September 12, 2007
Introduction: The Personality of Zartusht
and his Mission
the nominal followers of zartushti creed resorted secretive practices
up to the previous century. They strove to keep their religion
covert as opposed to advancing it. Iran, homeland of this Aryan
reformer, rarely remembered this prophet. His name had become
a myth drenched in fire worship. Iranian-Muslim scholars introduced
him as the student of the Jewish prophets, who had created the
duality of Ourmazd and Ahriman, the battle between Good and Evil,
Who was the leader of fire worshipping magis.
centuries ago, western scholars came to learn more of zartusht.
Thus, they were drawn to his thoughts. About a century ago, the
true massage of zartusht, the Gathas, came to be known. Since
that time his thoughts have enchanted researchers. The fame of
zartusht quickly spread among scholars, thinkers, and all those
who strove to know the philosophical thoughts of the ancient world.
In a short period of time many thinkers were drawn to this thought.
Greek and Latin, the languages of world monotheistic religions,
are easily understood, for many still speak them today.
of the Gathas however is still difficult to understand, even for
the so-called followers of the creed. This has brought innumerable
problems to scholars, for the beauty of its composition still
remains undiscovered and its complexity and antiquity add to these
problems. The language of the Gathas is one of poetry and symbolism,
which differs from the ordinary tongue of the people. Even the
language of the people of the day has long since been forgotten.
In the Gathas
zartusht introduces himself as a messenger and a teacher of the
In Yasna 44/11
he says "Lord, I know that you have sent me to carry out
this important task as your first teacher."
In 31/1 he
reminds us, "I reveal to you, oh seeker of knowledge, these
unheard words. I bring them too for those who lead the world truth
to destruction through their lies. Yet they are best for those
who love Ahura Mazda.
In 31/2 we
read, "Thus do I come to you all as teacher whom Mazda has
chosen for both groups that we might live through the creed of
His Task is
to lead all people of the world-both the good and the wicked.
He is not the prophet of a special clan or group. He is to lead
even those who lead the world to destruction through wrong and
addresses those who sought knowledge for he knew knowledge as
the key to spiritual understanding, truth, and the creed of justice.
He always chose knowledge as the measure of good and evil therefore
he had to address the seeker of knowledge as he clearly states.
Thus, one can conclude that in the light of the Gathas he was
the first teacher of the world. In other words up to a certain
period of time man was not ready to seek the truth through the
knowledge and understanding. Therefore, according to the Gathas,
it could be deduced that zartusht appeared at the time that man
began to be the seeker of knowledge.
man has always known divinity with miracles and the prophets and
saints were miracle workers and creators of that which was out
of the ordinary. The diviners of Egypt, Chaldea, and Assyria
falsified events and brought forth fantastic deeds of their gods
in order to maintain their status. Even today mullahs and the
advocates of all monotheistic religions turn to fabricated miracles.
of mosses and Christ is historically ascertained. That which has
been said of their personality bears a touch of myth and fantasy
and not reality. It is commonplace to accept miracles from mythical
being particularly as written in so-called divine scripture, which
allows the indoctrination of the masses through their intermediaries
as the word of god. All this has been built on the foundation
of miracles and fantasy to please the masses and they were also
reported in church documents.
What is interesting
is that even if the founders of a religion themselves rise to
refute these miracles their followers will not be able to accept
the messengers of god as ordinary mortals and miracles as the
works of magicians.
Part I: Zartusht on the issue of clergy
At the time
of zartusht and in the gathaic society, the kavi was the leader
of the tribe. He was also the religious leader of a clan. The
kavis were the clergy head of the Aryan tribes. The status of
the kavi comes from the religion of totemism in which the oldest
son of the family, and that of the tribe, is the guardian of the
family stove or of the flame of the tribe. Gradually, the kavi
became the king and the ruler, and at the time of the Sassanids
kavi ghobad, kavi khosrow
or kay ghobad and kay khosrow
were all terms for kings. At the time of zartusht, there was no
sign of monarchy or of kingship but tribal societies and clans
were the only form of societies that existed. Since society had
not yet been classified, there was no class of clergy with a set
of training as many scholars mistakenly believed. In the gathas,
we meet karpans with usiji and kavis. They were all the religious
leaders of their day. Each one had a special responsibility but
none of them had yet to belong to particular with a set hierarchy.
