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First and Last Persian Emperors
Ahreeman X
December 6, 2006

So you think you know the First and Last Persian Emperors? Don't be so sure! There is always room to learn!

Nationalism is good, but shoving misinformation in public's brains is not good! Therefore, for once and for all, I see fit to clarify this issue! This article is for those whom have never ending thirst to learn the true history of Iran. For those true knowledge seekers, and for Pure Persian Pride:

Historical Periods of Iran

1. Ancient Civilizations Era: 6000 BC - 2000 BC
2. Vedai Era: 2000 BC - 850 BC
3. Pre-Avesta Era: 850 BC - 728 BC
4. The Kingdom Era: 728 BC - 559 BC
5. The First Imperial Era: 559 BC - 651 AD
6. The First Arabo-Islamic Invasion-Occupation Era: 651 AD - 873 AD
7. The Second Imperial Era: 873 AD - 1979 AD
8. The Second Arabo-Islamic Invasion-Occupation Era: 1979 AD - present

Empire and Kingdom


Empire = Vast amount of lands, stretched through numerous geographical areas, either connected or separated via strips of water.

Kingdom = Limited amount of land basically in one geographical area.

Emperor = One who rules an Empire

King = One who rules a Kingdom

Shahanshah = Persian for Emperor

Shah = Persian for King


Persian City State
Susa City State (6000 BC - 3750 BC)
Iran has 8000 years of history, oldest civilization on Earth.
From 6000 BC to 3750 BC, The first civilization in Iran (Susa) was a City State and ruled by Governors. Some Governors were subject rulers, some autonomous, and some independent.
Shimbi-ish-Khuk Governor of Susa [Under Babylon] (Before 3750 BC)

First King of Iran (Persian Kingdom)
Kingdom of Susa
First Shah of Iran = Karibu-Sha-Shushinak also known as Shushinak (3750 BC), son of Shimbi-ish-Khuk (patesi of Susa, governor of the land of Elam), of The Susa Dynasty. At First was a subject ruler under Babylon, then he became an independent Sha (Shah), The Shah of Susa [First Shah of Iran]. Before this period, there were Governors ruling Susa, not Shahs. Shushinak built many temples and wrote many inscriptions. Shushinak started the Kingdom of Iran.

Karibu Sha Shushinak (3750 BC)
Susa Dynasty
First Persian Shah (King)

First Emperor of Iran (Persian Empire)
First Shahanshah of Iran = Cyrus the Great (559 BC - 530 BC) of Achaemenid Dynasty. During Cyrus The Great's reign (559 BC - 530 BC) Iran became an Empire.

Cyrus II The Great (559 BC - 530 BC)
Achaemenid Dynasty
First Persian Shahanshah (Emperor)

Liberator of Iran
Yaqub Leis Saffarid of Saffarid Dynasty (861 AD - 879 AD)

A Brief history of Yaqub:
After years of rebellion and struggle, Yaqub and Sistan's freedom fighters, gloriously entered Zaranj and took absolute control of Sistan. This event occurred on 867 AD. From this date Yaqub officially started the Rule of Saffarid Dynasty of Iran and in his capital of Zaranj in Sistan.

Yaqub Leis Saffarid (861 AD - 879 AD)
Saffarid Dynasty
Liberator of Iran

Yaqub, The Liberator
Khorasan's campaign started and with no mercy, Yaqub charged forward and freed Khorasan, city by city to the destination "Neyshabour". On 873 AD, The Taherids were completely defeated by Yaqub Leis who entered gloriously to Neyshabour. For the rest of 873 AD, he captured the rest of the huge state of Khorasan, and then concentrated on other states in central and South Iran. Next, he took control of central Iran, he marched through the central regions (today's States of Semnan, Markazi, Tehran) and he attached Esfahan, Yazd, Khuzestan and the Southern Sea Shores of Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman to the United Iran.

The Independence Year of Iran
By the end of 873 AD, Yaqub had ended the rule of Taherids in Khorasan, and then freed and reunited the majority of Iranian States from the hands of Arabs, Arab Servants, Persian Traitors (such as Taherids), and other Half Breeds; therefore, 873 AD is the official "Independence Year of Iran" which put an end to 222 years of Arabo_Islamic Occupation (651 AD - 873 AD)

Last Emperor of Iran
Final Shahanshah of Iran = Aqa Mohamad Khan (1794 AD - 1797 AD) of Qajar Dynasty. Aqa Khan was the last Iranian Emperor. During his reign, he fought and saved the integrity of Iran. During his reign, Persian Empire was consisting of today's Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Baluchistan half of Pakistan, Parts of Russia in Caucasus (Ossetia), Iran and Bahrain. Aqa Khan was a worthy Shahanshah; however, after his reign, the unworthy Shahs of Qajar lost many of Persian Provinces to foreigners.

Aqa Mohammad Shah (1794 AD - 1797 AD)
Qajar Dynasty
Last Persian Shahanshah (Emperor)

Last King of Iran
Final Shah of Iran = Mohamad Reza Shah (1941 AD - 1979 AD) of Pahlavi Dynasty. During Mohamad Reza Shah's reign, Iran was moving towards a speedy progress. Industrialization, Education, Literacy, Healthcare, Agriculture and Military Sophistication were amongst his major plans. During his reign, Iran was not an empire, yet Iran was a kingdom; therefore, we cannot call Mohamad Reza Pahlavi, an Emperor! However, Mohamad Reza Shah has done many goods for Iran; therefore, we gave him an honorary title of "Shahanshah". Even though, technically, he was not an Emperor, yet in history we call him an Emperor.

Mohammad Reza Shah (1941 AD - 1979 AD)
Pahlavi Dynasty
Last Persian Shah (King)

I certainly hope that for once and for all, this issue is clarified and solved. More power to Knowledge Seeking Persians. Now if you are still waiting for more historical knowledge, this was just a taste! Be patient and await the many future books and articles in historical section of the new IPC Website.

"Iranians, educate yourselves with Iranian history.
How can you build your future, if you do not know your past?"

"Many are schooled, yet only a few are truly educated."

Pure Persian Pride

Dr. X

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