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History of Iranian Flags 11
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Back to index   Chapter 11: Iran Ethnic and Short Lived Republics Flags
Pictorial History of Iranian Flags

Chapter 11: Iran’s Ethnic and Short Lived Republics Flags
Pictorial History of Iranian Flags
Ahreeman X
March 17, 2012

Short Lived Republics

Flag of Gilan
Gilan Republic - Capital: Rasht
GSSR - Gilan Soviet Socialist Republic (Jun 5th 1920 -  Oct 23rd 1921)
Revolt ended and Republic eliminated by Reza Khan. Integrity of Iran had been saved by Reza Shah the Great.

Gilanis (Gilaks) are very independent, intelligent and brave people. Despite the past issues, they remain as strong Iranian Nationalists. In 1915 the liberal and progressive people of Iran and Gilan created the movement named Jangali [from Jangal (forest), since the movement was born in the Gilan forest] under the leadership of Mirza Kuchik Khan, Ehsan Allah Khan and other liberal people (named Azadikhahan) and constitutionalist people (Mojahedin). A Revolutionary Committee was created; German, Austrian and Turkish (WWI Axis) officers trained the Jangali volunteers. The movement spread through Gilan and a great part of Mazandaran.

In March 1918 an attack against Qazvin failed. A treaty with the British (August 12th 1918) granted to Mirza Kuchik Khan the domain of Gilan, and the German, Austrian and Turkish instructors were sent back to their countries. In 1919 the Cossacks (in the Persian governments' service) seized the territory of the Jangali. In 1920 the Soviets helped the rest of the remaining people of the Jangali movement. A Soviet ship attacked Anzali (Bandar Pahlavi) (May 18th 1920) and Soviet troops took possession of Rasht, Gilan's capital.

A new Committee was formed and on June 5th 1920, Mirza Kuchik Khan proclaimed the Socialist Soviet Republic of Persia, and the Soviet Republic of Gilan, with the flag shown. After the treaty between USSR and Iran (February 26th 1921) the Soviet troops retired from Gilan (September 8th 1921) and in October the country was seized by Reza Khan (later on Reza Shah). Mirza was captured and executed. Oct 23rd 1921 marked the end of the Jangali Revolt and Gilan Republic. The word Kaveh on the flag is the name of an Ancient Persian Legendary Revolutionary who caused an uprising against a Tyrant Zahak. He was an Ironsmith who was leading a rebellion against the Totalitarian Ruler. So, the Gilak people were referring to an earlier revolutionary. Gilan has the most beautiful shores, beaches and the green fertile lands in Iran.

Flag of Azerbaijan
Republic of Azerbaijan (Azadistan) – Capital: Tabriz
Azadistan Republic (1920)
Revolt ended and Republic eliminated by Reza Khan. Integrity of Iran had been saved by Reza Shah the Great.

After the collapse of the independent Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan by the Bolsheviks and the Soviet occupation of the North Azerbaijan (External Azerbaijan), the Bolsheviks then focused towards across the Aras River and helped to set up an autonomous State of Azadistan in the Iranian Azerbaijan (Internal Azerbaijan). The Red’s plan was to create a Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan the same as they done in Gilan. The Republic was headed by Sheikh Mohammad Khiyabani of the Democratic Party of Azerbaijan (a socialist party) and lasted from June to September of 1920. The rebellion was crushed by Reza Khan. Before 1925 Reza Shah the Great was Reza Khan Mir 5 (General), then Commander in Chief of the Army and then Minister of War.

Flag of Azerbaijan
Republic of South Azerbaijan – Capital: Tabriz
Republic of South Azerbaijan (December 10th 1945 – December 11th 1946)
Revolt ended and Republic eliminated by Mohammad Reza Shah. Integrity of Iran had been saved by Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi.

Flag of Azerbaijan
Version 2 of the Republic of South Azerbaijan Flag
Republic of South Azerbaijan – Capital: Tabriz
Republic of South Azerbaijan (December 10th 1945 – December 11th 1946)
Revolt ended and Republic eliminated by Mohammad Reza Shah. Integrity of Iran had been saved by Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi.

