. Therefore, society is the natural evolution of individuality, and being the fountain of social environment, it acts as the major source of moral sense and cultural and spiritual values. An isolated individual is likely to be an insane animal. It is social intercourse which provides man with the opportunities to become man. Without it, the concepts of harmony or discord have no meaning. However, a human society cannot be treated as a compound where each component loses its identity. It is a mixture where every individual retains his distinction because this is the demand of individuality which is an end in itself.

Significance of society

In a previous chapter, I stated that the universe is a symposium of interrelationships which hold it together and serve as the evolutionary principle through the tendency of self-improvement. It equally applies to an individual. He is driven by this tendency to seek social relationships with others; the relationship between man and woman leads to the emergence of a family which blossoms into clans, tribes, nations and mankind. There is hardly any need to say that the mirth or misery of man depends upon the maintenance of these interrelationships Thus society is the medium of instructions and the sole Opportunity of creating interrelationships and practicing them. The attitudes involved in discharging one's obligations and securing rights, emerge as rules, customs, conventions and superstitions, thus determining the quality of the society. A good society is the one which is morally ascendant; it helps man to realise his spiritual goal but a bad society leads to circumstances which reduce the chances of souls coming into being.

Moral sense and society

Since salvation, that is, becoming a part of Godhead, is a matter of action and not faith, society provides the opportunity of realising this goal through practicing interrelationships. It is because moral sense, which is the fountain of virtue and the hope of soul, cannot come into existence without interrelationships. Morality simply means honouring these interrelationships in a sincere and honourable manner. In fact, not only the concept of morality rests on proper execution of interrelationships but the existence of the universe depends upon it. For example, the forces that hold atoms together in groups must have certain peculiarities which determine the rules of combination. The manner of combination denotes the underlying relationship of existence. Again, the forces that govern the molecular patterns regulate their interrelationships with a great precision; these forces though attractive at longer distances, become repulsive at shorter distances. If this were not true, matter would go on condensing in ever-increasing densities, thus causing implosion. It is the consciousness of maintaining interrelationships that enables the interatomic forces to be attractive at longer range and repulsive at shorter range for the purpose of securing equilibrium at intermediate distances where the net force becomes zero.

Imagine yourself to be the only person alive on earth. Will your life have any meaning? Will you find it enjoyable? Will it develop to the stage called "culture"? No, not at all. Such a solitary life will be one hell of misery, completely isolated form culture. Obviously, man without society is less than a mammal because even animals herd together. Society is the natural demand, and goal of healthy individuality I am an individualist but my individuality exists in relation to other individuals If others do not exist nor can I, because existence is a strictly relative business. As one tree does not make a forest, one gust does not constitute wind and one soldier does not count as an army, completely separate and independent individuals do not make a society. The society which consists of totally self-centred individuals is regressive: instead of marching towards enlightenment, it slides into wilderness.

Of course, an individual is an end in himself, and all individuals are morally equal. These are certainly sacred goals but they cannot be realised in isolation. Take the economic concept of division of labour, for instance. Can I grow all the food I need? Can I raise a herd of sheep for woollen clothing? Can I spin, weave and tailor my garments? Can I build a modern house all by myself? Can I be my own doctor and surgeon? Supposing that being "the greatest genius", I can do all these things myself and thus sing the songs of individuality without paying attention to harmony, yet economic needs are not my only concern.

What about my sexual needs which are equally urgent? Should I seek celebacy or resort to perversion? In either case, it will put a stop to reproduction, thus announcing the end of mankind. This type of individuality which denies other individuals the chance of coming into being is a symptom of madness and fatal to the interest of individuality. The only way I can satisfy my sexual needs are by seeking a mate. This simple partnership is the foundation of society; each partner has rights and duties, and the stability of their relationship, and happiness depends upon how they react to each other for discharging their mutual obligations. There is no fulfillment but the voluntary discharge of duties to one's associates or fellow-beings. It is this voluntariness which is the cornerstone of individuality, and it thrives on discharging one's moral obligations to one's fellow-beings: this is what makes individuality, sacred, sweet and supreme and enables it to be the forerunner of a soul, the guarantee of eternity. Arrogance, malevolence and usurpation are the aggressive exhibitions of individuality and proof of its march in the opposite direction to eternity.
The society which consists of individuals who respect their fellow-beings and discharge their social obligations without fear of external force or greed of a secular reward, is a paradise on earth whose inhabitants become immune to extinction. Death to them is nothing but sloughing which gives them a new brilliant coat of life. On the contrary, the society riddled with sophistication, slyness and avarice is a living hell whose roaring flames roast the potential of soul.

However, human society is not herding because it usually produces results which are totally opposed to what is expected of a society; crowded rats exhibit cannibalism, homosexually and hypersexuality. A society is society only when it promotes individuality through the operation of free will, that is, people are free to choose and act as they desire but their choices are based on moral conscience.

Spacing

Society is the natural goal of individuality because it comes into being spontaneously. However, spontaniety is not an haphazard affair; it is something which leads to a principled organisation. One would have thought that society is all about mixing. On the contrary, spacing also happens to be one of its basic rules. This fact is well illustrated by what is called territoriality. Birds and animals are known to keep their distance from fellow birds and animals by occupying a separate territory which they treat as exclusive to themselves and guard it against the intruders jealously. This mutual repulsion is well contrasted by mutual attraction as exhibited by mating swarms of midges and fireflies. This, in fact, is a demonstration of the opposite attributes such as love and loathing. Thus society is both a congregation of friends and an arena of competitors; it requires a system of rules to regulate it.

Altruism

However, altruism or care for fellow-beings remains its fulcrum. It implies selflessness because an altruistic animal promotes the cause of fellow-beings without any benefit to itself; the vigilance of a mother bear against the hungry father bear who may devour their cubs or an alarm call of a bird that warns neighbours of a falcon, are some of the examples of the altruistic behaviour. According to Charles Darwin, when an animal protects its offspring, it enables its own kind to survive the process of natural selection. In the case of humans, this principle is the most sacred and significant because care of the fellow-beings without self-interest raises the spiritual status of ego which begins to look upon other members of the society as an extension of itself. Since concept of self-care is better promoted through mutual care, society begins to rank as the guardian of individuals. However, the society which seeks to become itself as the eventual goal of the individuals, is the most sordid entity because it adopts deterministic attitude to tell people how to walk, how to talk, what to eat and what to drink. This totalitarian role destroys people's free will which is the foundation of humanity, and serves as the tool of a dictator or despot who strengthens himself by weakening the fellow individuals.

