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Chapter 10: History of Iranian Military Uniforms
Parthian Uniforms 2


Pictorial History of Iranian Military Uniforms
Book in 23 Chapters
Chapter 10. Parthian 2
Ahreeman X

February 23, 2012

Parthian Golden Eagle Head Derafsh Kaviani Standard Banner

Arsacid Dynasty (238 BC - 224 AD)

Arsacid Parthian Moon and Sun Mitra Standard Bearer Cavalryman
Moon revolves around the Sun
Sun represents Mitra the Ancient Persian Sun Goddess

For more information on Mitra and Persian Mythology read:

Persian Mythology, Gods, Goddesses and ……

Arsacid Parthian Golden Corn Standard Bearer Cataphract

Parthian Derafsh Kaviani Standard
Parthian Golden Eagle Head Derafsh Kaviani Standard Banner at the official Parthian inspection of the Cataphracts by a high ranking Arsacid officer at a Parthian fort.

Arsacid Parthian Cataphract Standard Bearer

Arsacid Iranian Jewish Medium Infantry Mercenaries - Judean Spearmen

Arsacid Iranian Jewish Spearmen Infantry Mercenaries - Judean Spearmen

Arsacid Iranian Jewish Infantry Mercenaries - Judean Mercs
These Mercs were a steady base of the Parthian Infantry

Judean Infantry Mercenaries were part of the Achaemenian Armed Forces, then Seleucid Persian Army and then they continued the tradition throughout the Arsacid Parthian Empire.
Notice the Menorah Emblem on the Judean Mercs’ Shields and Belt Buckles
Menorah is a seven-branched (old) or nine-branched (new) candelabrum for Hanukkah celebration.
Menorah is also an ancient Jewish symbol and the official emblem of Israel

Jewish Strongmen
Judean Spearmen and Jewish Mercenaries in general were fierce and brutal warriors. All you have to do is to read Torah, the Old Testament (Jewish Bible) and review how battle-worthy they were. Judean Mercs were solid applicants and steady participants in the Persian campaigns.

Jews were always in perfect relation with the Persian Empire. Throughout the years, Persian Empire had always played the role of the protector of the Jews.

Cyrus the Great Liberator of the Jews
It all started with Cyrus the Great liberating 42,000 Jews from the slavery of Babylon who relocated and returned them to their homeland Israel. Review the Old Testament (Torah) and you can read all about this event and the way that Jews have always spoken and written so highly of Cyrus and the other Persian Shahanshahs. After Cyrus, the tradition continued by the other Persian Shahanshahs.

Jews Sympathized with Persian Empire
Historically speaking, the Jews were opposite of the Armenians. In ancient times, Armenian Kingdom and Armenians were mostly sympathized with the Romans but Israelites and the Jews were mostly sympathized with the Persian Empire.

Armenians lined up under Romans because of cultural and religious similarities (Christianity) but Jews lined up under Persians because Persians were the only superpower who always protected them and treated them as human beings. Basically everyone else either enslaved the Jews or they were in open conflict with the Jews or the least they were Anti Semitic!

Jews in general, no matter if they were citizens of the Persian Empire or Foreign Jews, were always sympathizing with the Persian Empire. In the ancient times, half of the time, Israel was a Persian protectorate or territory and half of the time it was a Roman protectorate or colony. Israelites were almost never fond of the Romans yet they were mostly keen on Persians. The Persian Jews were particularly keen on the Persians and Persian Empire.

Arsacid Iranian Jewish Double Headed Long Spear Infantry Mercenaries - Judean Spearmen

Persian – Jewish Friendship
The Persian – Jewish Friendship and Partnership started by Cyrus the Great and more or less it had continued throughout the Persian Empire and the Pre Islamic history of Iran. Once Arabo-Muslim invaded Iran, destroyed the Persian Empire and infected the Persian Culture with Islam (651 AD), then everything changed. Throughout the Post Islamic Iran, bit by bit the Anti Semitism started to grow. All throughout the Arabo-Islamic occupation years (222 Years) Jews were despised; they were considered inferior and 3rd class citizens. After the liberation of Iran by Yaqub Leis Saffarid (873 AD), the Persian-Jewish Relations improved and kept on improving.