In one part
of the Gathas, Azargoshasb translates the word ratush to mean
spiritual leader. He found a fact and through this fact he has
made his own conclusion that there was no class of clergy at the
time of zartusht. In the light of this interpretation, we can
accept by spiritual leader he means the moral leader and not the
leader of a set of spiritual class.
we must accept that in the primitive society of zartusht there
was not yet any form of organized church. Gradually as society
expands and the responsibility of its various groups is determined.
The kavis become the political leaders, the karpans become religious
leaders, and the kings and their courts alongside the athrravans,
the magis and the mubadan gradually became to separate institution
but in harmony with one another. Although political and religious
leadership was just coming into existence, Zartusht rose to oppose
them both and to warn the masses of obeying these evil thinkers
and evil leaders.
"the creed of zartusht, was philosophical but it was simultaneously
anti-clerical and anti-religious. In India and Iran, the clergy
served the purpose of rendering all instructions futile by relating
it to them. In other words, they managed to divert the religion
of zartusht and the guise of his instructions.
the German expert on Persian culture, believes that the influence
of the clergy and their interference in political affairs caused
the creation of obstacles that prevented progress. In the history
of the world we see such examples. In the religion of Mazdaism
this factor has been totally rejected. There is no trace of clerical
influence in this religion.
have come to understand that the massage of zartusht was to oppose
the clergy and the ancient practice, for he not only advocates
a religion without intermediaries but he also rises to castigate
to most institutionalised religions, one can only attain salvation,
eternal forgiveness and heaven through the enactment of ceremony,
tradition, and particular ritual. The difference in various sects
is mostly in the manner of this enactment and not in the principle
of religion. The ruthless bloodshed of Catholics and Protestants,
Shiites and Sunnis
has been brought about because of the
practices of these religions. Even the adversity among the followers
of various monotheistic is principally due to practices, customs
and trivialities than to basic difference. It is these very practices
and traditions that create the institutional church and clergy.
The real war is between the churches and not between the basic
beliefs. This truth will be clarified by analysing and comparing
monotheistic religions. In the massage of zartusht, it is his
description of religion, righteousness, piety, reward and punishment
that stands out. As we have already seen, to zartusht the devout
are those who believe in truth and honesty and those who enact
these principles. Even the zartushti elite like Azargoshasb, Dahala,
accept that in the Gathas zartusht explains
the path of salvation without the presence of the Zartushti church.
assistance to the lower classes and those under pressure as vital,
but he dose not see this assistance only in terms of being an
ashvan. In 46/5 he clearly states the powerful must help the needy
through love and humanitarianism, even if they do not belong to
the followers of truth. He must lead the needy to the true path
through love and kindness. He must aid through his wisdom. Free
man and the followers of truth will choose truth through their
will and consciousness. They will do this neither to appease the
church nor God but to attain eternal happiness, because this path
brings perfection. It is man's essence and mind that is important
here and not how he carries out his tradition or religious practice.
We have seen
that the araiyan practices and customs were controlled by diviners
and the clergy and with chanting the necessary chant, which only
these men were suitable to do. I have already said that other
institutionalised religions clung to their own rites and ceremonies.