Unity in diversity

Diversity is the zest of life but unity is its essence. In other words, unity in diversity is the secret of success and happiness. Unity does not mean bringing everybody down to the same level. Such an attitude is against the law of nature which preserves hierarchy and creates differentiation through the evolutionary process; it is natural for the sun to be bigger than the earth; it is natural for a hawk to be a high flier compared to a sparrow and it is natural for a rose to be free from the stench of a sewer. All beings are entitled to hold their station and rise still higher. There is nothing wrong with it. Mischievious behaviour comes into being when people try to gain ascendancy at the expense of others. This triggers off the process of usurpation, deceit and callousness. As a result, tension rises gradually making strife the way of life. This is deplorable because man's spiritual development as well as secular peace and happiness depend upon harmony; strife is its exact antithesis booming with discord, deviation and destruction. Harmony among the high and low, tall and dwarf, pretty and ugly Is as likely as is the coexistence between rose and thorns or positive and negative electric charges. Alternatively, take a family of, say, four brothers who are endowed with different attitudes of love and loathing and possess varying physical and psychological calibres to achieve their goals. Each may want to adopt an inimical approach to attain his aim, yet it is rare for brothers to follow a mutually destructive line of action to gain what they want. It is the feeling of brotherhood which restrains their spirit of strife and converts it into harmony, proving that love is superior to loathing. Brotherhood of man is as much a reality as is the brotherhood based on parental ties. It is just a matter of arousing their moral conscience to make them believe that they are members of a much greater circle of brotherhood.

Marxist vision of society

Unfortunately, such a moral awakening is inhibited by the lovers of golden theories. For projecting themselves a cut above the rest, they seek to destroy social harmony which bestows an equal moral status on all and sundry. They advocate class-consciousness and religious sectarianism for creating a body of followers to perpetuate their own glory. Take for example, the Marxist theory. According to Karl Marx, it is the political economy that determines the nature of society. The distinction between one society and another is, chiefly, its mode of production as expressed by the advancement or primitiveness of its technology and division of labour; each mode of production leads to the emergence of a distinctive class system. Each class becomes antagonistic and enters into a conflict with other classes to appropriate what is produced. The dominant class not only controls the material production but also comes to possess the monopoly of the production of ideas Thus, it begins to rule the society through a cultural style and a political doctrine.

Dialectical materialism

Marx adopted the Hegelian theory which came to be known as dialectical materialism. This view of history propounds a conflict between two opposing forces, namely thesis and antithesis, which is resolved by the forming of a new force called synthesis. He emphasised that the present conditions prevailed owing to a class struggle between the capitalists and the workers; the former lived for private profit and the latter resisted exploitation. Thus according to Marx, society is nothing but a perpetually-moving balance of antithetical forces: social conflict is the fountain of history because it is the creator of everything social.

Religious ideology

The Marxist class doctrine equally applies to all believers who think of other religious groups as blasphemous. Thus they advocate extermination or subjugation of all those who disagree with them. What in Marxist ideology is class-struggle, in religious terminology appears as sectarian hatred and active denial of tolerance to infidels.

Religious sectarianism and economic class-consciousness are the enemies of harmony which is the fountain of moral conscience. The men who are driven by hatred are bound to be mean, malevolent and murderous and, thus lack respect for the rights of fellow-beings. It is the acknowledgement of other people's rights to a fair living which creates the sense of reciprocal existence, and its realisation can be brought about through harmony only. This is what social stability requires; strife strikes at its very roots.

The purpose of society

Society is a phenomenon of companionship. Therefore, it is the natural association of fellow-beings, and is engendered by the hope of peace and prosperity. The basic association of man and woman is a search for security and happiness through harmony. As this association expands into a family, the parents pray and strive for harmony amongst their children for the same reason. The natural desire for harmony remains unabated at national and international levels, yet this dream has shown no sign of realization over the millenia; instead it has become a nightmare why? Because man has not as yet realised that philanthropy i.e. love of mankind through voluntary and active mutual help is the consummation of human conscience which is the fountain of godliness. It is only the deeds of a moral man that may guarantee eternity because men forced to be good are not really good for lacking free will. Of course, morality is a subjective doctrine but in action, it becomes objective because an actor can be judged in relation to other people only. Again, it is not always possible to act correctly because of man's basic tendency to error, suspect, falter, misjudge, and misunderstand. Thus man needs objective rules of judgement seeking to determine, in relation to others, what is morally considered just or unjust and right or wrong. The set of such objective rules is called "law".

Ingredients of law

However, to qualify as law, these rules ought to be minimal and must not inhibit the moral conscience of the citizens. Secondly, law cannot change the nature of things, that is, it cannot declare the right as wrong and vice versa. Thirdly, the purpose of the law is to promote justice at the expense of injustice for creating harmony. Lastly, the law ought to be an extension of morality and not a substitute for it. After all, it is the moral excellence, that is, the operation of man's free will that gives him the human dignity. Compulsion being the enemy of free will, destroys the dignity of free choice and action, reducing the human stature to that of a mammal.
Is it all that law is? No. It is a very vast subject. Having discussed it at length in "Taxation and Liberty", I shall describe it here in an outline only.

To remove any misunderstanding. I ought to add the following:
1. I have stated that individuality is an end in itself. It refers to the ultimate end, that is, capability of an individual becoming a soul. It should be noted that conversion from physical to spiritual is a social process, and thus denotes the significance of society.
2. Men are not born equal owing to their varying tendencies and potentials. Yet they are morally equal because they are entitled to equal opportunities in exercising their free will improving their lot and demanding natural justice.

Chapter 19: Law

Significance of law

The nature and all its phenomena are manifestations of the underlying principle or the law. Nothing can come into being or sustain itself without submitting itself to the authority of law. Again, the natural law may not be eternal but it is lasting. For example, water is the manifestation of the underlying physical law H2O, that is, water cannot come into existence or sustain itself unless two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen combine together. Like everything else law of water (H2O) is subject to change but it will last for a very long time until water is replaced by something else. Maybe it is more appropriate to say that the natural law does not change; it simply becomes inapplicable.