For more information on Yaqub Leis Saffarid Liberator of Iran, read:

222 Years of Struggle for Independence of Iran: Part 4

Even though there were always Anti Jewish sentiments in Iran (specifically throughout the Safavid Persian Empire), yet for most, Jews were having a fine living in Iran. Their status improved during the Pahlavis and their lives were peaceful until the 2nd Arabo-Islamic Invasion of Iran (1979), this time by the AIOG (Arabo-Islamic Occupational Government) AKA IRI (Islamic Republic of Iran). Once these Half-Breeds taken over Iran and established an Islamic Regime in Iran, then all minorities including the Jews have become targets of discrimination.

IRI too will pass on and once again Persians and Jews will become friends and partners. People of Iran and Israel and specifically Persian Jews and Persians were always keen on each other and fond of each other’s cultures. Iran and Israel are historically, geopolitically and traditionally natural allies amongst the sea of Arabo-Muslims surrounding them in the Middle East! Persians and Jews are bound to be friends.

Arsacid Iranian Jewish Slinger Infantry Mercenaries - Judean Slingers

Arsacid Parthian Spahbod (Field Marshal) with his Cavalry Troops

Arsacid Parthian Spahbod Pahlavan (Strongman)

Arsacid Parthian Cataphract Sardar (General)

Arsacid Parthian Hazarapatis Colonel and Cataphracts
L – R: Cataphracts and Hazarapatis (Colonel) with the sword in one hand and spear in the other (all the way to the right)

Arsacid Parthian Infantry Salar (Captain)

Parthian Archer of the Late Seleucid Era
This archer belongs to the Kingdom of Parthia (before Parthia had overthrown the Seleucid Empire and become the Arsacid Parthian Empire) at the verge of Seleucid Empire’s decline and elimination.

Arsacid Parthian Elite Special Forces Heavy Armored Archers
Iranian Camouflaged Shielded Heavy Archer Units

Arsacid Parthian Persian Medium Armored Foot Archers

Early Arsacid Parthian Armored Regiment                             
L – R Front: Chariot Archer and Spearman
L – R Back: Scythed Spearman and Cataphract

Arsacid Parthian Noble Cataphract

Arsacid Parthian Noble Cataphract Spearmen

Arsacid Parthian Grivapanavara Poshtiqban (Heavy Cavalry Royal Guards)

Arsacid Parthian Heavy Armored Cavalry Officer

Arsacid Parthian Golden Eagle Cataphract
Golden Eagle Cataphracts were Special Forces Units

Arsacid Scythian Mercenary Warrior

Arsacid Parthian Medium Cavalry Spearman

Early Arsacid Parthian Cataphract Spearmen

Arsacid Parthian Cataphracts 1 BC
L – R: Imperial Arsacid Cavalry Cataphract and Hazarapatis (Colonel)

Arsacid Parthian Cataphract Archer Swordsmen

Arsacid Parthian Cataphract March

Arsacid Parthian Cataphracts

Arsacid Iranian Indian War Elephant Units
Indian War Elephant Units were steady units of the Persian Empire’s Armed Forces. Indian War Elephant Units were serving the Achaemenids, Seleucids, Arsacids and Sassanids.
These Indian Iranian Citizens of the Persian Empire were mighty fine elephant riders and spear throwers. These Indians were either Indian Iranians or Indian Mercs who joined the Armed Forces of the Persian Empire.

Arsacid Iranian Parthian Armored War Elephant Units
Armored War Elephant Units were a steady part of the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Arsacid and Sassanid Empires’ Armed Forces. These Parthian units were putting the fear and shakes in the hearts and spines of the Persian Empire’s enemies. These War Elephant Units were the ancient tanks and they would crush everything standing on their way! Armored Elephant Units were consisted of a rider at the front (outside the cabin) and usually 2 or 3 archers and spear throwers in the cabin.

Arsacid Parthian Cataphract 2 AD vs. Armenian Heavy Cavalry 3 AD
L – R: Parthian Cataphract, Armenian Heavy Cavalry and Parthian Azhidahak (Dragon) Standard Bearer

Arsacid Parthian Cataphract vs. Saka and Kushan Heavy Cavalry
L – R Back: Parthian Cataphract 2 AD – 3 AD and Kushan Heavy Cavalryman 2 AD – 3 AD
Front: Saka Heavy Cavalryman 4 BC

Arsacid Parthian Regiment in battle
L – R: Cataphracts, Sardar (General) rising a mace and Azhidahak (Dragon) Banner Standard Bearer (behind the General)

Roman-Parthian Wars - Parthian Cataphract Mace-men vs. Roman Legionnaires
L – R: Parthian Cataphract Mace-men are battling the Roman Legionnaires

Arsacid Parthian Cataphract

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