There is no such sign of specialized rites and ceremonies in the
massage of zartusht. There is no set measure for the worship of
God in the Gathas. Zartusht's interpretation of religion was one
of the revolutions of its days. Today three thousand years later
this revolution still stands out. Let us imagine what would happen
if the pious of various religions were to believe in this truth
today. What would come about if they could see God as the shelter
of good deeds? What would happen if churches, temples
their authority? Would the world be rid of prejudice, vengeance
and hatred? Would it turn to love and kindness in order to strengthen
make basic moral principles, which are at the root of all creeds
and which have been advocated by all enlightened man, as the basis
of his deeds words and thoughts. He should know all man as the
creatures of God and he should see them as one. Indoctrinated
veils and obstacles which have been handed down to him through
ages should be destroyed. Each man should answer the call within
according to his understanding. His beloved creed should be implanted
within his heart without upsetting his fellow man. It is only
at such a time that the world will take on a different face. Then
will the pious that merely copy others, the majority of man, stop
being puppets and become truly freed man. In such a society the
leaders and politicians who advocate diverted thought in the world
and who have brought man kind nothing but wretches and spiritual
oppression by creating wars would be supplanted. Then will the
church and the corrupt clergy who thrive on stagnation never be
allowed to flourish.
In all societies
it is very few who lead men to corruption and to destruction.
They abuse men's ignorance and thus suppress them in various ways.
Most leading institutions of suppression are able to exist by
enforcing their will through servants, who are suppressed themselves.
Thus is the authority of corrupt elite founded. These servants
attain no benefits but only fall to bestial ruin. In many cases
man's destruction in history has been brought about through changes
that even today, after the passage of many years and experiences,
man is still the puppet of the ruling elite. These elites control
the churches and all doctrinaires and the media
years mankind has been so suppressed that today the farmer, the
worker even the educated or the scientist have no free will. They
all carry out the whims of these elite. Men still rise to partake
in holy wars. If men are allowed to bloom through wisdom and good
thoughts, love and kindness they will choose to live together
and they will refrain from blind submission. All people will become
brothers and sisters and they will know that it is only their
deeds that prove them and give them value. No single creed, religion
or doctrine is higher than another. The world will gradually become
the heaven of the true. This has always been the aim of all true
reformers. It might be a logical desire, yet it has always remained
unattainable. However, the more man works for this aim the greater
peace he will know. Society will be led by mankind and it will
from among the primitive Aryan societies of his day. A society
that was polytheistic and drenched in tradition, superstition,
and Archatic belief in practice where diviners, karpans, usiji
and kavis held the people in the grip of obdurate belief. I n
spite of the time worn inflexible fixtures of his society, he
rose against it. He declared a bloody war on all leaders who exploited
the masses, the shepherds. He challenged the five worshipping
diviners who sought to intoxicate the people with their sacrificial
practices and primitive rituals in order to bind the masses in
slavery. He repudiated the gods that clergy were using to enforce
their hold on the people and immediately disbanded them. He claimed
that the establishment of religion called doctrine to be nothing
but lies and discarded them.
zartusht overturned the meaning of the word religion and pious,
for he taught people that there is no piety other than good deeds
and that GOD is in no need of sacrifice, pleading or praise. He
showed that heaven and hell exist in each and every one of us
and that good and evil are but the aberrations of our minds. He
stated that the creator is in no need of worship and intermediaries
and that the greatest sacrifice that can be made to GOD is the
following of the trilogy: good thoughts, good words, and good
deeds. God can only be attained by seeking divine bearing.
founder of such a revolution that upturned all the social and
thought structure of his society for the first time in the world
and incorporated true monotheism have been of the diviners, seers
with a clerical training was ever able to create a revolution
on religious thoughts. In which of the schools of the clergy of
his day did Mohammed study? Among all those who studied in such
places which one of them was able to compose popular verses as
this common man? Is the meaning of popular anything other than
belonging to the people? Dose it therefore mean that Mohammed's
verses belonged to the people and he who was devoid of any schooling?
Had these men been of the clergy, then their training would have
had no value for it would have been a mere repetition of the intractable
studies of the priesthood. They would have never been able to
fill the masses with the need to create a revolution. Zartusht's
massage was an honest call from within that aroused souls and
forced them into movement.
who rises from among the masses is undeniably a supporter of the
weak for without them evolution is not attainable. From the time
state and church were created these two moved singly or in conjunction
with another to exploit the masses. The one who is the supporter
of the masses cannot come to terms with the state and the church.