It is because H2O is the only way of bringing water into being. As long as water is required, this law will remain operative but when water no longer remains a necessity, this law will become inoperative. Natural law is a systematic and binding force. That electric charges will be negative and positive, are a part of a spontaneous plan which seeks realization through union (electrovalence), and thus acts as the agent of evolution. Therefore, basically, law has a constructive role. If it were not true, formation of stars and planets and their regulated conduct would not be possible. However, it becomes destructive when it is misused. For example, positive and negative charges attract but similar charges repel; attraction is constructive but repulsion is destructive.

Significance of free will

However, natural law wields complete command over inorganic things only. Its application to organisms becomes partial. This is especially true in relation to man. For instance, the physical integrity and working of my organs, despite being subject to the same physical laws as any other molecular structure such as water or wind, obey the command of my free will and the natural law cannot tell them what to do. Perhaps it is not an exaggeration to say that the main difference between the inorganic and organic is that the former do not possess free will but the latter are endowed with it. Thus life starts with the emergence of free will. It follows that man is man when he can act according to his own volition, and his way of life is not forced on him. This is the essence of individuality.
It looks to me that free will is the most precious diamond that every thief wants to steal; it is the most tasty flesh that every carnivore aspires to dig his teeth into and this is the most beautiful damsel that everybody loves to seduce. Man's free will is the emblem of his freedom but the law of opposites demands that this human virtue must be balanced with the vice of servitude so that he should learn to appreciate the extreme magnificence of this value and devote his entire life to its defence.

Urge of dominance and free will

As free will is man's highest virtue, the urge of dominance is his lowest vice. Dominance is nothing but usurping other people's liberties for depriving them of their free will with a view to telling them to choose from what is prescribed for them. I described the predator of free will as a "gubernator" in my book "Taxation and Liberty". Briefly, a gubernator is the person infested with the craze of dominating people for determining their way of life through sheer brute force or ravishing stratagems of religious, economic or social colouring.

Human potential

At birth a human baby is altricial, that is, it is so helpless that it has to be fed and provided with every care yet it has the potential of greatness. This piece of flesh is capable of becoming a part of God but its way of achieving this goal is hindered by innumerable hurdles which are horrisonant, horrendous and hideous.

Divine law and man

Religion is the greatest of all the barriers. The dawn of free will attracts a whole host of messengers and messiahs the same way as the beauty of flowers attracts bees, a lighted lamp attracts moths or tropical forest attracts rain. Some of them call themselves God or the incarnation of God, some of them style themselves as the Son of God and others assume the title of messenger and claim that they have been sent by God with His message which urgently seeks to regulate their lives with the Divine Law. They insist that man's salvation depends upon God's pleasure: if people please the Almighty, He will bless them with heaven and if they displease Him, He will throw them into a flaming hell. All scriptures show that God is desperate for man's submission and His delight and dejection solely depend upon man's attitude towards Him. If God is so readily prone to fits of persecution and pacification, then He certainly lacks perseity, i.e. independent existence Such an unstable being cannot be God. Again, as free will is man's greatest virtue, by suppressing it with His own law which is unchangeable and immortal, God ridicules His own principles of creation. Is it logical to elect someone as governor and expect of him to serve like a menial?

Finally, if God wanted to subject man to a divine code, He would not have given man free will. Since man is not man without free will, there exists a direct and sharp antithesis between man and the divine law. It is no good saying that God wants to guide man for his own good because the God whose own delight and dejection depend upon man's conduct, is an interested party. Man to be man, must be free to choose his own laws. This is how the truth is; the so-called divine law is just an innovation of the gubernators who want to be worshipped by the fellow-beings and command their lives even from the grave by laying down what their followers should shun and what they should stick to. What a compulsion this urge of dominance is! It is certainly man's lowest instinct.

It is amazing how a man, who like any other man, eats, drinks, sleeps, needs sex, becomes ill, and feels sad or glad according to circumstances, claims to be God and promises eternity to those who obey his code which he delivers as the divine law! We should look into the nature of divine law with reference to Judaism.

Divine law and Jews

It appears that long before the Greek who invented the concept of rational law, Moses, the great Jewish leader, formally presented the idea of divine law. For eternally binding the Jews over to his will, he laid down some 625 laws in the name of Yahwe who was projected as their originator. Despite the fact that they are over 3000 years old and do not conform to the spirit of our time, they are still binding on the Jews with the original vigour and fervour; they are immortal, and cannot be modified or replaced. Therefore, Jews have to live at the same cultural level to conform to these laws as they did thirty centuries ago!

The great Moses succeeded in convincing the Jews that sovereignty lies in the Torah or the divine law and not in him, though he was capable of writing these laws for having the courtly Egyptian background, well versed in nomography. Though Jews claim that their law is based on the principle of partnership between God and man, it is not borne out by the Pentateuch. In fact, Jewish law is founded on servitude: God is the master and man is the slave; the former is the object of worship and the latter is the worshipper. Yahwe is a jealous God and the rise and fall and mirth and misery of the Jews depend upon His whim. This is the reason that man has all the duties and no intrinsic rights. Any right that man may have, are contingent on the pleasure of God.

Philosopy of "no right and all duty"

The philosophy "no right and all duty" which has been pursued in our time to enhance the cause of dictatorship, suited the Jews who had rendered most servile services to the Pharaohs as abject slaves. The Jewish God whose instruments of suppression such as court, soldiers and secular might could not be seen, was more acceptable than Pharaoh for being the lesser terror. Yahwe's image represented only the threat of punishment whereas Pharaoh's persecution was real, and they knew exactly what it meant. Therefore, this situation carried a glimmer of hope and freedom, which meant a good deal to the people whose every bone had been creaking under the most agonising burden of slavery. They were quite happy to enter a covenant or contract with Yahwe to keep His commandments and numerous other laws to escape the Egyptian bondage suffused with despair and hard labour. It resulted in a theocracy which, in theory, is the impersonal government of God based on His immortal and unchangeable laws but in fact, it is run by the theocrats whose interpretations, even when totally opposed to the spirit and wording of the scriptures, constitute the divine law. This government of God is said to have lasted from the date of Exodus in the 13th Century B.C. to 1037 B.C. when Saul was annointed as the King of Israel.