After the 1941 invasion occupation of Iran by the Allies, the British occupied the south and the Russians occupied the north Iran. Reza Shah Pahlavi was removed from the power and force exiled to South Africa. After the end of WWII, the British and the Americans began the withdrawal of their troops from south Iran but the Soviet Union helped to set up two independent republics in the northern Iran.

Soviets fabricated the Kurdish Republic of Mahabad (1946) and the Republic of South Azerbaijan (1945). The Republic of South Azerbaijan was led by Mir Seyed Ja'far Pishevari of Democratic Party of Azerbaijan (a Socialist party). The republic was a Marxist regime which lasted a year.

Finally the Soviets, under the US and international pressure, decided to pull out of Iran and to abandon their puppet regimes in Mahabad and Tabriz. Russians advised Pishevari not to resist the imminent approach of the Imperial Iranian Army. Obviously Pishevari did not listen to the Russian advice. Imperial Iranian troops crushed the republic in November 1946 and then hung Pishevari for the crime of high treason.

The short-lived Democratic Republic of Southern Azerbaijan had a flag similar to the Iranian flag. The flag is a horizontal tricolor of green-white-red with the golden lion and sun encircled partially by a golden wreath and with the addition of a white crescent moon on the green stripe.

Flag of Kurdistan
Republic of Mahabad – Capital: Mahabad
Republic of Mahabad (January 22nd 1946 – December 15th 1946)
Republic consisted of today’s Western Azerbaijan Province and a Part of Kurdistan Province
Revolt ended and Republic eliminated by Mohammad Reza Shah. Integrity of Iran had been saved by Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi.

Same story as the fabricated Republic of Southern Azerbaijan by USSR goes for the Republic of Mahabad. Russians fabricated Qazi Mohammad the leader of PDKI (Party of Democratic Kurdistan of Iran) as the president and Haji Baba Sheikh as the prime minister of the Republic of Mahabad. They established a Marxist Regime in Mahabad and the republic lasted as long as the Russians directly supported it. Once the Russians stop their support (due to US and International pressure), then the republic fell.

On December 1946 Imperial Iranian troops entered Mahabad and crushed the rebellion. On March 1947 Qazi Mohammad was hung for the crime of high treason.

Separatist Movements of Iran

Flag of Al Ahwaz Liberation Organization (ALO)
Independent State of Arabistan (Khuzestan) Flag
State of Arabistan – Capital: Mohammerah AKA Khoramshahr
Independent State of Arabistan (1925)
The origin of the Arab Rebellions of Khuzestan started with Sheikh Khaz’al.
Revolt ended and Republic eliminated by Reza Khan. Integrity of Iran had been saved by Reza Khan.

His full name was Sheikh Khaz'al Khan ibn al Haji Jabir al Ka’bi. He basically ruled an autonomous Sheikhdom. His Sheikhdom was called “Sheikhdom of Mohammerah” (Today’s Khoramshahr province of Khuzestan). He ruled during 1897 – 1925. Later on he named Khuzestan, State of “Arabistan” with the capital of Mohammerah (Khoramshahr)!

On 1925 Reza Khan used extreme force and ended all Arab Revolts and also ended Sheikh Khaz'al’s Rebellion. Sheikh Khaz’al was held under house arrest in Tehran. Later on Sheikh Khaz’al died in Tehran (1936). The province was renamed Khuzestan and later on, the city changed name to Khoramshahr. Some report that Sheikh Khaz’al died of natural causes but most believe that Reza Khan ordered his death.

Al Ahwaz roots goes back to Al Sa’adeh Party. In 1946 the Al Sa’adeh Party was established in a first attempt to unify the struggle for independence of Arabs. Chairman Faleh Abdullah al Mansouri fled to Holland in 1989, and now lives in Maastricht. Since 1990 several Al Ahwaz groups have cooperated in the Al Ahwaz Liberation Organization (ALO). The ALO flag has equal proportions and consists of three equal horizontal stripes of red, white and black. In the center of the white stripe is a green five pointed star in a thin green circle. The red stripe stands for the war of independence, sacrifice and the defense of Al Ahwaz (another Separatist name for Khuzestan). The white stripe stands for peace, purity and friendship. The black stripe stands for the darkest depths of the deep sea. The star stands for the greatness and glory of the Arabs or Al Ahwaz. The circle represents the people around Al Ahwaz (The Star).