The religion of the people can not accept the state and its diviners,
for if it dose, then the religion that is created is that of the
leaders and not that of the people. The court, temple, leadership
and diviners have always tried to keep religion as an important
tool of the state in order to sanction their power. If they do
not adhere to this rule, they will be destroyed.
due to the tolerance of the people, their addiction to obedience
and their tendency for superstition and inherited indoctrination,
history has constantly witnessed the success of the church and
the state. Together they have always diverted the real religions
and revolutions of the people and they have incessantly risen
to take command by using the very element that was to save people.
Thus they have always achieved the oppression and suppression
of the nations. There is no sword mightier than diverted religion
to destroy the power of nations and enslave the people.
Part IV : Zartusht - Heaven and Hell
creed has no metaphysics in it. It bears nothing outside the limits
of nature and he never spoke of the abnormal or of the supernormal.
The elements he speaks of existed in reality although they were
tied to a higher world. The atmosphere that can be felt is higher
than the environment we exist in and yet somehow it is tied to
this environment. This ambience comes from condition of herd life
three thousand years ago. Interestingly, the more this environment
expands its atmosphere also expands like marks on a balloon. They
never leave this atmosphere and they are always tied to the realm
of thoughts as they expand. Wisdom, knowledge, choice, good thoughts,
truth, world order, natural law, power of the will, realm of power
of God, creator
realm of song, home of lies
comprehensible terms. But the wisdom that was used along the Amu
Daria three thousand years ago was different from the one that
is being used today. Primitive religions have been basically created
on myths. These myths also have great importance in monotheistic
religions. But Zartusht's creed knows no myth. Mysterious realms
and ambience prevail in mythology. Amazing events that are beyond
human capability are wrought through the power of Gods in these
myths. In monotheism, we see miracles. Moses separates the sees;
Jesus breathes life into the dead and walks on water or rises
to the heavens. Jonas lives within a whale
there are no
such elements in the Gathas.
that this very deficiency of fantasy is the most important element
of Zartusht's creed, which proves its pertinence to reality. The
religion of early man was one of mythology and the religion of
modern man has been founded on these very myths. It has taken
several millennia to indoctrinate these convictions thereby making
religion a metaphysical creation.
understand religion without rites, ceremonies, fantasy and imagination.
This is why Zartusht's creed became enshrouded in these elements
through the ages to such an extend that little has been left of
the original creed. The magis and the diviners had to draw man
to themselves. They had to prescribe a religion for man that bore
fantasy, metaphysics, myths, dreams and images to such an extent
that they could no longer be recognized.
society is able to add to its good thinkers and to its humanitarians
it will know less evil. One can not live among evil thinkers in
happiness where there is corruption. The very leaders of such
society know no happiness either. No revolution can bring man
kind true moral and spiritual change without the enhancement of
the real life of the masses. Zartusht advocates activity, struggle
with oppressors and liars deceivers and the support of the needy
and of the weak with internal and moral change that can bring
man wisdom. This is the most realistic and pragmatic plan whose
continuation can bring man betterment of life. Likewise, zartusht
speaks indirectly of the other life in order not to destroy hope
for man. He creates no market for the trade of religious intermediaries.
There is no need for intermediaries to attain haven and escape
hell. He leaves no room for such merchants. Each man is to set
on his path through free will and hard work. The creed of zartusht
knows no trade with God. Yet man has not yet reached that level
of maturity to rid himself of centuries of indoctrination. Most
people are still caught in the embrace of fantasy. Almost all
people are still caught in the throes of emotional and inherited
motivations. Objective religions cannot thrive in such an environment.
It will take a long time for this to be brought about and for
the intermediaries of religion to be destroyed. At this point
dealing and bargaining with paradise and hell will be stopped.