Rabbi was the chief beneficiary of theocracy. He ruled his flock with a very hard stick indeed, but as stick and carrot go together even in a repressive regime, slowlY and gradually, he instilled the Jewish mind with the elation of racial Superiority which eventually deprived them of their faculty of social adjustment. This is the reason that they have stood aloof and isolated in every society and attracted all sorts of abuse and opprobrium irrespective of deserving it. The holocaust of the twentieth century is a repetition of the horrors at a higher scale which they have incessantly faced throughout centuries. The divine law is the fountain of this infamy, and as long as they keep practicing it, they will continue to suffer.

Even when a theocrat is elected, he is not answerable to people. He secures the rank of infallibility and no matter what he does, becomes a matter between him and God whose laws he apparently promulgates and enforces, though actually, he aggrandises himself. Pope attained this position for centuries and could propose and depose monarchs throughout the Christendom. For four centuries he roasted mankind in the hell of crusades to glorify the laws of God!

Purpose of divine law

The entire purpose of the divine law is to deprive man of his free will through a process of brainwashing carried out by an imaginary system of pain and pleasure, called hell and heaven.

Marxist law

Divine law is not the only source of autocracy. Secular law can be equally dictatorial when it is used as the tool of realising a particular ideology. Take Marxism for instance, its appeal is based on a similar doctrine of greed and deception as used by certain religions through promises of a paradise. It advocates the creation of a permanent situation when "to each according to his needs" becomes the rule of life without any reference to his economic contributions. Such a state of affairs may apply to a community of monks but has no relevance to real life. The audacity of this doctrine is stilted by the Marxist concept of value which treats labour as the sole factor of production, and declares profit as the capitalistic exploitation. Thus he activates his theory of social strife to perpetuate a state of insanity infested with class-hatred. Morality has no place in a Marxist society because it cannot be regulated without the severest grip of the law. The Marxist state is the one that is deterministic and where law assumes the role of morality!

Severity of law is the fountain of dictatorship and despotism. A severe law, in fact, is not a law; it is a wolf in lamb's clothing; it is a transvestite, i.e. a perverted man dressed up as a woman. Such a "law" does not concern itself with justice or fairness but serves as a means to an end. A Marxist state is a dictatorship of the proletariats and is held together by severe laws the same way as body of a victim is bound to the cross by cruel and convulsive nails. It is amazing how Marxists claim that law is needed to eliminate the capitalists but when classless society has been ushered in, law itself withers away! In fact, far more severe laws are required to keep the society classless, against human nature which is based on diversity and requires that people will be tall and short, pretty and ugly, intelligent and dull, healthy and sick, old and young, rich and poor . . . This truth is fully borne out by what is happening in the Soviet Union these days. The moment the severity of law has been eased, though slightly, the Marxist state has begun to crumble. Why? Because the Russian way of life is more regulated by law and less by morality.

Sociological interpretations of law

Sociological interpretations of law also deserve mention. Bentham thought that the purpose of law is to maximise individual happiness and minimise pain. But how? Say, through a welfare state which seeks to redistribute wealth under the pretext of relieving discomforts of poverty. People resent parting with their hard-earned wealth under the force of rapacious tax laws which serve as the tool of this purpose. Such laws are extremely harsh and dishonest. On the one hand, they discourage wealth-producers to engage in rewarding entrepreneurial projects and force them to become tax-dodgers, thus dissipating their moral strength, and on the other hand, they rear a wolfish class of civil servants whose ravenous habits and insatiable hunger for tax-gathering excel the imaginary monsters reputed for their malpractice, malacia and malevolence. This type of law may maximise happiness of the greatest numbers through plunder for a few decades but thereafter the "free for all" attitudes lead to the destruction of economic and moral foundations of the society, minimising their pleasures.

Rule of duty

Leon Duguit held that social solidarity and interdependence is the most important fact of society. To achieve this aim, the human activity should be completely directed towards it. Therefore, people owe duties to promote this purpose, and no one has any right except the right to do one's duty within the social organism.

Free will and responsibility

This collectivistic approach is based on the total denial of individuality. Thus it is dictatorial and unnnatural. Man's conduct is natural only when it is based on free will. However, it is negation of free will when a purpose is deliberately chosen to achieve an evil end or promote mischief. At animalic level free will may mean selfish individual choice but at human stage free will denotes choosing with responsibility based on moral conscience. Once a person has acted sincerely and honestly, there is nothing more that he can do.
Again, it is mischievious to claim that man has no rights but duties only. The truth is, as I shall discuss later, right precedes duty: no right, no duty.

Rudolf Von Jhering thought that law was determined by purpose. He laughed at the "jurisprudence of concepts" which seek mechanical application of rules at the expense of social purposes. To him, the immediate purpose of law is the protection and coordination of interests. Thus the ultimate good of society depends upon securing of individual interests.

No, law is not determined by purpose because it is not like flour which may be shaped as cake or pastry to gratify the taste of a buyer. Since it is law which determines the identity of everything, its role is fundamental and not superficial. Neither can it be the coordinator and protector of interests which vary so much from person to person and class to class that they become contradictory, repulsive and inimical. Law has its intrinsic value.

There are many more theorists, and schools of law which could be mentioned but I think that I have devoted sufficient space to explain problems of legality.

Legal philosophy

Law is not a set of arbitrary rules. Before I can describe what law is, I must state that law is the concern of jurisprudence or the legal philosophy which covers many issues such as the nature of law, its purpose, the means to achieve that purpose, its growth and modification, its relationship with morality, the methods of bringing it about and the conduct of the legislator, interpreter and enforcer.
In a book like this, it is not possible to cover the whole range of jurisprudential issues. Therefore, I shall restrict this discussion to the following points:

a. Morality and Law;
b. Nature of Law; and
c. Purpose of Law

Morality and law

a. Morality means behaviour based on one's choice, free from compulsion or deliberate instigation. A moral deed is always rooted, directly or indirectly, in the distinction of good and bad, right and wrong, true and false. This fact is borne out by the languages of the primitive cultures which have words to this effect. Intention is usually a part of morality though most of our behaviour is subject to the unconscious, or force of habits, that is, we do things without deliberate planning. For example, we drive without being conscious of the motor car controls and even the destination.