Flag of Front for Liberation of Arabistan (FLA)
This vertical flag represents FLA whom same as Sheikh Khaz’al, they refer to Khuzestan as Arabistan! FLA is a separatist movement.

Ahwazi Arabic Revolution (AAR)
Flag with the crescent and star represents this scattered group of separatists named AAR. They seek separation of Khuzestan from Iran and creation of the State of Arabistan.

Turkmen-Sahra Liberation Organization Flag
The organization is a separatist organization hiding under the façade of fighting for the Turkmen Rights in Iran.

Turkmen-Sahra = Turkmen Sahara = Turkmen Desert

The organization is a separatist Turkmen organization which believes in primarily separation of the Internal Turkmenistan (Golestan Province and North Western Part of Khorasan Province) from Iran to create an independent state and secondarily to join this state with the fabricated country of Turkmenistan (External Turkmenistan).

Southern Azerbaijan National Awakening Movement (SANAM) Flag
This is an organization based in Baku (External Azerbaijan) led by Mahmoud Ali Chehregani an ex Tabriz University Professor who believes in separation of the Internal Azerbaijan from Iran and joining the External Azerbaijan as one nation. This organization does not have much following inside Iran.

Baluchistan Liberation Army (BLA) Flag
Organization’s doctrine is to create an independent state of Baluchistan free from Iran and Pakistan Rule. They want to combine the 2 Baluchistan to create this independent state.

BLA operates from Baluchistan of Pakistan. BLA missions and operations are mostly conducted in Pakistan but they also cause trouble in Iran.

Jundallah of Baluchistan Flag
Jundallah = Soldiers of Allah
Jundallah also known as “People’s Resistance Movement of Iran (PRMI) is a Baluchi Separatist Para-militia Organization. Jundallah was founded by Abdul Malek Rigi who was arrested and executed in Iran on 2010. Jundallah fights for the separation of Baluchistan under the façade of fighting for the Sunni Muslims’ Rights in Iran. Jundallah’s present leader is Abdul Rauf Rigi also known as Mohammad Dhahir Baluch who is the older brother of the demised ex leader of Jundallah Abdul Malek Rigi. Jundallah conducts heavy para-military missions in Iran.

Ethnic Groups of Iran and Federalism

Ethnic groups of Iran are very proud nationalists and they love Iran; however, they seek internal autonomy in their internal affairs. Iran is an empire of many races, cultures, religions and ethnicities. Iran is a vast nation with many ethnic groups. If we do not desire separatist movements, then we must find a solution. The solution is called Federalism. Ethnic Groups want to remain Iranian and Iranian Citizens, yet they seek internal autonomy. Federalism would be the most suitable system of government to satisfy these needs. In a Federal System, states have absolute internal autonomy in their affairs. They only look upon the central government for International diplomatic policies, International trades, and military decisions. Everything else will be managed inside the states. Iranian Federalism dates back to Achaemenid Empire where all Khashtarahs (States) were autonomous, yet together they formed the greatest and sole superpower on earth, named The Persian Empire. If we want a strong Iran with satisfied ethnic groups, then Iranian Federalism is the way to go.

For more information on History of Federalism in Iran read:

History of Federalism in Iran

History of Slavery in Iran

Flag of Azeri Iranians
Azeris are the second largest ethnic group in Iran.  Azeris are originally of The Median Tribe of The Three Original Aryan Tribes of Iran which used to be located at the North West and West of Iran. Azerbaijan has a specific ethnic flag of her own.

Flag of Kurdistan
Kurdish Iranians are distributed in a few Western States of Iran including: Kurdistan, Kermanshah, ILam, Western Azerbaijan and Hamadan. Kurds are originally of The Median Tribe of The Three Original Aryan Tribes of Iran which used to be located at the North West and West of Iran. Kurds are brave warriors and independent people. Kurds have their own ethnic flag.

Flag of Arab Iranians
Arab Iranians of The State of Khuzestan and vicinity are of an ancient culture. They have their own special flag.

Flag of Baluchi Iranians
Iranian Baluchistan Banner
The flag of the Baluchi Iranians living in South East of Iran. Baluchis are brave people, one of Iran's leading minorities. They are by tradition Sunni, same as Turkmens, Arabs and Kurdish Iranians.