Part V : Zartusht and his words
as the follower of truth and good mind or thoughts. The interesting
fact is that in the Gathas there is no mentioning of following
zartusht or his creed. The basic principle is the advancement
of truth and good deeds and refraining from lies and wiles.
interesting principle that we see appear in the Gathas is that
zartusht words are his own and not those of God. God has granted
him eloquence, pure wisdom and good thoughts. He has simply profited
from these blessings and instructions in order to send forth words
for mankind that had never been heard. Zartusht never claims that
the Gathas are the words of God or that his hymns are divine inspiration.
There are hymns that one can indirectly assume that has profited
from inspiration and enlightenment, but what is actually stated
in his own and not that of God.
of other religions claim that their script is the direct word
of God. This has made them carry out that which has been written
word for word.
has caused the exact enactment and empowerment of religious institutions
and yet it has also cause innumerable controversy that has often
ended in destruction and massacre. The churches try to put supernatural
principles in their creed in order to turn their creed into the
words of God, which must be obeyed with blind submission. Undoubtedly
that which was said three thousand years ago bears the ambience
and condition of its own time. This particularly true of that
which concerns the daily lives of men, their traditions and customs.
All this could have been well enacted in its own days. Today,
after the passage of several millennia and basic changes in the
lives and possibilities of man, these ancient interpretations
regardless of how superior they might have been, can no longer
adhere to the lives of present day man. If we look into these
practices we will see how illogical many of these instructions
are. Thus, in order for the church to survive it has to claim
that it is the direct word of God and therefore eternal. It needs
to claim that it does and will continue to be the command of God
as long as man lives on this terrestrial plane.
The God of
psalms and poetry is the creation of the poet's imagination. He
is not the great life giving dadar of the world. The psalms of
God can be heard in the order of creation and in all universal
phenomena, his countenance can be seen in the heart of the universe-an
endless world. His realm can be attained through human wisdom.
Those Gods who only listen to Gathic, Vedic, and Hebrew
are the creations of Zartushtis, Indians, Jews
of God is the language of nature and of creation. All the creatures
of the world speak this language for God is the creator of life,
body, words and speech. The zartusht who is presented in the Gathas
has placed love, kindness, wisdom, good thoughts, tolerance and
understanding at the base of his teachings. These teachings cannot
be the foundation of prejudice and rigidity that has found root
in rendering the Gathas as divine nor in making the Bondahishn
and Ardavirnameh sacred, which are all negation of God. Notably,
Zartushti thinkers and scholars, through tradition and heredity,
not only see Zartusht's saying and lamentations as the words of
God, and continue to use them as prayers and incantations, but
also consider many superstitions of the new Avesta sacred and
accept it as their scripture. Unfortunately, Zartushtis are not
the only ones caught in the grips of indoctrinated hereditary
belief for most followers of religions are caught in the same
clutch and have thereby trapped humanity.
Good and Evil
There is no
incorporeal good and evil in the world for that which exists is
the one with good thoughts and the one with evil thoughts.
and evil are two elements of thought, and nature of a person is
related to man's thought and reasoning.
measure for distinguishing between good and evil is the knowledge
and evil have no meaning without the presence of free choice and
wise one who is in harmony with the truth consciously chooses
the virtuous path and harmonises himself with the order of nature,
avoiding deceptions and lies. The ignorant one who has been diverted
from the true path follows aberration.
worship of Ahura Mazda is in harmony with true thought truth and
probity and it is this that leads man to the realm of glory.
and no life movement and stagnation, come about through the collision
of good and evil. Productive life comes in the shelter of good
and truth. Evil and ugliness are brought about lies and trickery
culminating in Non-life or stagnation.
7. The followers of truth have the best minds and the followers of
lies have within themselves the worst manner of thought.
8. This will continue until the end of man's life and the collision
of good and evil will determine man's path in life.
9. Good delights in correct and chaste behaviour.
ignorant one who carries the worst manner of thought of demeanour
within themselves destroys others.
comes about through a peaceful conscience. He who has good within
him will find true joy and he who is restless within carrying
within himself the worst manner of thought will never find the
light of joy.