Instinctive behaviour

Behaviour is expressive of the way we do things, and "the way" implies those factors which motivate or inhibit us to act, as well as the level of action. At birth our behaviour is instinctive, that is, animates genetically inherit a code of behaviour according to their specific level, i.e. it is governed by the fact what species they belong to: a lion's cubs behave differently from lambs. The fact that many of the activities of a species are peculiar to itself and are sufficiently constant shows that animals are endowed with an innate code which guides their lives: the preycatching methods of wolves, web-spinning activities of spiders and burrowing habits of marine worms, are some examples of the mechanical or fixed behaviour. However, it is only the basic behaviour which is subject to the innate code. Its obvious purpose is to enable the species to survive. Without such guidance the species is subject to a haphazard conduct which is another description of chaos and thus a guarantee of extinction. The purpose of the innate code or law is to ensure life through a systematic behaviour. However, a stereotyped behaviour though guarantees life, is against the evolutionary principle i.e. the tendency of self-improvement. This is the reason that much of the instinctive behaviour is modifiable, and the ability to modify one's behaviour increases in proportion to the extension of the evolutionary ladder. The greater ability to modify behaviour gives a species higher adaptability which may enable it to escape the pressures of natural selection.

Law and instinctive behaviour

Environment exercises a deep influence on life: even in the womb or egg it is as much exposed to environmental changes as it is after birth or hatching. Obviously, at this stage, it is wrong to label such behaviour as morality because it is more dictated by the innate code and less by free will i.e. the individual choice of action. However, it does show paramountcy of law at the primitive level. It equally applies to man. Since instinctive behaviour is not guided by conscience, it is ignorance-prone and leads to customary law which is more mechanical and less rational; its value depends upon the quality of customs it perpetuates.

Nature of customary law

Customs which assume the role of customary law are plural in essence because they spring from society, and not private or individual living. They indicate social attitudes relative to one another, emphasising mutual rights and duties based on general expectations. Of course, these customs may be influenced by the geographical conditions of the land, social circumstances such as poverty and plentitude, political traditions, religious doctrines, and so on. Customary laws are spontaneous; they accrete from long association which is based on understanding and not on a written constitution or an intellectual debate. Thus customary law becomes sacrosanct, incapable of modification and irrational. It is regressive and retards the progress of its practitioners. Its hallucinatory effects force people to follow a mechanical behaviour-pattern adopted by their ancestors over the centuries. People cease to be governed by considerations of right and wrong, and their veracity and falsehood come to be based on the mere fact that they have been held so by their fathers, grandfathers and great grandfathers. Caste system of the Indian subcontinent is an example in point. Such behaviour is soimewhat mechanised and is more representative of legality than morality. A customary law can be harsher than a formal law. The Indian customary law of Sati which required live cremation of the Hindu widows, points to this fact.

Distinctive factors of law and morality

From the above discussion, emerge the following points:
1. Law is a reality and expression of nature. The instinctive behaviour shows that man is born with an innate code which is the initial guarantee of survival. Therefore, law cannot wither away.
2. Law promotes mechanical behaviour. Its paramountcy is more relative to the primitive social conditions and less to an advanced society. Thus, the society smothered with the abundance of law is not socially advanced though technically and industrially it may have the capacity to reach the moon and beyond.

The basic moral rule

Moral law is not written, yet it is grounded in human nature because we know it is good to speak the truth, keep promises, defend honour and liberty, seek justice, help the helpless, attend to the poor and the needy. On the contrary, we know it is bad to lie, steal, murder, rape, mislead, torture, trangress and tantalise. It is our instinct of survival which teaches us what is good or bad, or at least what is desirable and what is undesirable and thus we come to know the basic moral rule: "Do not do to others what you don't want to be done to yourself".

Moral law as natural law

Since moral law springs from within one's self, it can be equated with natural law. Though we have the ability to know the moral or natural law, instinctively, we lack the strength to practice it owing to the operation of the ego which initially believes that one's self is the centre of the universe, and therefore, all that promotes self-interest is fine. In fact, this is a denial of other people's rights and one's own social obligations. As the mist of this self-deception is evaporated by the harsh rays of reality, the ego begins to learn that living is a mutual affair and the dream of happiness cannot be realised without recognising one's own obligations to other members of the society. However, the dawn of this realisation does not prove effective for enforcing people's rights and obligations voluntarily. Why? Because morality is basically an internal affair and cannot be completely subjected to external standards. Therefore, we cannot measure the sincerity of one's motives. Secondly, the standards of morality vary considerably with different people leading to hypocrisy. Thirdly, it is natural for man to err through misunderstanding, misinterpretation, inadvertence or sheer wickedness. In a society which may consist of thousands or millions of people, the chances of misdemeanours are bound to multiply considerably creating chaotic conditions, inimical to social harmony. Therefore, we need objective standards of fairness enforceable by a body of rules known as the law. It clearly shows that there is no antagonism between morality and law when the latter seeks to enforce the purpose of the former. When law contradicts morality, then its existence becomes questionable. Again, assuming that we can find an infallible set of laws, it will still be nothing more than something written on paper in golden ink because its excellence and degradation depend upon the moral plateau of those who make, interpret and enforce law. Therefore, we can conclude that:

1. Morality is the natural law for mankind but not forceful enough to regulate human conduct on its own. It is because man is not a robot but a free agent and thus liable to error and misconduct. Moral law needs reinforcement from the formal law.
2. Moral law is subjective but formal law is objective and thus a code of written rules enforceable by coercion.
3. One does not cancel out the other. There is a natural reciprocity between the two and their relationship is akin to that of the mind and the body.

Nature of law

b. Having discussed the relationship between morality and law, now we ought to ponder over the nature of law.

Since law seeks to realise the moral desiderata such as justice, peace, security, rules of law cannot be laid down arbitrarily. If it were so, law would degenerate into a tool of oppression for being the means of securing the end. Unfortunately, this is the international reality and practice of law today. It has happened because the state has become the manifestation of the gubernatorial will, that is, it seeks to enforce the will of the dominant who possess the burning desire to rule by hook or by crook, and through a golden mask of hypocrisy and misinterpretation equate their own will with the will of the people!