Flag of Turkmen Iranians
The Iranian Turkmen are a distinguished Minority living in South Eastern Shores of The Caspian Sea and The North Eastern part of Iran in states of Golestan and Khorasan. Turkmen are of Oriental and Turkish Races. Many Turkmen are a mix of Aryan with Oriental and Turk.

Flag of Turkmen Iranians
The 2nd Version of the Turkmen Iranians Flag

Flag of Golestan Turkmen Iranians
Province of Golestan Turkmen have their own specific flag.
Golestan has the most concentrated population of Turkmen people in Iran.
The flag of Golestan Turkmen Iranians (Southern Turkmenistan) is horizontal yellow - red – green banner with the blue trapezoid at the hoist.

Flag of Khorasan Turkmen Iranians
Khorasani Turkmen have their own specific Flag.
North and North Western part of Khorasan is home of the Turkmen people.

Flag of Lor Iranians
Lors live in Lorestan province of Iran in the west. Lors are ancient people with a long history of bravery and honesty.

Flag of Qashqai Iranians
Iranian Ethnic Qashqai Turkic Nomadic Pastoral People of Pars Province of Iran Flag. Qashqai are tribal warriors.

Flag of Mazandarani Iranians
Banner of Tapuria (Mazandaran) Pride
Mazandaranis are historical people living on the Caspian Sea Shores.

Flag of Gilan
Neo Gilak Banner
Iranian Ethnic Gilak Banner
Gilak people are extremely intelligent and cultural people. Gilaks are progressive intellectuals and good in math and science. They are very independent. Gilan Province if not the most, then is one of the most fruitful and fertile provinces of Iran. Gilan has the most beautiful shores, beaches and the green fertile lands in Iran. One of the most beautiful seaports of Gilan is Anzali (Bandar Pahlavi) which is also an important Naval Military Port. Gilan is so rich in agriculture, seafood and cattle, which can feed the whole Iran. Historically Gilak people were always warriors battling to the bitter end with the enemies of Iran. Due to Gilan’s strategical location and hard to capture (Alborz Mountain Range) location, Gilak people blocked the Arab Invasion Occupation and delayed it for decades. There are locations in Gilan which delayed the Arab occupation for centuries. Until this day there are locations in Gilan which kept their Persian race pure and their language as original as the Sassanian Pahlavi lingo. One of these locations is Talesh. By majority and by nature Gilak people are fierce Aryan Warriors.

The flag of Gilan Interpretation

Light Blue = Beautiful Skies and Seashores of the Caspian Sea
Light Green = Dense Jungles and fertile crop lands of the Gilan Inlands
Black = Determination to Hit and Run Battle and taking the Fight all the way to the Deep Dark Caves of the Alborz Mountain Range

So basically the colors mean that Gilak people are kicked back and relaxed people enjoying the beautiful skies and sea shores of the Caspian Sea. Gilaks are beach people swimming, surfing, fishing and sun tanning at the beach. Gilaks have unlimited dense jungles and crop lands to feed the whole nation, the land and sea is rich with blessed fruits and fish. Gilaks love to share their fruits of hard work with others and they are very hospitable people; however, if the enemy decides to invade their home, then they will take the hit and run battle all the way to the depth of the jungles, height of the mountains and the deepest corners in the caves of the Alborz Mountain Range. Gilaks are determined fierce warriors.

Flag of Persians
Persians are the largest ethnic group in Iran. Persians are originally of the Persian Tribe of The Three Original Aryan Tribes of Iran which used to be located at the South and Central Iran. The Three Aryan Tribes were Persia (Pars), Media (Mad) and Parthia (Part). Achaemenid and Sassanid were of The Persian Tribe, while Medians were of The Median Tribe and Ashkanid (Arsacid) were of The Parthian Tribe. Persians have a flag (green over white over yellow). I believe that the use of this flag was suppressed after 1919, and it only has been used later on by some Persian Ultra-Nationalists.

The ethnic Persian Flag defines in this manner:

Green: Aryan Fertile Lands
White: Aryan Pure Race
Yellow: Aryan Light and Wisdom

This flag is the Ethnic Flag of Persians.

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