Existing version of law

What is then the nature of law? It is not possible to define it immediately. I may first describe its existing version:

What is meant by law is the positive law, that is, law as it is, and not as it ought to be. As a general rule, making of law is considered a Derogative of the legislator though in common law countries a bold judge through his power of interpretation, may change the meaning of the existing law, by making it more severe or may even create an alternative law. Though diluting the spirit of harsh law is not unknown, judges being an integral part of the government, usually stiffen the laws passed by their political masters.

The most unfortunate part of law-making is its servitude to the purpose of the law-maker, who without an exception is a politician or his appointee, and thus mainly interested in his own power and prestige. This type of law-making though pays a lot of lip-reverence to the underlying principles of nomography, actually contradicts them in practice because respect for law-making and realisation of self-interest are not friendly fellows but naturally opposed to each other. A good example of this fact is Britain where legislation is guided by the political interests of the party-in-power and not by the national needs. Just look at their tax laws: they hoisted the flag of impositions as high as it was possible; Income Tax rose to 98~o, and it was in addition to numerous other taxes including back door taxation such as back duty. Knowing full well that Britain is a nation of traders, and traders do not undertake high ventures without anticipation of profit, they made profit a dirty word, thus strangling the entrepreneurial zeal of the nation which had made Britain great. Small wonder that now Britain has become a debtor nation and about to lose her identity in the European Economic Community. This is an example of the hidden antagonism between law-making for self-interest and national need. Yet politicians preach that ordinary folks should respect the rule of law though they themselves have no reverence for it. The law of convenience that enables politicians to realise their dreams at the expense of lawfulness is not law but command of the ruler to the ruled; the latter must obey it or perish.

Ingredients of legality

To give law the form of legality, jurists have suggested that it must have at least five ingredients: firstly, it must conform to the basic set of jurisprudential rules instead of being subject to the whim of the law-makers. Secondly, it must be promulgated for everyone to know that such and such law exists to regulate certain things. Thirdly, law must be couched in a language which ordinary people can understand, i.e. it must be clear and free from ambiguity. Fourthly, law must be prospective in operation, that is, law must not seek legitimising the illegitimate precedents of the past; it is a characteristic of the divine law: Pope legitimised bastardy and foreign aggressions; it was also a trait of the Nazi law-making. A retrospective law is a devilish phenomenon. Fifthly, the government and all its agencies must show respect for the law by upholding the dignity of the enacted rules. In addition to these five conditions of enactment, the interpretative attitudes of judges and enforcing powers of civil servants, are equally significant in deciding what is being labelled as "law" is really law and not a capricious command of the powerful to the powerless. Having written extensively on this subject in "Taxation and Liberty", I don't think it necessary to prolong this discussion.

Reality of law

Now, I may express my own views on the subject. I shall state them briefly because I have already dealt with them fully in "Taxation and Liberty". I am describing them here only because without their mention, no matter how skeletal this discussion will look nonesensical.
Like customary law, the substantive law also seeks to define the mutual rights and obligations of a person in relation to others. As customs come into being spontaniously, law is naturally embedded in the nature of man. Therefore, to be genuine, law is not law unless it conforms to human nature. What is human nature? I have defined it as the "tendency of self-improvement" though I have occasionally referred to it as the "urge of self-improvement" to denote the individual intensity in this respect. Since humanity is founded on the principle of free will, self-improvement must be based on personal choice and not dictation. Thus self-improvement in regard to myself, is what I think is improvement, and not what I am forced to believe in.

Life and free will

Life beams with free will. The moons and stars despite their sparkling majesty are inferior to a sparrow because every bit of their motion is determined, but a sparrow being endowed with free will, has the choice to fly or rest. It means that life is all about personal choice. When one can exercise free will, one is really alive but when free will is checked one's life becomes a process of breathing through servility.

Free will and responsibility

In one's imagination one can choose what one desires but in real life free will becomes restricted and this restriction is imposed by moral sense which determines one's social relations with other persons. It is based on the principle: "Do not do to others what you don't want to be done to yourself".
It fosters the feeling of reciprocity, which on the one hand, leads to social cohesion, and on the other, turns free will into a mechanism of choosing with responsibility. Thus sadistic deeds cannot rank as extensions of the free will, but qualify as acts of ignorance and insanity. As long as restriction comes from within, a person remains free but when it is imposed from without, he becomes less than free.
Again, free will implies the ability to choose and not the ability to achieve. Wishing to hire an elephant for carrying two tonnes of cement is an act of free will but wishing to be physically as strong as an elephant to carry two tonnes of cement is not free will, but a fantasy.

Free will and ego

The role of free will in relation to ego is that of an advisor. Whether or not it will accept the advice, depends upon its sense of survival, desire of fulfillment and cultural development. The physical stability of a person is yet another factor: brain's choice of action cannot be carried out by sickly tissues and organs. This is the reason that a sick or senile person behaves like a child, and therefore, cannot consider the choice offered by free will.

Determinism

Perhaps, the most misunderstood point in this context is the role of determinism. To believe that one's actions, station in life, sickness and health, wife and children, friends and foes, etc., all are predestined, demonstrates that one lacks sense of responsibility, and the moral strength that goes with it.
Determinism refers to the organisation of an entity and not its exact potential which may be subject to tremendous variations. I could have been born as a monkey but it was determined for me to come into being as a man. I cannot fly because man has no wings but I have the choice to invent an aircraft and fly to the moon and beyond. Again, the combination of neurons as a brain is an act of determinism but its choice of thinking, feeling and acting is almost unlimited. It clearly shows that determinism leads to free will, and the situations when determinism acts as a brake on free will, imply necessary safeguards against chaos and disorganization. For instance, a human baby has no choice of birth: the parents can be black or white; society can be progressive or regressive; religion can be theistic or atheistic. Again, one's physical environment and genetic endowments are not a matter of choice but predestined. If everyone was to be born according to one's choice, everyone would choose the best state of birth and thus life would become a process of uniformity and exactitude. This would expunge the principle of diversity. As we all know, diversity or variation is the essence of evolution and the spice of life; the existence itself would not be possible without it. Thus what we refer to as determinism is not really determinism but the principle of organization which inevitably leads to diversity. For example, man is an organization of cells which is a form of determinism, yet no two persons are exactly identical, and civilization itself is the exposition of human taste for diversification. It means that determinism is the fountain of diversity or free will because choice (free will) has no meaning unless there are alternatives to choose from, and this is exactly what diversity is. It explains the reality of determinism.

Protection of Individuality

In view of the significance of this point, I must repeat that diversity is life, and life is diversity but diversity has no value without free will. If I cannot choose between various things they have no meaning to me. In fact, the right to choose implies man's fundamental right to differ and be different. This happens to be the basis of individuality which becomes coextensive with free will. Thus, it is the nature of law to protect individuality by promoting free will. It achieves this end by laying down rules of conduct which clearly state the mutual rights and obligations of people, as well as duties of the state towards them.

Natural issues

Once again, free will establishes man's right to differ and be different. In fact this right is embedded in man's nature, and is further reinforced by the existence of natural issues. What is a natural issue?
Among other things, "issue" means "point in dispute", and "dispute" means "to make subject of argument, to call in question". Study of psychology shows that man is disputatious by nature. This is the reason that no ethical value can be clearly defined, or hold universally accepted meaning. Assuming such a meaning does exist, it is always subject to variation and opposite interpretations. It is because of man's disputatious nature that every argument has a counter-argument. Thus, "to argue" is an extension of "to differ", which is grounded in free will. This is why that life is a series of contradictions such as beliefs and disbeliefs, attractions and aversions, persuasions and dissuations, inclinations and disinclinations, hopes and disappointments, assurances and uncertainties. This array of opposites is rooted in human nature which motivates behaviour from different points of view and in contradictory circumstances.

Natural law

Law becomes natural law when it protects and promotes the entity of something to which it applies. The physical law of the universe is called natural law because it protects and promotes the entity of everything through the principle of precision and flexibility. Thus, the law that reflects the disputatious tendency of man in its constitution and protects and promotes free will by giving everybody the right to differ and be different, ranks as natural law for man. In other words, natural law is the law which conforms to the nature of a species and works in complete harmony The law that confronts the nature of the species to mould it against its will, is not the law of it but a system of coercion which is bound to paralyse its entity instead of promoting and protecting it. Thus, the law for a fox is not the natural law for a lion because it does not take into consideration the natural characteristics of the lion.

At lower level, man is motivated by selfish considerations but as the tendency Of self-improvement takes effect, his ego rises in stature through attainment of Cultural potency, and he develops a moral sense which demarcates his relationship with fellow-beings voluntarily, i.e. by choice. It is a fact that our behaviour is less affected by the law and more by our moral sense. Not many people know the dimensions and complexities of the law to be able to practice it but most of us know what is right and what is wrong. Thus our life is governed by the moral law, and if the positive law (the state law) conforms to the moral law, it qualifies as the natural law, otherwise it is just a coercive system of rules designed to enforce the will of the dominant.

What is a Natural Issue?

To rank as natural law, the positive law must take account of natural issues which are manifestations of free will. A natural issue is the point about which people honestly dispute. For example, "desire" is a natural issue because people have always argued whether desires should be gratified or renounced; religion is also a natural issue because people believe in a certain religion to the exclusion of others; democracy also qualifies as an issue because people have held commendatory and condemnatory opinions about it. Thus a natural issue Is the naturally disputed point of major social, religious, economic or international importance and capable of becoming a source of intense discord and strife. The modern conflict between capitalism and communism (marxism) results from the economic issue, that is, who should own wealth - individuals or the state (erroneously identified with society).

Again, an issue is natural when it spontaneously arouses different emotions and contradictory opinions. Its source is not bigotry and ignorance but people's innate tendency to see, feel and think differently. Without this in-built psychological differential, free will is bound to become inoperative because if everyone saw, felt and thought exactly the same way, everyone would act similarly. Thus mankind will rank as a race of robots for lack of diversity. Room for uniformity in real life is very limited, indeed.

The law must take into consideration the existence of natural issues and prescribe the means to solve disputes and mitigate their effects. Each issue has peculiarities of its own. Having discussed many of them in "Taxation and Liberty", I shall skip their repetition here.

Change of Law

It is obvious that the law which takes account of natural issues, is grounded in rational principles of the underlying science of law-making known as jurisprudence and cannot be changed at will by the law-makers. It is especially so when the positive law ranks as natural law. One cannot imagine natural lay; changing under ordinary circumstances. It changes only to cope with a catastrophe or when conditions have changed so grossly that they cannot be given a new order without a change in the law.

Constitutional principles

The ability to make and change the law at will is called ``legalism,' i.e. the dictatorship of law. To curb this practice, law must be rooted in the constitutional principles of law-making. Constitutional principles are like the original rules ol a club or partnership. If the club or partnership wants to enact further rules, that must conform to the spirit of the original ones. Again, if any of the original i.e. constitutional, rules Is to be abrogated, it cannot be done by the sheer authority of the chairman; it must involve the entire membership which is also required to observe definite procedures. A national constitution is rooted in the history, customs and general manners of its people. It expresses the national temperament and social values which are determined over a period of time by national accords and discords, emanating from natural issues peculiar to the society. Unless laws conform to the national peculiarities, they are a form of legalism, and a threat to civil liberties. The English or Common Law which gives opportunity to a true judge to condemn an unconstitutional piece of legislation, represents the once free spirit of the British people.

Illegal law

The law, by its nature is the protector and promoter of a nation's liberty, and is rooted in the national temperament and social values. Standard of reference is always the people in relation to their traditions, cultural attitudes and historical precedents, and not the judicial decisions. The law which can be changed to suit administrative convenience, legitimise the illegitimacies of the past or to secure an ideological dream at the expense of moral and national values, lacks legality and does not deserve respect of the law-abiding people.

Purpose of law

c. Now we come to the last point i.e. the purpose of law. Let me say rightaway that law has an intrinsic purpose, that is, maintenance of peace and security through dispensation of natural justice i.e. justice for all, the poor and the rich the low and the high, the black and the white, the Christian and the Moslem The biased law is not law but the tool of the dominants' desire. Therefore, law cannot have an extraneous purpose such as the introduction of an ideology, e.g. socialism, Islam or Judaism. Law is the stabilising factor between individual and individual, the same way as bond (the pattern of laying) is between brick and brick. While during an emergency, which is a period of short duration, everything is subject to change, and the law is no exception, under normal circumstances the law cannot be subordinated to an extraneous purpose. Solution of economic disparities is not a problem of the law but of the state. How? I shall answer this question in another chapter. Here it suffices to say that the law that is the protagonist of a particular ideology becomes the antagonist of all the doctrines that people may hold to the contrary. Thus it is sectarian and divisive and cannot serve its true purpose which is harmony and happiness. It is an ambassador of strife and misery, and cannot qualify as natural law.

The greatest right

Law is the guardian of people's rights, and the greatest individual right is the right to be free. It means that man has the right to think, speak and act as he likes provided he does not harm others. Nobody's opinion should be repressed just because it offends someone else's dogma. Harm must mean actual harm and not a hypothetical one.

The right to be free is the most significant social element for being the exponent of free will, which is the fountain of life. If the state is doctrinarian i.e. addicted to a dogma such as Marxism, socialism or a religious concept, it cannot allow people the freedom of speech and action and is inclined to pass sectarian laws directly or indirectly to supress people's free will. Dogmatic laws are regressive because they force citizens to do what they don't like. The fall of the Soviet Union owing to Marxism and the decline of Britain through socialism which raised taxation to 98%, are some of the examples. Care of the society, as I shall explain later, is the fundamental duty of the state and not a superimposed social dogma, and care means care of everybody, the poor and the rich, the high and the low. This is what "equality at law" means, and this is what the law must practice.

Law and Liberty

Accepting authority of the law means giving an undertaking to the state that one will discard certain ways of acting and adopt the prescribed mode of behaviour. This submission apparently restricts individual freedom, but this is not the case. The voluntary loss of freedom is, in fact, a sound investment in liberty. As it is not possible for an apprentice to become a craftsman without devoting several years of hardwork to his trade, or for a capitalist to make profit without staking his assets and energies at his business venture, it is not likely for a citizen to preserve his ideal of liberty without sacrificing a bit of his freedom, initially. This initial loss of liberty is like the seed which a farmer loses into the field that he ploughs with the hope of reaping a harvest many times over. If the law does not promote the operation of free will, it is a wolf in lamb's clothing, a whore dressed up as a bride or a predator looking as a priest.

With the freedom of belief, speech and action, goes the freedom from fear of arbitrary arrest, freedom from fear of mob rule, freedom from fear of losing life and limb and freedom from fear of molestation by the government itself in the form of police and civil servants. This type of freedom is possible only when the law is rational and equitable, and not the tool of dominance in the hands of rulers who want to present their atrocities as acts of humanity and their fiascos as feats of patriotism.

Freedom from hunger, illness and ignorance

Very closely connected with these freedoms is the freedom from fear of hunger, the freedom from fear of helplessness brought about by illness or age and the freedom from fear of ignorance engendered by lack of means to educate oneself. Zany though it may seem, these three freedoms are not the basic concern of the law, but of the state. How? I shall explain this point at a later stage though I must mention that the law does have a role to play in it but it is of secondary nature.

Inimical to all these freedoms is the injustice which arises not only from the deliberately vicious acts of fellow-beings but through misunderstanding, misinterpretation, lack of communication and trust, or quite accidently. In this context, it is most important that the government sets an example of fairness the government that raises taxation to 98% is a thief and cannot hide its act of pillage under the golden cloak of welfare. Its image of Robinhoodism turns into Ganghis Khan because by unjust laws it gives diabolical powers to the tax officials who resort to deceit, deviation and dishonesty through exaggerated assessments for depredating the taxpayers.

What is Law?

A partisan government is not capable of governing people fairly because it passes laws which patronise one section of the population and penalise the other. It possesses a split personality because it favours certain groups to frighten the others for dividing them into fanatical sections who love class hatred more than anything else. Once a goverment is elected, it must discard its bigoted views and serve the community as a whole. Therefore, the law must ensure that no political party is elected on a divisive and unjust manifesto. Thus law can't be anything but a set of judicious principles which seeks to establish order by enhancing social harmony through dispensation of natural justice. And it must be realised that natural justice is neutral justice: it does not take into consideration the conditions connected with colour or creed, poverty or plentitude, lofty or low birth.

Essence of Law

Harmony is the essence of the law because this is the key to Godhead. People used to discord, division and disharmony as the way of life, develop distasteful tempers and habits leading to conditions not conducive to the birth of soul.

Right and duty

When considering the purpose of law, it is improper to ignore the relationship between rights and duties. Unfortunately, jurists have given overwhelming preponderance to duty over right. I have no doubt about the mischievousness of the assertion that people have no rights except the right to do duty. The truth is certainly the other way around. Why? It is because free will or the right to choose is the foundation of humanity. Without the sense of choice, man becomes a very low animal or more accurately an inanimate object because only the lifeless things lack the power to choose. On this basis alone, right precedes duty because free will or the right to choose stands at the root of humanity itself.

Secondly, though duty is a moral concept, it is usually projected as a command of the powerful to the powerless. A command can be just or unjust, vicious or righteous. Man surely has the right to choose between a good and a bad command. Thus the concept of duty depends upon the right to choose.
Thirdly, it is right which creates duty. When a baby is born, it is born with rights only, net the right to be fed, clothed, sheltered and protected. If parents have done their Job well, the baby when it grows up, feels obliged towards its parents, and oves them. Of course, parents develop their rights through performance of their duties, yet right precedes duty because the parents, as children, had their rights first.

Finally, duty cannot be laid down by law or through fear. Such a duty is not really a duty but a command or an act of blackmail. Duty is duty only when iIs ased on the exercise of free will as devotion or reciprocity: it must come from within as a fair return for something received, performed, cherished or anticipated. Its fountain is reverence or expectation, and not fear. However, there is one exception: an individual's rights precede duties but the state has no right except the right to do duty. It is its sense of dutifulness and the actual performance of duties which give it certain rights.

Tolerance

The most important function of the law is to ensure the rule of free will, that is, people's right to differ but they must differ in a civilised manner so that everyone should have some respect for other people's views or at least tolerate them. It means that everyone has the right to be a Christian, Moslem, Hindu or an atheist but this right carries the integral duty of tolerance towards others. This principle must be enshrined into the body of law, otherwise it cannot promote the cause of justice and freedom.

I think that I have said enough about jurisprudence or legal philosophy except that morality though concerns action, opinion plays a great part in it. Therefore, moral law is unwritten but to the contrary, the positive law is a written code of enacted rules. Therefore, there must be an authoritative body to make, promulgate and enforce the law. Such a body is called the state. We should now examine its constitution and role.

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